Volume 56 - Number 1 - Spring 1990

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

56:10415 Baydar, Nazli; White, Michael J.; Simkins, Charles; Babakol, Ozer. Effects of agricultural development policies on migration in peninsular Malaysia. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 97-109 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this article, we quantify the impact of [Malaysia's agricultural development policies and resettlement programs]...on local out-migration rates, linking macro and micro approaches and using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, national censuses, and other sources. A model of instantaneous migration rates specifies an individual's migration rate as a function of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, the level of urbanization of the origin and destination, and the extent of rural development at the district of current residence. Our results show that in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the existence of rural development centers in a district reduced the levels of out-migration to pre-1965 levels."
Correspondence: N. Baydar, Educational Testing Service, Rosedale Road, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10416 Bonvalet, Catherine; Lelievre, Eva. Mobility in France and Paris since 1945: the residential balance sheet of a generation. [Mobilite en France et a Paris depuis 1945: bilan residentiel d'une generation.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 531-59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in residential change among the post-World War II generation in France are analyzed. Data are from two retrospective surveys: a national survey of migration, occupation, and family histories of the cohorts born between 1911 and 1935, and a survey of cohorts born in the Paris region from 1926 to 1935. The results show that over a 45-year period, the average number of dwellings inhabited for more than one year was three. There are also clear differences by marital status and number of children.
Correspondence: C. Bonvalet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10417 Congdon, Peter; Champion, Tony. Trends and structure in London's migration and their relation to employment and housing markets. In: Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models, edited by P. Congdon and P. Batey. 1989. 180-204 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
"This [article] considers the role of migration to, from and within London [England] in the context of metropolitan labour and housing markets. It assesses the influence on migration of differentials in employment and housing availability between the constituent boroughs of Greater London, and conversely the extent to which migration gains or losses have impacts on the demand for labour and housing. The reciprocal relations involved are studied within a simultaneous equations framework, while the specifically labour-market role of migration is examined in more detail using a labour-market accounts procedure."
Correspondence: P. Congdon, London Research Centre, Population and Statistics, 81 Black Prince Road, London SE1, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10418 Deane, Glenn D. Mobility and adjustments: paths to the resolution of residential stress. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 65-79 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In theory, residential mobility is a response to environmental stress only if households do not reduce dissatisfaction through other alternatives, such as housing improvements or repairs. Despite the attention given to stress-reducing alternatives, however, no attempt has been made to test empirically the residential satisfaction model with adjustments. Using data from the [U.S.] Annual Housing Survey: 1978-1981, I model three stages in the mobility process and investigate potential sources of specification error in previous tests. Blocks of family cycle, background/action state, and location/housing variables are shown to affect adjusting significantly. Residential satisfaction strongly affects mobility preferences; and all theoretically relevant blocks of explanatory variables predict mobility."
Correspondence: G. D. Deane, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Department of Sociology, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10419 Fielding, A. J. Population redistribution in Western Europe: trends since 1950 and the debate about counter-urbanisation. In: Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models, edited by P. Congdon and P. Batey. 1989. 167-79 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
The migration turnaround that has occurred in Europe, excluding Eastern Europe, since the 1970s is analyzed. Factors that may have influenced this phenomenon are considered, including changes in individual aspirations and residential preferences, deconcentration of employment opportunities, and policy changes. The author concludes that a major influence has been the emergence of a new spatial division of labor.
Correspondence: A. J. Fielding, University of Sussex, School of Social Sciences, Brighton BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10420 Forbes, Jean. Migration monitoring and strategic planning. In: Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models, edited by P. Congdon and P. Batey. 1989. 41-57 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the problem of measuring migration at the local level using the example of Glasgow, Scotland. A case is made for the development of a population register that would record the origin and destination of a move at the time it takes place.
Correspondence: J. Forbes, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow Centre for Planning, Livingston Tower (Floor 10), Glasgow G1 1XH, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10421 Garvey, Donal; McGuire, Maurice. Structure of gross migration flows (Labour Force Survey estimates). [1989?]. 19 pp. Central Statistics Office: Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
Interim results of an attempt to measure the scale and structure of gross migration flows for Ireland are presented using data from the annual series of Labour Force Surveys. The authors conclude that estimates based on this source should provide useful information on migrant characteristics, but need to be treated with caution when estimating the absolute numbers.
Correspondence: Central Statistics Office, Ardee Road, Dublin 6, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10422 Gregory, Joel W.; Cordell, Dennis D.; Piche, Victor. The mobilization of the labor force in Burkina Faso, 1900-1974: a retrospective view. [La mobilisation de la main-d'oeuvre burkinabe, 1900-1974: une vision retrospective.] Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1989. 73-105 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The history of Burkinabe migration since 1900 has been reconstructed mainly from colonial administration documents. This article endeavours to recreate that history from retrospective information collected within the context of a national inquiry on migration in Burkina Faso. While this distinctly 'African' view concurs for the most part with the archival data, each source contributes its own specific dimension. Only on the phenomenon of outward migration do these sources differ. Well-presented in the colonial reports, this form of migration is 'forgotten' by the inquiry of 1974-75."
Correspondence: D. D. Cordell, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10423 Gurung, Harka. Regional patterns of migration in Nepal. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 113, Sep 1989. ix, 132 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Nepal has been experiencing rapid population growth in recent decades. Another significant demographic feature is the increasing volume of population redistribution. This paper presents an overview of migration in Nepal over the last three decades based on census data and selected survey reports....The opening of the lowlands through malaria control and resettlement programs [since the mid-1950s] provided a new frontier for large-scale rural-to-rural migration. Other forces accentuating migration to the lowlands were the concentration of infrastructural and development activities there. Immigration from high-density areas across the open border with India is growing, as well. Thus the lowlands have now emerged as the area of migrant convergence from within and outside the country....The lowlands are undergoing significant changes in demographic character, social composition, land use, and economic development. Recent economic and demographic processes have all the potential of transforming the lowlands into a dynamic region. This development has various policy implications for Nepal's population redistribution, spatial development, and sociopolitical future."
Correspondence: East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10424 Jagielski, Andrzej. Migrations as a demographic phenomenon. Oeconomica Polona, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 85-101 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"A general introduction to migration theory is presented. The author distinguishes international and internal migration and considers the implications of this distinction for demographic and geographical studies. Two main functions of migration are also examined: the territorial redistribution of demographic characteristics and the time regulation of incentives to marry or child-spacing in the family of migrants." Polish data are used to suggest appropriate models for the study of migration.
This is a translation of the Polish article published in 1987 and cited in 54:10510.
Correspondence: A. Jagielski, U1. Jelenia 30 m 11, 54-242 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10425 K.C., Bal K. Internal and international migration in Nepal. Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 10, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 21-9 pp. Kathmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
Internal and international migration trends in Nepal are reviewed using data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The causes and consequences of migration are considered. The need for policies to control migration of all kinds is stressed.
