Volume 56 - Number 1 - Spring 1990

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

56:10031 Congdon, P.; Batey, P. Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models. ISBN 1-85293-046-2. LC 89-197. 1989. xi, 285 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 15 papers by various authors on recent issues in spatial demography. The papers provide an overview of the methods and practice of regional demography, with particular emphasis given to potential future development. The papers are grouped under four subject headings: demographic information for spatial planning, demographic forecasts and projections at the subnational level, models for settlement and redistribution, and models for migration in the labor market.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Belhaven Press, 25 Floral Street, London WC2E 9DS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10032 Di Comite, Luigi; Cardamone, Antonio F. The Messina Straits area: problems of population redistribution. Journal of Regional Policy, Vol. 8, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1988. 177-98 pp. Naples, Italy. In Eng.
Trends in the spatial redistribution of the population of the Messina Straits region of southern Italy are analyzed using data from official sources, including the 1961 and 1981 censuses. The main trend identified over this period was a movement of the population toward the more highly populated municipalities and to those located on the coast.
Correspondence: L. Di Comite, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Department for Mediterranean Society Studies, Palazzo Ateneo, 70121 Bari, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10033 Rees, Philip; Stillwell, John; Boden, Peter. Migration trends and population projections for the elderly. In: Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models, edited by P. Congdon and P. Batey. 1989. 205-26 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
The contribution of elderly migration to population redistribution in the United Kingdom is assessed, and changes in nonmetropolitan preferences of the elderly are considered. A multiregional components framework adapted from shift-share techniques is developed and used to project the relative importance of demographic aging as compared to elderly migration for various regions.
Correspondence: P. Rees, University of Leeds, Department of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10034 Stillwell, John; Scholten, Henk J. Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. GeoJournal Library, Vol. 14, ISBN 0-7923-0431-4. LC 89-36643. 1989. xxiv, 232 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers originally presented at a conference held in 1986 in Oxford, England, on current research trends in population geography in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. "The contents of this book have been organized to reflect three important themes in population research in both countries. The first theme involves historical analysis of the main components of aggregate population change: births, deaths and internal migration and the way in which data on these components is assembled and utilized in the context of multi-regional population projection. The second theme is focused entirely on migration and comprises separate analyses of three distinctive subgroups of migrants: labour force migrants, immigrants and elderly migrants. The final theme is concerned with relationships between demographic evolution, household formation, residential mobility and housing supply."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

56:10035 Brennan, Ellen M.; Richardson, Harry W. Asian megacity characteristics, problems, and policies. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1989. 117-29 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"Using ten Asian megacities as examples, this article discusses a range of megacity characteristics and problems, including population growth, economic structure, spatial strategies, land policy, urban service provision, institutional development, and managerial problems. In spite of major progress in urban service delivery, ineffective land policies and inadequate cost-recovery systems remain serious obstacles. Megacities need and are promoting policentric spatial structures, but implementation lags in many cases. Institutional reforms are needed to cope with the metropolitan region character of megacity growth."
Correspondence: E. M. Brennan, United Nations, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:10036 Brown, Lawrence A.; Lawson, Victoria A. Polarization reversal, migration related shifts in human resource profiles, and spatial growth policies: a Venezuelan study. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1989. 165-88 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This article examines polarization reversal in terms of changing human resource profiles related to migration and to national policies affecting the spatial pattern of economic growth. It first demonstrates the relationship between these elements through a review that integrates three distinct themes in earlier research. Attention then turns to an empirical study of human resource variation among eight urban districts and the rest of Venezuela treated as a single unit. This comparison utilizes age, gender, educational attainment, and occupational status variables provided by individual records of Venezuela's 1971 Population Census. A concluding section relates empirical findings to policy alternatives."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:10037 Dackam Ngatchou, R.; Hovy, B.; Ngwe, E. An introduction to the demographic analysis of medium-sized towns in Cameroon. [Introduction a l'analyse demographique des villes moyennes du Cameroun.] Serie Villes Moyennes, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1989. 59 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD]: Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
This is the first in a planned series that is designed to use demographic data collected by students at IFORD during the course of their studies. The data concern the medium-sized Cameroon towns of Bafia, Ebolowa, and Sangmelima. This report describes the methodology used in the analysis of the data.
Correspondence: IFORD, Service des Publications, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon.

