Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

55:40630 Boland, Reed; Stepan, Jan. Annual review of population law, 1986: international resolutions and agreements, constitutional provisions, legislation, regulations, judicial decisions, legal pronouncements. Volume 13. ISBN 0-88086-017-0. 1989. lii, 594 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Harvard Law School Library: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This report details changes in population law around the world. It is organized by subject, with separate entries for international agencies and individual countries. Entire texts or summaries are provided. Subjects covered include general population policy; fertility regulation, including family planning, contraception, sterilization, and induced abortion; marriage and divorce; the family, including family allowances; children; women; the aged; migration and spatial distribution, including refugees and migrant workers; health care; education; land tenure and the environment; and censuses and vital statistics.
For Volume 11, concerning 1984, see 54:20816.
Correspondence: UNFPA, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40631 da Rocha, Maria I. B. Population, reproduction, and health: notes on the question of a social policy. [Populacao, reproducao e saude: anotacoes sobre a questao de uma politica social.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1988. 21-33 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Political factors affecting governmental decision making on family planning issues in Brazil are analyzed. The focus is on the 1980s, with some consideration given to the 1970s. The author describes the development of a health policy that emphasized reproduction, women's health, and family planning and its political acceptance over a population policy that stressed birth control. The reasons why Brazilian policies developed along these lines are discussed.
Correspondence: M. I. B. da Rocha, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Cidade Universitaria Zeferina Vaz, CP 1170, 13100 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40632 Ebigbola, Joshua A. A dilemma in national population policy: evidence from Nigeria. Janasamkhya, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1988. 169-82 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
The author discusses the population policies of the several governments of Nigeria since 1970. He contends that the policies have done very little to influence a fertility decline and that despite some economic progress, acceptance of family planning is very low. Suggestions for a successful policy to decrease the rate of population growth are included.
Correspondence: J. A. Ebigbola, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40633 Feshbach, Murray. The Soviet population policy debate: actors and issues. Rand Note, No. N-2472-AF, LC 87-176129. Dec 1986. ix, 86 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This Note examines the successful campaign since the early 1960s [in the USSR] to revive demography as a science and as a foundation for population policies and traces the connections between expert discussions and policy decisions." The author attributes this change to the growing awareness in the Soviet Communist Party of the growth of demographic problems including "falling birthrates (and hence aging of the population), rising infant mortality, high regional fertility and birthrate differentials, rising mortality rates among working age males, declining growth of the working age population, real labor resource shortages in particular areas, low migration patterns and low urbanization in high-fertility regions...."
Correspondence: Rand Corporation, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40634 Lesthaeghe, R. Demographic recruitment in Europe: an exploration of alternative scenarios and policies. IPD Working Paper, No. 1989-5, 1989. 18 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The subject of this paper is the issue of demographic recruitment [in Europe] via reproduction and/or immigration in the context of preoccupations of an economic, social, political and even moral nature....I propose to discuss the following scenarios and to digest useful elements from them for a conclusion: the 'beneficial demographic bust'; the multi-ethnic correction; the glasnost scenario; the yoyo-theory of cyclical fertility adjustment; [and] the stationary population fixation. This is followed by a discussion of recent policy research on the issue of the presumed effectiveness of pro-natalist measures in Western Europe. The paper concludes with a set of policy suggestions, given that the demographic and economic future contains of necessity a substantial number of uncertainties."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, IPD, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40635 Lloyd, Michael. New Zealand population research and its policy relevance: an assessment of the role of sociology. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jul 1989. 3-16 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper examines the general characteristics of [the relationship between sociology and policy-making]...and then focuses specifically on the sociology of population and links with population policy. An assessment of sociological research into the New Zealand population indicates that, despite methodological problems, sociological research has made an important contribution to the policy endeavour."