Correspondence: B. K. K.C., Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10426 Lee, Kye Sik. Migration, income and fertility in Malaysia: a simultaneous equations model with limited dependent variables. Applied Economics, Vol. 21, No. 12, Dec 1989. 1,589-610 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the relationships among income, migration, and fertility in Malaysia, taking into account selectivity bias. "The results, based on the two-stage probit analysis using the Malaysian Family Life Survey data, reveal a rather stark contrast between the two estimates [including and excluding selectivity bias]. We further observe that those who did migrate earn less and have fewer children, compared to the average couple of the sample had they chosen to migrate, while those who did not migrate earn more, compared to the average couple had they chosen to stay. The data used here do not seem to support the notion that expected income gains influence the decision to migrate."
Correspondence: K. S. Lee, Korea Development Institute, P.O. Box 113, Chungryang, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10427 McHugh, Kevin E.; Gober, Patricia; Reid, Neil. Determinants of short- and long-term mobility expectations for home owners and renters. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 81-95 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We argue that confusion over the role of structural variables vis-a-vis residential satisfaction stems from a failure to incorporate varying time frames and housing tenures in predicting mobility expectations. More specifically, we hypothesize that structural variables operate through residential satisfaction in the short term (1 year) but independently affect moving expectations in the long term (5 years). Further, we hypothesize that the mediating influence of residential satisfaction is weaker for renters than for home owners. These hypotheses are tested by using survey information for a random sample of Phoenix [Arizona]-area home owners and renters."
Correspondence: K. E. McHugh, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10428 Mlay, Wilfred. African migration decision-making process. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 1988. 69-81 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
Factors affecting the decision to migrate in Africa are reviewed. The author concludes that most migration studies have focused on the individual migrant, whereas migration decision-making in Africa is affected primarily by "the social institutions at local and household levels. Patterns of migration are influenced by the economic and social trends which developed especially since the colonial era." The importance of extended family relationships, agrarian change, forced migration, and restrictive migration policies indicate a need to take a macrolevel approach to the study of African migration.
Correspondence: W. Mlay, University of Dar es Salaam, POB 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10429 Nagurney, Anna. Migration equilibrium and variational inequalities. Economics Letters, Vol. 31, No. 1, Nov 1989. 109-12 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, an equilibrium model of human migration is presented which can handle many classes of migrants and locations, in addition to equalities and inequalities. The equilibrium conditions are stated and then formulated as a variational inequality problem. Qualitative properties and computational aspects are briefly discussed."
Correspondence: A. Nagurney, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10430 Nepal. Central Bureau of Statistics (Kathmandu, Nepal). Migration statistics from demographic sample survey, 1986/87. 1988. vii, 118 pp. Kathmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
This report presents findings on migration in Nepal based on a demographic sample survey conducted during 1986-1987. Tabular data on internal, international, and rural-urban migration and on migrant characteristics are included. Information is provided on migrants' age, sex, marital status, origin, destination, educational status, occupational status, and socioeconomic status. Reasons for migration are also discussed.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Ram Shah Path, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10431 Nicholson, Beryl. The hidden component in census-derived migration data: assessing its size and distribution. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 111-9 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Comparison of Norwegian 'linked' decennial census data with statistics compiled from 10 years' migration registrations showed that the amount of movement omitted by census data was considerable. This hidden movement was of a similar order at every administrative level, but only when total movement was considered. There was wide variation between regions, migration directions, and streams. In some cases census data misrepresented the direction of net movement. Available evidence suggests that these patterns are not confined to Norway, raising the possibility that research findings based on census-derived migration data may merely be artifacts of the data."
Correspondence: B. Nicholson, Centre for Scandinavian Studies, 12 Lavender Gardens, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 3DE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10432 Ramachandran, P.; Sivamurthy, M. Correction of age-specific migration data for mortality risk: methodology and application. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 96-108 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors develop a method for estimating out-migration rates. "Migration rates calculated on the basis of enumeration...without any adjustment, for mortality, return migration, remigration, and ageing, will be misleading. Corrections for return migration or remigration from census data are difficult but adjustment of the migration data for mortality risk and ageing is possible. The present investigation, accordingly, suggests a method for the same and illustrates its application to the data from the Indian Census of 1971."
Correspondence: P. Ramachandran, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh 517 502, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10433 Recchini de Lattes, Zulma. Women in internal and international migration, with special reference to Latin America. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 27, 1989. 95-107 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to stress the importance of taking female migration into account in research and especially in policy formulation." The focus is on migration in Latin America. "An increasing body of research findings demonstrates the importance of women migrants--especially women as independent migrants. The predominance of women in Latin American rural-to-urban migration flows is well known, but female majorities are found in other important flows (e.g., in some inter-urban and international flows) as well. In general, female migrants tend to be younger than their male counterparts. The kinds of employment most commonly sought by women migrants are related to their traditional roles in the home and in child-rearing."
Correspondence: Z. Recchini de Lattes, Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10434 Robinson, David J. Migration in eighteenth-century Mexico: case studies from Michoacan. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan 1989. 55-68 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The paper provides an overview of the data sources which may be used to reconstruct the patterns of migration in colonial Mexico, stressing the problems of their intepretation and providing methods that may be used to utilise them to the most advantage. It then examines, as an example of the use of such sources, the patterns of migration in eighteenth-century Michoacan, a densely populated region located to the west of Mexico City. Here data from a dozen parishes are studied, revealing unknown fluctuations in the migration fields of the marrying population, complex patterns of net immigration and emigration, and changing rates of spatial exogamy."
Correspondence: D. J. Robinson, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10435 Rogers, Andrei. Requiem for the net migrant. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-89-5, Oct 1989. 35, [3] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"This paper considers deficiencies of the net migration concept and illustrates them with numerical examples....It begins with a discussion of how net migration rates are introduced into the analysis of spatial population dynamics and then goes on to identify the bias that such a formulation produces. A further problem arises when age patterns of migration are taken into account; the paper considers how the strong relationship between migration and the life course is camouflaged by net migration rates." Some migration data for the United States are used as an example.
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10436 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Wolpin, Kenneth I. Migration selectivity and the effects of public programs. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 37, No. 3, Dec 1988. 265-89 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A model of the spatial distribution of mobile heterogeneous agents is formulated to assess how a price change or program subsidy that is location-specific affects the composition of local residents via selective migration and thus biases evaluations of the effectiveness of the program based on its local consequences. Longitudinal data from Colombia are used to test the implications of migration selectivity. The findings confirm the existence of selective migration, suggesting that local subsidies to human capital attract high-income but, within income groups, low-fertility households and those with low human capital endowments. These migration patterns are shown to be consistent with the dominance of endowment over tastes heterogeneity in the population under plausible behavioral assumptions."
Correspondence: M. R. Rosenzweig, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:10437 Sinha, V. N. P.; Ataullah, M. Migration: an interdisciplinary approach. 1987. viii, 271 pp. Seema Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This book provides detailed background of migration. It covers all aspects of human migration from inter-disciplinary point of view. The book is divided into six chapters followed by a comprehensive bibliography. The first chapter deals with definition, theories and models of migration. Typology trends, causes and consequences of migration have been analysed in subsequent chapters. The detailed questionnaires and schedules have been framed so that an investigator of any discipline can collect data of his choice on the basis of these questionnaires and schedules." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Seema Publications, C-3/19, Rana Pratap Bagh, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:10438 Stark, O.; Yitzhaki, S. Labour migration as a response to relative deprivation. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1988. 57-70 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The relationship between labor migration and relative deprivation is examined. "We model migration from one reference group to another as a response to relative deprivation and satisfaction: We say that a strong incentive to migrate exists if relative deprivation decreases while satisfaction rises with migration and that a weak incentive exists if the individual increases or decreases his satisfaction and deprivation at the same time by migrating. We derive conditions under which different incentives, weak or strong, hold for different individuals....Our analysis enables us to explain several perplexing migratory phenomena, identify income inequality as a distinct explanatory variable of migration and establish an incentive to migrate in situations where the utility-social welfare approach does not."