56:10038 de Jong, A. H. Population trends of Amsterdam and the other three big municipalities, 1840-1988. [Bevolkingsontwikkelingen van Amsterdam en de andere drie grote gemeenten, 1840-1988.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jan 1990. 13-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Population trends from 1840 to 1988 in the four principal cities of the Netherlands are analyzed. The author notes that all four principal cities experienced growth up to 1960, followed by a decline that lasted to the 1980s, when further growth occurred. The contributions of natural increase or migration to population growth (or decline) are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10039 Fox, Roddy. West African urbanization: a reassessment. Urban Geography, Vol. 10, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 495-502 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by Barbara J. Kilbourne and Brian J. L. Berry concerning urbanization in West Africa. The focus is on the extent to which African urbanization has been affected by market forces. A reply by Kilbourne and Berry is included (pp. 501-2).
For the article by Kilbourne and Berry, also published in 1989, see 55:30068.
Correspondence: R. Fox, Rhodes University, Department of Geography, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:10040 Fung, K. I. Urbanization and urban development. Chinese Geography and Environment, Vol. 2, No. 2, Summer 1989. 101 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York. In Eng.
This is a selection of six papers by various authors on aspects of urbanization and urban development in China since 1947. The papers are translated from the original Chinese and reflect the debate in China concerning the appropriate policies for future urbanization and urban development.
Correspondence: M. E. Sharpe, 80 Business Pk. Dr., Armonk, NY 10504. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:10041 Gatzweiler, Hans-Peter; Strubelt, Wendelin. Demographic change and the development of West German cities. [Demographische Veranderungen und Wandel der Stadte.] Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Supplement, No. 29, 1988. 193-222, 437 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The article deals with the impact of demographic change on the development of West-German cities, especially in the period between 1960 and now. [The] focus of this discussion [is] not individual cities, but three different types of agglomerated regions within the Federal Republic of Germany, namely: the heavily agglomerated, monocentric regions, the agglomeration areas with old-industrial structure and finally the regions with agglomeration tendencies. Within these three different types the article differentiates between the inner-city core and the surrounding suburbia. The analysis includes also a forecast of the future development of these types of agglomerated regions. Implications on future urban development are discussed as well as problems of the use of demographic data for the analysis of this development."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:10042 Hamnett, Chris; Maas, Menno; van Weesep, Jan. The housing market as a source of urban demographic and social change: the impact of flat break-ups in London and condominium conversion in the Netherlands. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 197-210 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Changes in the supply of housing and the effect on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the urban population are analyzed and compared for the Netherlands and England. The authors find that "because access to the housing market is unevenly structured according to the tenure and the price of the stock, and the occupation and income characteristics of households, changes in the tenure and price structure of the housing market can and do result in changes in the social and demographic composition of different areas. This is true both where there are major geographical variations in the supply of new housing, and...where the existing housing stock is subject to modification. As a consequence of the flat break-ups in central London and the conversion to condominiums in the three largest cities in the Netherlands, considerable changes in both the size and the social characteristics of the population do occur....Both the quality of the standing stock and the composition and quality of the various neighbourhood facilities and services can also be affected...."
Correspondence: C. Hamnett, Open University, Faculty of Social Studies, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10043 Harris, Nigel. Urbanisation: an economic overview of some of the issues. Habitat International, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1988. 103-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper presents a discussion of the economic justification for taking cities seriously, a section outlining the scale of urbanisation and some of the issues raised, a section that discusses the policy approaches, one that looks at the local agencies for the formulation and execution of policy, and a short final part on some of the implications for aid policy." The focus is on the importance of the urban sector for economic development in developing countries.
Correspondence: N. Harris, Development Planning Unit, 9 Endsleigh Gardens, London WC1H 0ED, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10044 Kennedy, Michael D.; Smith, David A. East central European urbanization: a political economy of the world-system perspective. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1989. 597-624 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger; Spa.
This is a historical survey of urbanization in east-central Europe (what is now Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia). The authors relate the current patterns of underurbanization, modest regional inequalities, and low urban primacy to the region's history. They suggest that the policies of managed urbanization following World War II have reinforced the semiperipheral legacy of decentralized, relatively even urban growth.
Correspondence: M. D. Kennedy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10045 Lee, Hee-Yeon. Growth determinants in the core-periphery of Korea. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1989. 147-63 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This article describes the emergent spatial dispersion pattern of the urban system of the Republic of Korea, where the government has instituted a strong decentralization policy. Intraregional decentralization is underway within the core area, while intraregional polarization towards larger regional centers is evident in periphery areas. Through the use of step-wise regression analysis, determinants of the differential growth rates of urban centers in the core and periphery are identified. The different spatial development processes operating in the core and periphery have implications for growth pole theory and regional development planning."
Correspondence: H.-Y. Lee, Konkuk University, Department of Geograpny, Seoul 133, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:10046 Ma, Xia. Industrial population, gross national product and growth of cities and towns. Social Sciences in China, No. 9, Dec 1988. 78-89 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This article, which is translated from the original Chinese, examines whether China's current rate of urbanization is compatible with its economic development objectives. Changes in the level of urbanization from 1949 to 1984 are first reviewed. The author then outlines the growth of the urban labor force and the relationship between urbanization and gross national product. It is concluded that it is in the country's interest to continue to control the rate of urban growth up to the end of this century, in order to ensure that the urban population does not exceed 40 percent of the total population by the year 2000.
Location: State University of New York at Buffalo, NY.