Correspondence: M. Lloyd, University of Canterbury, Department of Sociology, Christchurch 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40636 Martine, George; Faria, Vilmar. Impacts of social research on policy formulation: lessons from the Brazilian experience in the population field. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 23, No. 1, Oct 1988. 43-61 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
"The object of this study is to analyze the interplay of population trends, population research, and population policy in Brazil--within the framework of the structural transformations which the country has experienced in recent decades--as a contribution to clarifying the role of social research in developing countries. To this purpose, a brief description of the trajectory of demographic research, as well as a review of the evolution of population policy in Brazil, is presented as [a] backdrop to a more detailed discussion of the role of demographic research in policy formulation. The concluding section brings together some of the main findings insofar as they reflect on the general relationship between social research and policy formulation."
Correspondence: G. Martine, Ministry of Planning, ILO/UNDP Technical Assistance Project in Social Planning and Evaluation, Brasilia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40637 McNicoll, Geoffrey. The IUSSP and population policy research. IUSSP Reprints Series, No. 15, May-Aug 1989. [12] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The impact of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) on population policy research and governmental policy development is examined. The emphasis is on countries experiencing the demographic transition. The author considers the relationship between demographic research and population policy and reviews the history of the IUSSP and its effect on the development of population policies in pre-World War II Europe. It is noted that in contrast to the relatively close association between fertility research and policy development, demographic research on mortality has proceeded fairly independently of programmatic action. The author concludes with some suggestions for more effective future contributions by the IUSSP to population policy development.
Correspondence: IUSSP, 34 Rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40638 Nortman, Dorothy L. External funding for population programs in developing countries, 1982-1985. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 2-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Data from a study undertaken by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on the amount of external financial assistance given for population programs in developing countries are presented. Amounts of public sector donations by developed countries are analyzed and the agencies through which the money is channelled are described. The recipient countries are also reviewed and ranked according to the amount of money received. Data are for the period 1982-1985.
Correspondence: UNFPA, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40639 Raghavendra Rao, K. Society, culture and population policy in India. ISBN 81-202-0241-4. LC 89-901417. 1989. viii, 185 pp. Ajanta Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is an interdisciplinary study of the development of population policy to the year 1977 in India. The focus is on the relations among demography and sociocultural and political factors.
Correspondence: Ajanta Publications International, 1UB, Jawahar Nagar, Bungalow Road, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40640 Raina, B. L. Population policy. ISBN 81-7018-482-7. LC 88-903764. 1988. 231 pp. B. R. Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is an introduction to the development and implementation of population policy in India. The author examines the process of policy formulation, policy rationales, and the processes influencing policy developments in the context of India's various five-year development plans. Attention is given to critiques of the country's population policies and to problems in the population program's organization. Changes in policy strategy are described. Particular attention is paid to program inputs and their effect on program achievements. The author concludes by discussing possible future policy developments.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing Corporation, 29/9 Shakti Nagar, Nangia Park, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40641 Schubnell, Hermann. Demography and policy counseling. [Demographie und Politikberatung.] Demographische Informationen 1988/89, [1989]. 7-14, 154 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper discusses the possibilities of policy counseling by demography. Moreover, it emphasizes the problems of disseminating the results and the general function of science within the political decision making processes." The geographical focus is on European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40642 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Case studies in population policy: Hungary. Population Policy Paper, No. 19; ST/ESA/SER.R/87, 1989. vii, 51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of case studies focusing on issues in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of population policies in selected countries. This report concerns Hungary. It contains an overview of current population policy, a description of the history of population policy formulation since World War II, and a summary of current demographic trends.
Correspondence: United Nations, Sales Section, Publishing Division, Room DC2-853, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40643 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Review of recent national demographic target setting. Population Studies, No. 108; ST/ESA/SER.A/108, Pub. Order No. E.88.xiii.5. ISBN 92-1-151177-1. 1989. viii, 148 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The process of demographic target-setting is reviewed. The report first enumerates various demographic targets and classifies them according to categories such as population size, rate of growth, fertility, mortality, and migration. It then "reviews literature on national population policies, social and economic development plans and other related materials for over 100 countries or areas of the world, examines the process of target design, implementation and evaluation in some 50 countries or areas and selects eight developing countries to learn the details of their experiences in demographic target-setting."