Correspondence: O. Stark, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10439 Swann, Michael M. Migrants in the Mexican north: mobility, economy, and society in a colonial world. Dellplain Latin American Studies, No. 24, ISBN 0-8133-7782-X. LC 89-37520. 1989. xv, 202 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the patterns of migration that developed in northern Mexico during the eighteenth century. "Chapter 1 describes the range of population movements found in colonial Mexico, examines regional variations in these movements, and lays out a theoretical context for studying historical patterns of mobility. Chapter 2 explores the historical and geographical context of the study and compares the characteristics of the places that served as destinations for the migrants described here. Chapter 3 presents a method of measuring and comparing the migration fields that formed around these destinations and examines the dimensions of the different fields in relation to the local economies they helped to sustain. Chapter 4 focuses on the social context of migration and describes the associations between types of migrants and particular patterns of movement. Chapter 5 summarizes the results of the preceding chapters and places them in the broader context of economic development and social change on the eve of Independence."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:10440 Swara, I. Wayan Y. Mobility and the family system in Pandak Gede, Bali. [Pola mobilitas penduduk dan sistem kekerabatan: kasus masyarakat desa Pandak Gede, Bali.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 16, No. 31, Jun 1989. 77-90 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The author explores the impact of family characteristics on migration decision-making in Bali, Indonesia. Both the nuclear and the extended family are noted as affecting permanent and temporary migration.
Correspondence: I. W. Y. Swara, Universitas Udayana, Fakultas Ekonomi, J1. Jendral Sudriman, POB 105, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10441 Venezuela. Ministerio del Trabajo. Direccion General Sectorial de Economia y Empleo (Caracas, Venezuela); Venezuela. Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica (Caracas, Venezuela). National Migration Survey, 1987: preliminary results. [Encuesta Nacional de Migration, 1987: informe preliminar.] Sep 1987. Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Preliminary results of the 1987 National Migration Survey of Venezuela are presented. These indicate that the foreign-born population make up 7.9 percent of the total population; of these, 42 percent are Colombians. Migrant characteristics, including age, sex, and occupation are described. Some consideration is also given to internal migration. (If soliciting document from DOCPAL, request CIMAL 71530.00.).
Correspondence: Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica, Presidencia de la Republica, Apartado de Correos 400 Carmelitas, Caracas 1010, Venezuela. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:10442 Vergoossen, Dick; Warnes, Tony. Migration of the elderly. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 129-43 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This [article] is an attempt to compare various features of migration by persons of late-working and retirement ages in Great Britain and the Netherlands. The principal sources for the Netherlands have been the migration data from the Central Bureau of Statistics and a number of reports of both census and survey data analyses....Several sources of comparable information for migration in Britain are available, including the decennial censuses and the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys' Longitudinal Study....From these and from recent conference papers, a straightforward but selective sequence of topics for comparison has been chosen...." Consideration is given to marital status and migration rates, net migration and settlement size and type, and the geography of late-age migration.
Correspondence: D. Vergoossen, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Geografisch Instituut, 5 Thomas van Aquinostraat, 6825 HP Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10443 Zolberg, Aristide R. The next waves: migration theory for a changing world. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 403-30 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In the last quarter of a century, migration theory has undergone fundamental change, moving from the classic 'individual relocation' genre initiated by Ravenstein a century ago, to a variety of new approaches which nevertheless share important elements: they tend to be historical, structural, globalist and critical....The article uses elements from two major theoretical traditions--a modified world-systems approach and state theory--to project current trends. Global inequality is considered as a structural given. The article then reviews major topics, including the persistence of restrictive immigration policies as barriers to movement, changing patterns of exploitation of foreign labor, liberalization of exit from the socialist world and the refugee crisis in the developing world. It concludes with a brief consideration of the normative implications of these trends."
Correspondence: A. R. Zolberg, New School for Social Research, 66 West 12th Street, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

56:10444 Appleyard, Reginald T. Migration and development: myths and reality. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 486-99 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Recent research on the impact of labor migration on the socioeconomic development of developing countries has provided opportunity to try and resolve some of the long-standing polemics that have pervaded the literature on migration and development. This article focuses on findings concerning the labor, remittance and social impacts of emigration on countries that have participated in labor emigration. While a great deal more research needs to be done, recent findings confirm that in some situations the short-term impacts of labor migration on sending countries have been considerable."
Correspondence: R. T. Appleyard, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, West Australia 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10445 Arnold, Fred; Carino, Benjamin V.; Fawcett, James T.; Park, Insook Han. Estimating the immigration multiplier: an analysis of recent Korean and Filipino immigration to the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Winter 1989. 813-38 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores the effect of 'chaining' through the petitioning of relatives on the demand for future immigrant visas [to the United States]. The data for the study come from a 1986 survey of 3,911 respondents from the Philippines and the Republic of Korea who were interviewed in Manila and Seoul just after they had received their U.S. immigrant visas. Analyses are conducted to derive different types of multipliers that may be used in estimating the effects of chain migration....The empirical results for the Philippines and Korea indicate that the potential for future immigration through the family reunification entitlements of the immigration law is lower than has previously been suggested."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 385).
Correspondence: F. Arnold, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10446 Barsotti, Odo; Lecchini, Laura. Changes in Europe's international migrant flows. Journal of Regional Policy, Vol. 8, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1988. 399-424 pp. Naples, Italy. In Eng.
Trends in European migration since World War II are described, with particular attention to the situation in Italy. The authors note that Italy has changed from being a sending to a receiving country and that in contrast to the immigration experience of other European countries in the 1960s and early 1970s, recent immigration to Italy is concentrated in the service rather than the industrialized sector of the economy. This migration is confined to migrants willing to accept working conditions and wages below those of native workers.
Correspondence: O. Barsotti, Universita degli Studi, Faculty of Political Science, 43 Lungarno Pacinotti, 56100 Pisa, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10447 Berninghaus, Siegfried; Seifert-Vogt, Hans G. Temporary vs. permanent migration: a decision theoretical approach. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1988. 195-211 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The decision problem of the guest worker as a target saver is considered. He plans to accumulate capital in the host country for investment in the home country after return migration. As the worker is supposed to be incompletely informed about the economic variables in the host country he might prolong his stay unexpectedly provided the economic conditions in the host country are unfavourable. Explicit conditions for the economic variables are given such that temporary migration turns into permanent migration."