56:10047 McDonald, John F. Econometric studies of urban population density: a survey. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 26, No. 3, Nov 1989. 361-85 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
This is a review of empirical research conducted since 1975 on urban population densities, with a focus on studies in which econometric methods were used. "The paper begins...with a personal overview of research in the field. Section 3 discusses econometric issues that arise in the estimation of population density functions in which density is a function only of a distance to the central business district (CBD) of the urban area. Section 4 summarizes the studies of a single urban area that went beyond the estimation of simple distance-density functions, and Section 5 discusses studies that sought to explain the variations across urban areas in population density patterns. A final section contains a brief conclusion."
Correspondence: J. F. McDonald, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Box 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10048 Mellor, Rosemary. Transitions in urbanization: twentieth-century Britain. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1989. 573-96 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger; Spa.
"This paper presents an assessment of the trends in U.K. urbanization evident in the 1980s. It is argued that there are transitions in the history of urbanization, periods in which there is an accumulation of social and political pressures for change in which core institutions are forced to accommodate to the new social order. Comparison is made between the transition from the 'rentier' city to the 'family welfare' city in the period 1890-1920, and the transition, termed here 'liberal authoritarian' which U.K. society is currently experiencing. The breakdown of the welfare consensus is related to the restructuring of the U.K. economy and its cities: final emphasis is on the role of the police as moral entrepreneurs instilling changed conventions of urban life and conduct."
Correspondence: R. Mellor, University of Manchester, Department of Sociology, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: New York Public Library.