Correspondence: United Nations, Sales Section, Publishing Division, Room DC2-853, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40644 Young, Christabel. Population policies in developed countries: how do Australia's policies compare? Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 6, No. 1, May 1989. 38-56 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper compares international population policies with respect to population growth, fertility and immigration, and discusses current attitudes to the demographic situation in developed countries. Only Canada, the United States and Australia have a policy of continuing high immigration, and Australia's migrant intake per head of population is considerably higher than for the other two countries. An emerging philosophy in Britain and Europe is a focus on 'child quality' and the well-being of a near stationary population, rather than continued population growth. There is also an awareness that immigration is not a solution to the ageing 'problem' and that there are more efficient non-demographic means of coping with an older population."
Correspondence: C. Young, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40645 Zhang, Mingzheng. The new population policy issued by the ruling party and principles for the future development of family planning in Taiwan. Taiwan Jingji Yuce/Taiwan Economy Forecast, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1988. 69-75 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi.
Recent changes in population policy in Taiwan are described. The author notes that the emphasis changed in 1988 from fertility control to encouragement of a moderate rate of population growth. The rationale behind this change and the prospects for a resurgence in fertility are discussed. The net reproduction rate had already declined to 0.78 in 1986 and will probably continue to decline as the educational status of women increases. The relatively high birth rate of 16 per 1,000 reflects the young age structure of the population and will therefore also decline as the population ages. Official data are used to demonstrate that population growth will cease in about 30 years and that a decrease in population will follow. New principles for family planning program development are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

55:40646 Antony, T. V.; Srinivasan, K.; Saxena, P. C. Population policies and programmes in India, with case studies of strategies and effective management interventions in selected states. 1988. 39 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
"In this article, an attempt is made to review the population policies and related family planning strategies, in [India], as they have evolved during the past three decades with a view to identify control management interventions that would contribute to more effective implementation of the population programmes. Towards this purpose, case studies of three states, Goa, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, which are considered to be more successful states, are also presented and discussed." Factors affecting program outcome are socioeconomic level, political support of the small family norm, and efficiency of governmental health and family welfare programs.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40647 Bocker, Barbel; Simson, Ina. China's small suns. One-child family policy: raising an only child and sex education. [Chinas kleine Sonnen. Ein-Kind-Familienpolitik: Einzelkind- und Sexualerziehung.] ISBN 3-924550-30-1. 1989. 153 pp. Westfalisches Dampfboot: Munster, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
China's one-child policy and its effect on education and child-rearing is discussed. Chapters are included on the role of the Chinese family throughout history, child-rearing in traditional and socialist China, population policy since 1949, one-child family policy measures since 1980, principles of raising an only child, and the content of sex education.
Correspondence: Verlag Westfalisches Dampfboot, Breul 11a, 4400 Munster, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40648 Gautier, Arlette. Family and population policy in the overseas French departments since 1946. [Les politiques familiales et demographiques dans les departements francais d'outre-mer depuis 1946.] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1988. 389-402 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic trends and developments in policies affecting the family in the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guyana, and Reunion are described, with a focus on the period from 1946 to the present. The author notes that the law concerning family allowances that was passed in 1946 has never been fully applied to the overseas departments. Reasons for the differences in the application of laws such as this are discussed.
Correspondence: A. Gautier, 39 bis, rue Doudeauville, 75018 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40649 Greenhalgh, Susan. The evolution of the one-child policy in Shaanxi province, 1979-88. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 5, 1989. 67 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The evolution of China's one-child policy since its adoption in 1979 is examined using data from Shaanxi province. The author questions the validity of the cyclical model of policy evolution, which maintains that China's pattern of change oscillates from the use of coercive measures to that of less compelling action. She concludes that "the overall direction of policy change between 1979 and 1988 was not cyclical, but linear, with notable modifications in the policy's goals and methods of enforcement." The importance of local autonomy in policy matters and of the post-1978 economic reforms is noted.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 409).