Correspondence: S. Berninghaus, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics, Seminargebaude A 5, D-6800 Mannheim, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10448 Borjas, George J. Economic theory and international migration. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 457-85 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The modern literature on the economics of immigration focuses on three related issues: 1) what determines the size and skill composition of immigrant flows to any particular host country; 2) how do the immigrants adapt to the host country's economy; and 3) what is the impact of immigrants on the host country's economy? This article reviews the theoretical framework and empirical evidence provided by the economics literature on these questions. It demonstrates that the economic approach, using the assumptions that individual migration behavior is guided by the search for better economic opportunities and that the exchanges among the various players are regulated by an immigration market, leads to substantive insights into these issues."
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10449 Boyd, Monica. Family and personal networks in international migration: recent developments and new agendas. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 638-70 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Family, friendship and community networks underlie much of the recent migration to industrial nations. Current interest in these networks accompanies the development of a migration system perspective and the growing awareness of the macro and micro determinants of migration. This article presents an overview of research findings on the determinants and consequences of personal networks. In addition, it calls for greater specification of the role of networks in migration research and for the inclusion of women in future research."
Correspondence: M. Boyd, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10450 Brown, Richard H.; Coelho, George V. Migration and modernization: the Indian diaspora in comparative perspective. Studies in Third World Societies, No. 39, Mar 1987. xii, 138 pp. College of William and Mary, Department of Anthropology: Williamsburg, Virginia. In Eng.
This is a collection of nine papers by various authors on aspects of the settlement of Indian migrants overseas. The focus is on the process of acculturation by migrants and on the links between migration and modernization. Consideration is given to the difference between adaptation in such open societies as the United States and Australia and in closed societies, including Sri Lanka and South Africa. A selective bibliography on overseas Indians is included.
Correspondence: College of William and Mary, Department of Anthropology, Williamsburg, VA 23185. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10451 Campani, Giovanna. From the third world to Italy: a new immigration of women. [Du tiers-monde a l'Italie: une nouvelle immigration feminine.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1989. 29-49 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
Recent trends in female immigration to Italy are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the immigration of women from Cape Verde and the Philippines. The author notes that although women from these countries are primarily employed on the fringes of the economy as domestic servants, they are often able to improve their skills and socioeconomic status, particularly in the event of their return to their countries of origin.
Correspondence: G. Campani, University of Florence, 7 Via del Parione, 50123 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10452 El-Shalakani, Mostafa H. Determinants of migration to Kuwait. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 58-75 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Various types and determinants of migration patterns in Kuwait are explored, including international migration, return migration, and labor migration. The characteristics of the foreign labor force in Kuwait are described. The author also develops a migration model for Kuwait. Data are from the 1975 census.
Correspondence: M. El-Shalakani, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Commerce, Economics and Political Science, P.O. Box 5486, Safat 13055, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10453 Erickson, Charlotte J. Emigration from the British Isles to the U.S.A. in 1841: Part 1. Emigration from the British Isles. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 3, Nov 1989. 347-67 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, samples of the passenger manifests of ships arriving in five ports in the United States during 1841 are analysed in the search for more information about the emigrants of that remarkable year. A new and more accurate estimate of immigrants according to nationality has been compiled. Profiles of the immigrants from each part of the British Isles are provided, according to their routes of emigration, the seasonal flow, their ages, sex, travelling companions and occupations. These are compared with the results of previous work on 1831, 1851 and the 1880s."
Correspondence: C. J. Erickson, Cambridge University, Faculty of History, West Road, Cambridge CB3 9EF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10454 Fawcett, James T. Networks, linkages, and migration systems. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 671-80 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Recent theoretical interest in migration systems calls attention to the functions of diverse linkages between countries in stimulating, directing and maintaining international flows of people. This article proposes a conceptual framework for the nonpeople linkages in international migration systems and discusses the implications for population movement of the four categories and three types of linkages that define the framework."
Correspondence: J. T. Fawcett, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10455 Georges, Eugenia; Larson, Eric M.; Mahler, Sarah J.; Mitchell, Christopher; Pessar, Patricia R.; Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Robert. Absent Dominicans: data, politics, social conditions. [Dominicanos ausentes: cifras, politicas, condiciones sociales.] 1989. 250 pp. Fundacion Friedrich Ebert: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Fondo para el Avance de las Ciencias Sociales: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
This is a collection of papers presented at an international conference on Dominican migration to the United States, sponsored by the Fundacion Friedrich Ebert and the Fondacion para el Avance de las Ciencias Sociales in June 1988. The aim of the conference was to examine the extent of migration to the United States from the 1960s to the present, as well as to discuss policies that have influenced the migration process and the lives of Dominicans living in the United States. Papers are included on the history of Dominican migration and U.S. immigration policies; data and methodology for estimating migration flows; the validity of migration data; inter-American migration policies; the Immigration Reform and Control Act and its impact on Dominicans in New York City; and the effects of legal status and gender on the incorporation of Dominican migrants into the labor force in New York.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10456 Gjerde, Jon. Patterns of migration to and demographic adaptation within rural ethnic American communities. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 277-97 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The process of migration and migrant adaptation is analyzed using data on two population groups who migrated from Norway to the United States from the 1840s to 1910. The data are from Norwegian local community records. The results indicate "that 'chain migrations' resulted in tightly-knit settlements peopled by migrants of common origins. Not surprisingly, demographic behavior common to the places of origin was maintained initially by the ethnic settlements: Marital fertility remained high, household structure continued to be complex, and pre-nuptial conceptions were wide-spread. Within forty years, however, marital fertility declined and the simple household often augmented by single parents became the norm. The process of demographic change undergone by these immigrants was thus a complex interplay of continuity and change."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10457 Goering, John M. The 'explosiveness' of chain migration: research and policy issues. Introduction and overview. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Winter 1989. 797-812 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This is an introduction to Volume 23, Number 4, of the International Migration Review. This issue "focuses on the legislative and social science interface concerning the complex issue of whether the current system of United States legal immigration is promoting or facilitating an 'explosive' multiplication of immigrants....The purpose of this collection of articles is to present the most current evidence and policy analyses of the size and composition of the immigration 'multiplier.' It assumes that there is merit in focusing attention on the overlapping interests of social science researchers and legislative analysts regarding how the system of legal immigration actually operates in promoting or reproducing future waves of immigrants."
Correspondence: J. M. Goering, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Research, 451 7th Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20410. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10458 Hammar, Tomas. Comparing European and North American international migration. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 631-7 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
Trends in international migration in North America and Europe are briefly reviewed and compared. The focus of the article is on immigration policy and its relationship with population theory concerning international migration.
Correspondence: T. Hammar, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10459 Heinberg, John D.; Harris, Jeffrey K.; York, Robert L. The process of exempt immediate relative immigration to the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Winter 1989. 839-55 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"To examine the chain migration issue [in the United States], this article develops and analyzes a new data base that links information on a sample of exempt immediate relative immigrants in Fiscal Year 1985 with information on the characteristics of their petitioners or sponsors. The analysis generally does not indicate that an explosive increase in future chain migration of exempt immediate relative immigrants is likely in the next ten years." Exempt immediate relative immigrants are defined as those who are exempt from numerical limitations because of their relationship with a U.S. citizen. Data are from the U.S. General Accounting Office.