56:10049 Mitra, Arup. Spread of slums: the rural spill-over? Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 29-42 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper attempts to quantify the contribution of [the] migration factor in explaining the spread of slums [in India] and examines the validity of the characterisation of urban poverty in terms of spill-over effect of rural poverty. The data for the paper have been drawn mainly from the following two sources: National Sample Survey Organisation...and population censuses."
Correspondence: A. Mitra, Institute of Economic Growth, University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10050 Oo, Naing. Urbanization and economic development in Burma. Sojourn, Vol. 4, No. 2, Aug 1989. 233-60 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"Since British colonial rule in Burma [Myanmar], urban centres have emerged and grown. This has continued with independence in 1948. Urbanization has proceeded apace, first primarily because of rural-urban migration and then mainly because of natural growth in cities and towns, leading to a host of urban problems exacerbated by an ailing economy which has not permitted adequate levels of investment in, and development of, urban infrastructure. This article examines these issues in urbanization and economic development and concludes that long-term solutions to these problems can only be arrived at if population growth and urbanization are given sufficient attention in economic policies which must, necessarily, seek to restructure the economy. The urban future of Burma, otherwise, remains bleak."
Correspondence: N. Oo, Bielefeld University, Sociology of Development Centre, 25 Universitatsstrasse, Bielefeld 4800, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10051 Sawadogo, Jean M. Population and the urban environment: a descent toward the abyss. [Population et environnement urbain: une descente vers l'abime.] Carrefour Africain, No. 1105, Nov 17, 1989. 19-27 pp. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In Fre.
The negative effects of rapid urbanization in Burkina Faso are analyzed, with a focus on the problem of environmental degradation.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10052 Tien, Xue-Yuan. A study of standards for the differentiation of the urban population in China. Population Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jun 1989. 41-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This is a discussion of the standards used for differentiating urban and rural populations in China. The author proposes standards for defining urban populations based on the degree of concentration, or population density. Included are definitions of villages, towns, and cities and a discussion of the impact of economic development on the process of urbanization.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10053 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Prospects of world urbanization, 1988. Population Studies, No. 112; ST/ESA/SER.A/112, Pub. Order No. E.89.XIII.8. ISBN 92-1-151182-8. 1989. x, 204 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present publication includes estimates and projections of the urban and rural populations for all countries and areas of the world, of urban agglomerations of population size of 2 million or more around 1985, and of capital cities of those countries having a total population of 2 million or more in 1985. For urban and rural populations, the estimates and projections cover a 75-year span from 1950 to 2025; for urban agglomerations, the coverage is a 50-year span from 1950 to 2000." The major results of these estimates and projections are available on magnetic tape or personal computer diskette for a nominal charge.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10054 Yin, Wenyao. On the size and structure of urban population and the socioeconomic development of China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 4, Jul 1988. 15-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Characteristics of the urban population in China are explored using data from the 1982 census. The author considers the relationships among urban population size and structure and socioeconomic development and discusses urban spatial distribution and development strategies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10055 Zeng, Yi; Vaupel, James W. The impact of urbanization and delayed childbearing on population growth and aging in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1989. 425-45, 603, 605 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors project the impact of urbanization and delayed childbearing on population growth and demographic aging in China. "Urbanization and delayed childbearing in China are likely to reduce further national birth rates and significantly slow population growth for two reasons. First, urban residents are apt to continue to have substantially lower fertility rates than rural residents. In addition, urbanites tend to give birth at older ages and may be more receptive to government efforts to further delay childbearing. These relationships are examined using a multi-regional population projection model that incorporates three scenarios regarding rural-to-urban migration and cohort mean age of childbearing." Results indicate that rapid urbanization combined with a rise in age at childbearing will affect total population size and may increase the proportion of the population that is elderly, particularly in rural areas.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

56:10056 Chapuis, Robert; Brossard, Thierry. The demographic evolution of rural France (1968-1982). Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1989. 357-65 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"After more than a century of decline, noticeable increases in the rural population of France became apparent in the 1982 census. The spatial patterns of these changes are interpreted by comparing a set of demographic variables in the 1968-1975 and 1975-1982 intercensal periods. Migration to rural areas near many of the major cities (rurbanization) and to the southern part of France is the main demographic explanation. Using factor analysis and a hierarchical classification system the underlying demographic associations are established and the nation is differentiated into seven types. A method for estimating the probabilities of any one type occurring is also demonstrated. The timing of the demographic changes and the fundamental societal forces which have influenced them suggest that government policy has played a minor part in the evolution."
Correspondence: R. Chapuis, Universite de Dijon, Faculte des Sciences Humaines, Campus de Montmuzard, BP 138, 21004 Dijon Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

Copyright © 1990-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.