Correspondence: J. D. Heinberg, U.S. Labor Department, Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10460 Jackson, Peter. Racism and international migration. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 117-27 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The relationship between international migration and racism in both the United Kingdom and the Netherlands is analyzed, and the literature pertaining to this relationship is reviewed. The author contends that "the incidence of...clashes [between native and foreign populations] is not random or capricious but that the pattern is explicable in terms of a theory that recognises the links between racism and migrant labour....It is worth recalling Sivanandan's dictum...that while racism is determined economically it is defined (and experienced) culturally."
Correspondence: P. Jackson, University College, Department of Geography, 26 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10461 Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R. Sponsors, sponsorship rates and the immigration multiplier. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Winter 1989. 856-88 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the extent to which U.S. immigrants actually make use of the family reunification entitlements of United States immigration laws, examining the two available studies which are based on probability samples of immigrant entry cohorts. It then provides new estimates of the characteristics of the U.S. citizen sponsors of immigrant spouses and parents....With respect to the characteristics of sponsors, analysis of the information in the GAO [General Accounting Office] report indicates that 80 percent of the persons who immigrated in FY 1985 as the spouses of U.S. citizens were sponsored by native born U.S. citizens. In contrast, native born U.S. citizens sponsored only five percent of the parent immigrants. Additional findings on the country of origin and sex of the sponsored immigrants are presented."
Correspondence: G. Jasso, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10462 Keely, Charles B.; Bao, Nga Tran. Remittances from labor migration: evaluations, performance, and implications. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 500-25 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze "two evaluative views of worker remittances [which] draw opposite conclusions. The negative one posits that remittances increase dependency, contribute to economic and political instability and development distortion, and lead to economic decline that overshadows a temporary advantage for a fortunate few. The positive view sees remittances as an effective response to market forces, providing a transition to an otherwise unsustainable development. They improve income distribution and quality of life beyond what other available development approaches could deliver. The implications are tested for labor supply countries to Europe and to the Middle East....Although the dire predictions of the pessimistic view have not materialized, the converse--contributions of remittances to economic performance--should not be overstated due to lack of data."
Correspondence: C. B. Keely, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10463 Koch, Luciano. The causes and effects of the transformation of certain countries from senders to receivers of migrants: the case of Italy. [Cause ed effetti della trasformazione di alcuni paesi da fornitori a destinatari di migrazioni: il caso dell'Italia.] Affari Sociali Internazionali, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1989. 43-60 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
Changing trends in migration to and from Italy are analyzed. The author notes that over the past 20 years, Italy has changed from being a sending to a receiving country and suggests that this is a long-term change. Immigrants to Italy come from other Mediterranean countries, elsewhere in Africa and Asia, and Eastern Europe.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:10464 Looney, R. L. Patterns of remittances and labor migration in the Arab world. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 27, No. 4, Dec 1989. 563-80 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This is a review of the history of labor migration as it has affected the Arab world from the oil boom of the early 1970s to the present, with particular attention to the changing flow of remittances from migrants to their country of origin.
Correspondence: R. L. Looney, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10465 Martiniello, Marco; Govaere, Inge. The place of immigration and migration policies in tomorrow's Europe: some food for thought. [Place de l'immigration et politiques migratoires dans l'Europe de demain: quelques elements de reflexion.] Contradictions, No. 56, 1989. 143-60 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
The hypothesis is developed that international migration will play a major role in Europe's future and that the migration policies adopted now will prove critical in the future. International migration trends since World War II are first reviewed, and current trends is assessed. The impact of current and probable future migration trends is considered, and the appropriate migration policies are outlined in the context of judicial, political, and economic factors.
Correspondence: M. Martiniello, Institut Universitaire Europeen, Departement de Sciences Politiques et Sociales, Florence, Italy. Location: New York Public Library.

56:10466 McCarthy, Mary R.; McCarthy, Thomas G. Irish migration: the search for the efficiency and equity basis of a European regional policy. Economic and Social Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, Oct 1989. 71-84 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors examine the possible impact on patterns of Irish migration of the closer integration of the countries of the European Community that will occur in 1992. "We must use a number of simple models to illustrate: how migration can give rise to costs for the other residents of the migrant's countries of origin and destination; how, even in the absence of migration costs, congestion in the use of public goods and inappropriate taxation can give rise to a sub-optimal distribution of labour; and how national redistribution policies can lead to well paid people leaving poor countries. The implications of this type of analysis for European policy are developed. We also argue that the rationale for the type of intervention proposed can be made on equity grounds even when migration is absent."
Correspondence: M. R. McCarthy, University College, Cork, Ireland. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10467 Mitchell, Christopher. International migration, international relations and foreign policy. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 681-708 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Recent literature on migration, international relations and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking midrange generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state....Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy."
Correspondence: C. Mitchell, New York University, Washington Square, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10468 Mitra, S. Age composition and other demographic measures of immigrants and their descendants. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 109-23 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The demographic impact of migration on a country with below-replacement fertility is examined. Using certain simplifying conditions, such as the constancy of the vital rates prevailing in the host country and the constancy of the number of migrants at every age, the author derives a formula for determining the time required to reach population stability. The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10469 Nielsen, John T. Immigration and the low-cost housing crisis: the Los Angeles area's experience. Population and Environment, Vol. 11, No. 2, Winter 1989. 123-39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Problems concerning immigration and the low-cost housing shortage in Los Angeles, California, are analyzed. "Arrivals of new immigrants and the secondary migration of other immigrants to the Los Angeles area are estimated to be as many as 180,000 each year in the 1980s....Three-quarters of the immigrants were low-income minorities who are more likely to live in overcrowded enclaves and pay disproportionately high rents....Although aggravated by immigration, Los Angeles' low-cost housing ills stem from broader national, social and economic trends: gentrification and other commercial conversion of low-cost housing, stagnating federal housing aid, and diminished tax and loan incentives....While the area's housing problems require national and local responses in land use, finance, and development policies, immigration measures also must be considered. Stepped-up border and employer sanction enforcement and better coordination between immigration and urban development policies could help ease pressures on housing in Los Angeles and other immigration-impacted cities." Options for alleviating these problems are discussed.
Correspondence: J. T. Nielsen, Center for Immigration Studies, 1424 16th Street NW, Suite 603, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10470 Oschlies, Wolf. The Polish "drive to the West": the dynamics and motives of emigration of young people from Poland. [Polnischer "Drang nach Westen": Dynamik und Motive der jungsten Emigrationswelle aus Polen.] Berichte des Bundesinstituts fur Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, No. 30, 1989. ii, 40 pp. Bundesinstituts fur Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien: Cologne, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in emigration from Poland are analyzed. The author estimates that during the 1980s some 1.1 million Poles left their native country and that the majority of these migrants were young, skilled, and well-educated. Consideration is given to the causes of this emigration and to the consequences for the countries of destination, particularly West Germany. The author concludes that current economic and social conditions in Poland are likely to promote continued, if not increased, emigration of this kind in the foreseeable future. The possible role of the Polish population abroad in assisting Poland to improve conditions so as to reduce the desire for emigration is considered.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, Lindenbornstrasse 22, D-5000 Cologne 30, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

56:10471 Piccione, Francesco. Socio-demographic considerations concerning Italian emigration, 1950-1985. [Considerazioni socio-demografiche sull'emigrazione italiana, 1950-1985.] Affari Sociali Internazionali, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1988. 15-44 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
Trends in emigration from Italy from 1950 to 1985 are reviewed using data from official Italian sources. The characteristics of the principal Italian communities living abroad in 1984 are analyzed, including demographic and professional characteristics.
Location: New York Public Library.

56:10472 Pittau, Franco. A new migration scenario: the labor market in Italy, demographic trends in Europe, and the expansion of the European Community to the Mediterranean countries. [Nuovi scenari migratori: mercato occupazionale in Italia, tendenza demografica in Europa e allargamento della CEE ai paesi Mediterranei.] Affari Sociali Internazionali, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1988. 63-74 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
The author analyzes migration trends in Italy resulting from the joining of Greece, Spain, and Portugal with the European Community. It is noted that most of the flow of immigration to Italy comes from Northern Africa but that the expansion of the Community may encourage more migration from the countries of Southern Europe.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:10473 Population Crisis Committee (Washington, D.C.). Population pressures abroad and immigration pressures at home. United States Impact Series, 1989. 35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This general review of current and probable future U.S. immigration trends is designed for a lay audience, using figures with brief accompanying texts. The focus is on how demographic trends overseas affect pressures for immigration to the United States.
Correspondence: Population Crisis Committee, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036-3605. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10474 Portes, Alejandro; Borocz, Jozsef. Contemporary immigration: theoretical perspectives on its determinants and modes of incorporation. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 606-30 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews conventional theories about different aspects of labor migration: its origins, stability over time, and patterns of migrant settlement. For each of these aspects, we provide alternative explanatory hypotheses derived from the notions of increasing articulation of the international system and the social embeddedness of its various subprocesses, including labor flows. A typology of sources and outcomes of contemporary immigration is presented as an heuristic device to organize the diversity of such movements as described in the empirical literature."
Correspondence: A. Portes, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10475 Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L. The characteristics of recent Puerto Rican migrants: some further evidence. Migration World, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1989. 6-13 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The characteristics of emigration and return migration between Puerto Rico and the United States during 1984 are analyzed using data taken primarily from official Puerto Rican sources. The author concludes that such migration is not concentrated among the more highly skilled and educated and therefore does not represent a brain drain from the island.
Correspondence: F. L. Rivera-Batiz, Rutgers University, POB 2101, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10476 Saith, Ashwani. Macro-economic issues in international labour migration: a review. Institute of Social Studies Working Paper, No. 48, Feb 1989. 44 pp. Institute of Social Studies: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
Some aspects of the rise and subsequent decline of labor migration from Asia in general to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East are examined. The author argues that return migration should be analyzed in a macroeconomic perspective in order to evaluate the impact on the economy and society of the country of origin. Particular attention is given to policy implications of the macrolevel approach.
Correspondence: Institute of Social Studies, P.O. Box 90733, 2509 LS The Hague, Netherlands. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10477 Salt, John. A comparative overview of international trends and types, 1950-80. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 431-56 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides a general overview of international migration trends and types during the postwar period. Its thesis is that international migration consists of a set of spatial networks which share many of the processes that create them, but that the networks are characterized by factors which vary geographically and distinguish one from another. Fuller analysis of these requires a systems approach to provide a framework within which to study the processes that produce flow patterns. It concludes that our ability to forecast future world patterns of international migration must be based on an assessment of the likely behavior of the component macro-regional systems we can recognize."
Correspondence: J. Salt, University College, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10478 Simon, Julian L. The economic consequences of immigration. ISBN 0-631-15527-9. LC 88-10401. 1989. xxxii, 402 pp. Basil Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the economic consequences of immigration to the United States. "Among the many novel features of this theoretical and empirical study is a new analysis which demonstrates that--contrary to received economic doctrine--the standard theory of trade is not relevant to immigration, and there is no large consumer benefit from migration as there is from trade. And it systematically examines each of the major lines of influence of immigration upon the economy: the transfer-and-tax system, production capital, human capital, physical infrastructure, productivity, environmental externalities, and unemployment. A computable model estimates the aggregate effects of immigrants upon natives." Comparisons are made with the experience of other developed countries, including Canada and Australia. The author concludes that on the whole, immigration is largely beneficial to the natives of the receiving country.
Correspondence: Basil Blackwell, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10479 Ugaldel, Antonio; Larson, Eric. Migration flows from the Caribbean to the United States: the case of the Dominican Republic. [Flujo migratorio del Caribe a los Estados Unidos: el caso de la Republica Dominicana.] Eme Eme, Vol. 15, No. 81, Sep-Dec 1988. 97-113 pp. Santiago, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
The authors describe the extent and characteristics of migration from the Dominican Republic to the United States. Data are provided on migrant characteristics, including social class, educational level, socioeconomic status, sex, age, income, urban or rural residence, reasons for moving, and plans to return home. The impact of this migration on the Dominican Republic is discussed. Data are from a 1974 national survey of 25,000 households and from the 1981 census.
Correspondence: A. Ugaldel, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

56:10480 Dignan, Tony; Haynes, Kingsley E.; Conway, Dennis; Shrestha, Nanda R. Land and landlessness among rural-to-rural migrants in Nepal's Terai region. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1989. 189-209 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"Nepal has been experiencing a permanent rural-to-rural migration of households from the central hill zone to the Terai region. Migrant households, due to the structure of the Terai economy, are impelled to acquire control of land for subsistence agriculture by squatting, purchasing, or receiving a grant. A household's ability to maximize subsistence opportunities is partly a function of the means by which land is acquired and whether land is acquired at all. Factors which determine the chances of acquiring land reflect the role of institutional rigidities such as the distribution of wealth and the caste structure, state-imposed land reform policies, and such household characteristics as family size and risk aversion. A multinomial logit model is used to empirically assess the importance of these elements in the outcomes of migrant households' resource acquisition decisions."
Correspondence: T. Dignan, Northern Ireland Economic Research Centre, Belfast BT7 1NJ, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:10481 Doorn, Peter. Selective migration in the Dutch labour force. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 102-15 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Changes in population distribution as a result of interregional labor migration in the Netherlands are explored, and the data and research related to these trends are discussed. The author finds that "despite the relative unimportance of net migration for the aggregate and employed population as a whole, interregional migration is substantially selective in terms of the socio-demographic and economic categories discerned in the labour force, with regard to both the level and direction of movement."
Correspondence: P. Doorn, University of Leiden, Department of History, Postbus 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10482 Everaers, Pieter; Musterd, Sako. Intra-urban migration in the Netherlands and processes of neighbourhood change. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 187-96 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Intra-urban migration and neighborhood changes in the Netherlands are analyzed. The authors "give descriptions of neighbourhood population change resulting from residential mobility as investigated in various research projects. In these studies, various possible explanations of neighbourhood change are examined, and their empirical analyses, in which the housing market context, municipal policy and the residential environment play an important role, involve data from medium-sized municipalities. In order to gain more depth of understanding, data from one city, Tilburg, is used to evaluate the various influences presumed to be important."
Correspondence: P. Everaers, Central Bureau of Statistics, Department of Income and Consumption, Postbus 4481, 6491 CZ Heerlen, Netherland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10483 Fasbender, Karl. Rural migration and regional development: the example of Indonesia. Intereconomics, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 191-6 pp. Hamburg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"Regional disequilibria in the distribution of population lead in many developing countries to migration flows which cannot always be equated with flight from the land or drift to the cities. In diverse countries rural-rural migration is even supported by the state. This rural migration leaves a decisive mark not only on the regional development of the areas from which emigration takes place but also on the absorbing areas. The following article examines the costs and benefits for both [using the example of Indonesia]."
Correspondence: K. Fasbender, Hamburg Institute for Economic Research, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10484 Flowerdew, R.; Lovett, A. Compound and generalised Poisson models for inter-urban migration. In: Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models, edited by P. Congdon and P. Batey. 1989. 246-56 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the Poisson model's usefulness in analyzing migration flows, with particular emphasis on the Poisson assumption of independence between individual migrants. The authors argue that migration by individuals is generally undertaken as part of a household unit, so that such variation will be reduced if the household size of migrants is taken into account. Data from the 1971 United Kingdom census are used to illustrate this concept and to analyze interurban migration utilizing a generalized linear modeling approach.
Correspondence: R. Flowerdew, University of Lancaster, Department of Geography, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10485 Graham, Elspeth. Residential mobility and tenure in Scottish cities. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 175-86 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Trends in intra-urban migration in Scotland are analyzed. The author investigates "the extent of similarities and differences in the characteristics of residential mobility in the four major Scottish cities....The theme of communality and difference is [then] directed towards an assessment of the potential for a general model which recognizes the change of residence as a meaningful human action." The effect of tenure on residential mobility is also examined.
Correspondence: E. Graham, University of St. Andrews, Department of Geography, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10486 Nicaragua. Minesterio del Trabajo. Centro de Estudios del Trabajo [CETRA] (Managua, Nicaragua). Internal migration. [Las migraciones internas.] May 1989. ii, 75, [33] pp. Managua, Nicaragua. In Spa.
Trends in internal migration in Nicaragua are analyzed. Consideration is given to the impact on migration of land tenure, industrialization, and modernization and to the focusing of migration on the capital city, Managua. Migrant characteristics are also described.
Location: New York Public Library.

56:10487 Nicholas, Stephen; Shergold, Peter R. Internal migration in England, 1818-1839. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 13, No. 2, Apr 1987. 155-68 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Intercounty migration in England between 1818 and 1839 is analyzed using data on 10,151 men and women who were transported to the penal colony of New South Wales, Australia. "Almost one-third of the workers in the sample moved between counties. The working-class intercounty migrant was young, literate and skilled; the median distance travelled was 59 miles....Estimating a gravity-flow migration model, migration is found to be highly sensitive to intercounty job opportunities and wage rate differentials, but relatively insensitive to distance (which acted as a deterrent to movement). While regional biases existed, the regression results imply that labour market signals were effective in transferring labour from rural to urban locations."
Correspondence: S. Nicholas, University of New South Wales, Department of Economics, POB 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10488 Plane, David A.; Rogerson, Peter A. U.S. migration pattern responses to the oil glut and recession of the early 1980s: an application of shift-share and causative-matrix techniques. In: Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models, edited by P. Congdon and P. Batey. 1989. 257-80 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we set out an application of two recently developed methods designed for examining temporal change in the geographic structure of migration systems. We use the methods to explore how streams of migration flow among nine broad regions of the U.S. responded during the first half of the 1980s to a recession that affected, particularly, the oil-dependent economies of states in the West South Central portion of the nation...." The methods applied are a spatial adaptation of the shift-share technique and the causative-matrix approach.
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10489 Rogers, Andrei; Watkins, John F.; Woodward, Jennifer A. Interregional elderly migration and population redistribution in four industrialized countries: a comparative analysis. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-89-9, Dec 1989. 39, [22] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"This paper examines the elderly migration and population redistribution process in four industrialized countries [the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Italy], identifies their principal retirement regions, and analyzes the sources of regional elderly population growth in these regions. It concludes that the United Kingdom and the United States are approaching the final stages of their 'elderly mobility transition', whereas Japan is only entering the first stage, while Italy occupies a position somewhere in between."
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10490 Roy, B. K. Census of India: geographic distribution of internal migration in India, 1971-81. [1989]. vii, 272, [26] pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The objective of this work is to provide "a synthesis of internal migration [in India], with emphasis on geographical distribution in general....The study presents relevant statistics from the 1971 and 1981 censuses, duly cross-classified, along with characteristic matrices defining the quantum of rural to rural, rural to urban, urban to urban and urban to rural shifts with reference to States [and Union Territories]. In addition, 26 detailed maps in colour covering the important aspects of internal migration in India have been added...."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, West Block 1, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 066, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10491 Salt, John; Flowerdew, Robin. Socio-economic selectivity in labour migration in Great Britain. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 90-102 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Patterns in labor migration in the United Kingdom are examined. Consideration is given to occupational, sex, and socioeconomic differentials; the external and internal labor markets; vacancy-filling procedures, including advertising; and occupational mobility.
Correspondence: J. Salt, University College, Department of Geography, 26 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10492 Schmertmann, Carl P. Self-selection and internal migration in Brazil. Pub. Order No. DA8916880. 1988. 233 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author makes a case for the heterogeneity of migrants using data from Brazil on internal migration for the period 1976-1980. A model is developed that includes four migration choices for heads of households and "allows for unobservable individual heterogeneity in locational preferences and in locational income-earning ability....Principal findings include positive self-selection among interregional migrants to metropolitan areas, and negative self-selection among non-migrants."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

56:10493 Scholten, Henk; van de Velde, Rob. Internal migration: the Netherlands. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 75-86 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Components of internal migration over the past 15 years in the Netherlands are analyzed using spatial interaction and structure-descriptive models. Consideration is given to the effects of housing and migration policies on migration. Possible future trends are discussed.
Correspondence: H. Scholten, Rijksplanologische Dienst, Willem Witsenplein 6, 2596 BK The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10494 Stillwell, John; Boden, Peter. Internal migration: the United Kingdom. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 64-75 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Internal migration in the United Kingdom is analyzed, with a focus on the data available and the state of research. "This [article] has reported some initial exploratory research of compositional and spatial change using census transition and NHSCR [National Health Service Central Register] movement data. Temporal fluctuations in the aggregate level of migration activity have been identified, changes in the age structure of internal migration have been examined, and trends in the spatial pattern of gross migration have been summarized. The analysis suggests that a more detailed and systematic analysis of the level, generation, attraction, and distribution components of internal migration in the U.K. involving more disaggregated sets of spatial units and the application of generalized linear models is now required."
Correspondence: J. Stillwell, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10495 Withers, Charles W. J. Destitution and migration: labour mobility and relief from famine in Highland Scotland, 1836-1850. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 14, No. 2, Apr 1988. 128-50 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Migration from the rural Highlands and Islands to the urban Lowlands was a vital element in the demographic and economic experiences of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Scotland. Both permanent and temporary migration reflected the capitalist transformation of Highland society. Both types increased following failure of the Highland potato crop between 1836 and 1850. This paper examines the patterns of directed labour mobility that characterised one means of relief from destitution following the Highland potato famines."
Correspondence: C. W. J. Withers, College of St. Paul and St. Mary, Cheltenham GL50 2RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10496 Xiong, Yu. The differential migration of population in China--the analysis of sample survey data on urban population migration in 74 towns. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 4, Jul 1988. 20-4 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
This is an analysis of internal migration in China, with a focus on population movements within urban areas. Demographic characteristics of migrants according to age, sex, educational level, and marital status are presented. Data are from a 1986 survey of 74 cities and towns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10497 Yadava, K. N. S.; Singh, Shri K. Population diversity and internal migration: testing the Lee theory. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 43-57 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Micro level village data [for India] was utilized to test Lee's general theory of migration which states that there is a direct relationship between volume of migration and population heterogeneity. It was observed that while caste, education and occupation have linear relationships to migration, the relationship between economic status and migration is of a fluctuating nature. Of all the variables studied, occupation was found to be the most important factor accounting for migration from the study villages. Thus, the present study which has been based solely on out-migration from the place of origin, shows that Lee's theory is, by and large, acceptable."
For the paper by Everett S. Lee, published in 1966, see 32:3026.
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

56:10498 Fleischer, Henning; Proebsting, Helmut. Ethnic Germans from East bloc countries and Germans from the German Democratic Republic--quantitative development and structure. [Aussiedler und Ubersiedler--zahlenmassige Entwicklung und Struktur.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 9, Sep 1989. 582-9 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This article focuses on two types of migration to West Germany: the migration of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and migration from East Germany. Information is included on the volume of this migration between 1950 and 1988, countries of origin, family characteristics, age and sex structure, religion, labor force participation, and occupational structure. Comparisons are also made with data for the native population of West Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10499 Gallagher, Dennis. The evolution of the international refugee system. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 579-98 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the evolution of the current international system for responding to refugee problems and the climate within which the legal and institutional framework has developed. It reviews the background and handling of some of the key refugee movements since World War II and traces the legal and institutional adjustments that have been made to deal with new refugee movements that have occurred predominantly, but not exclusively, in the developing world. Finally, it assesses the adequacy of the present system to meet the challenges ahead."
Correspondence: D. Gallagher, Refugee Policy Group, 1424 16th Street NW, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10500 Kebschull, Dietrich. Transmigrasi: the Indonesian resettlement programme. Economics, Vol. 39, 1989. 112-25 pp. Tubingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
Indonesia's transmigration program is reviewed. The program and factors determining its development are first described. The author then focuses on the program's problems and the main reasons for its relative failure.
Correspondence: D. Kebschull, E-6(A) Maharani Bagh, New Delhi 110 065, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10501 Rogge, John R. Africa's refugees: causes, solutions, and consequences. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 1988. 83-108 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"This paper surveys the refugee problem in Africa as it has evolved and intensified over the past 30 years. It describes the changing causes of refugee migrations, especially over the past decade; evaluates the diverse solutions adopted by national and international agencies in dealing with the problem in Africa vis-a-vis other world regions of refugee influx; and assesses some of the immediate and longer-term impacts refugees have had on their host societies."
Correspondence: J. R. Rogge, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10502 Widgren, Jonas. Asylum seekers in Europe in the context of south-north movements. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 599-605 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article will elucidate the threat towards the established system for asylum in Europe which originates from the increase of asylum seekers with very weak or no genuine claims at all. This increase might be the early sign of new intercontinental movements of migration."
Correspondence: J. Widgren, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

56:10503 Djajic, Slobodan; Milbourne, Ross. A general equilibrium model of guest-worker migration: the source-country perspective. Journal of International Economics, No. 25, Nov 1988. 335-51 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the problem of guest-worker migration from an economy populated by identical, utility-maximizing individuals with finite working lives. The decision to migrate, the rate of saving while abroad, as well as the length of a migrant's stay in the foreign country, are all viewed as part of a solution to an intertemporal optimization problem. In addition to studying the microeconomic aspects of temporary migration, the paper analyses the determinants of the equilibrium flow of migrants, the corresponding domestic wage, and the level of welfare enjoyed by a typical worker. Effects of an emigration tax are also investigated."
Correspondence: S. Djajic, Graduate Institute of International Studies, 1211-Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:10504 Massey, Douglas S.; Liang, Zai. The long-term consequences of a temporary worker program: the U.S.-Bracero experience. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1989. 199-226 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Prior experience with guestworker programs in Europe and the United States suggests...that temporary labor migration ultimately will engender a flow of immigration substantially in excess of the number of temporary visas originally allocated. In this paper, we outline a theoretical rationale to explain this observation and test it using microdata gathered from former participants in the Bracero Program, a U.S.-sponsored temporary worker program that ran from 1942 to 1964. Our results indicate that bracero migrants were very likely to make repeated trips, both with and without legal documents; that they were quite likely to introduce their sons and daughters into migratory careers; and that they were eventually likely to settle in the United States in substantial numbers. We argue that, in the long run, there is no such thing as a temporary worker program."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, NORC/University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10505 Rose, Leslie S.; Kingma, Hildy L. Seasonal migration of retired persons: estimating its extent and its implications for the state of Florida. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1989. 91-104 pp. Springfield, Virginia/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Seasonal migration among the elderly in the United States from northern to southern states is examined. "This paper is an initial examination of the impact of this migration on one state, Florida, the state with the highest number of nonpermanent residents enumerated in the 1980 census. Data [are] from the census and from a 1983 survey of Florida counties with census counts of 500 or more nonpermanent residents....The influx of elderly migrants was viewed ambivalently by the counties surveyed. The provision of goods and services to the migrants was considered important to the economic base, but it also caused some problems for the communities. Service overloads were reported and concern was expressed that the state and federal revenue sharing systems in effect at the time were based on a count only of permanent residents. This study is an exploratory one that indicates the need for further research on seasonal migration."
Correspondence: L. S. Rose, University of Illinois, Housing Research and Development Program, 1204 West Nevada, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

56:10506 Champion, A. G. Counterurbanization: the changing pace and nature of population deconcentration. ISBN 0-7131-6573-1. LC 89-15100. 1989. xxii, 266 pp. Edward Arnold: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The purpose of this book is to investigate the recent experience of developed countries concerning urban deconcentration. It consists of nine national case studies by various authors that review such trends in light of the literature on conceptual and methodological problems in studying counterurbanization. Two overview chapters are also included. "The first introduces the counterurbanization experience, documenting the 'discovery' of the rural population turnaround and reviewing the statistical evidence relating to the patterns and trends in urban deconcentration for a wide range of international contexts. The second chapter outlines the main research issues which have been raised in the counterurbanization debate, including the vexed question of the real meaning of the term and the way in which the process should be measured. The concluding chapter is designed to draw together the principal findings of the national case studies in order to outline and justify a general model of changes taking place in the degree and nature of counterurbanization."
Correspondence: Edward Arnold, 41 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3D1, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10507 Xu, Bingxuan. Characteristics of population migration and measures to control in Beijing. Population Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Mar 1989. 26-32 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author discusses the effect of migration into Beijing, China, on the population size of the city. Reasons for in-migration, characteristics of migrants, and suggestions for policy changes affecting migration are considered.
Correspondence: B. Xu, Beijing Public Security Bureau, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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