Correspondence: Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40650 Li, Shaomin. China's population policy: a model of a constant stream of births. Journal of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov 1988. 99-120 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the possibility of formulating a Chinese population policy that can control population growth while giving more freedom to couples regarding their fertility preferences. "Based on cohort-period fertility analysis, the author proposes a policy of a constant stream of births which ensures a moderate growth rate and a smooth age structure, while enabling each couple to have at least two children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40651 Monnier, Alain. The effects of family policies in the German Democratic Republic: a reevaluation. [Bilan de la politique familiale en Republique democratique allemande: un reexamen.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 379-93 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines the effects of the pronatalist policy instituted by the German Democratic Republic in 1976. He notes an immediate increase in the birth rate, especially in the number of births outside marriage. This is attributed to the adoption of social policies that favor unmarried mothers. He contends that "the impact of these pro-natalist measures on completed family size has been less pronounced than the sharp rise in the birth rate would appear to indicate. There are two reasons for this. Firstly...the tempo of fertility accelerated: women bore children earlier than they would have done otherwise, but not necessarily more of them. Secondly, the measures which favoured unmarried mothers led to a decline in the popularity of marriage, and this has made the permanent return to higher birth rates less likely. This unexpected effect of these new policies has, therefore, been the opposite of what was expected from measures taken to stimulate population growth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40652 Pennec, Sophie. Family policies in England and Wales since 1945. [La politique familiale en Angleterre-Galles depuis 1945.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 417-28 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Towards the end of World War II a comprehensive system of social security was introduced in Great Britain. In this paper, help provided for families, and particularly for children, in terms of tax benefits and family allowances is examined. These policies have been inconsistent and without much logical structure, an indication of the lack of interest taken in Britain in the birth rate. It would seem, moreover, that the government was more concerned with such social issues as minimum wages, education and housing, and that the level of allowances was determined by the structure of the household."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40653 Schwarz, Karl. The impact of family policies on population growth in the Federal Republic of Germany and its Lander since World War II. [Les effets demographiques de la politique familiale en RFA et dans ses Lander depuis la Seconde guerre mondiale.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 395-415 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The impact of family policies on population growth in the Federal Republic of Germany and its lander (states) since World War II is examined. Differences in fertility rate and in marriage age and patterns by lander are described, and their relationship to differences in the level of allowances for child-care facilities provided by the various lander is analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40654 Vasilev, D. The experience of European countries in stimulating fertility through economic measures. [Otnosno opita na evropeiskite strani za stimulirane na plodovitostta posredstvom ikonomicheski merki.] Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1988. 1-8 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the demographic effectiveness of measures to raise fertility levels that have been adopted in various European countries during the twentieth century. The focus is on family allowances and their impact on fertility. The author suggests that a reason for their relative lack of success may be that they are not high enough to compensate for the costs of having a second or third child.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

55:40655 Bean, Frank D.; Schmandt, Jurgen; Weintraub, Sidney. Mexican and Central American population and U.S. immigration policy. ISBN 0-292-75115-X. LC 89-32166. 1989. 211 pp. University of Texas, Center for Mexican American Studies: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors examining the demography of Central America, Mexico, and the Southwestern United States and its relationship to U.S. immigration policy. The volume is a product of a meeting held in October 1987 in Houston, Texas. Papers are included on the growing imbalances between labor supply and labor demand in the Caribbean Basin, the state and federal role in population and immigration policy, and the implications of Mexican demographic developments for the United States.
Correspondence: University of Texas, Center for Mexican American Studies, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40656 Bean, Frank D.; Vernez, Georges; Keely, Charles B. Opening and closing the doors: evaluating immigration reform and control. ISBN 0-87766-429-3. LC 89-35240. 1989. xvi, 138 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California; Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. Distributed by University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. In Eng.
This book examines the impact of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) on immigration to the United States. The authors examine the history of U.S. immigration law, the major demographic and immigration trends leading to IRCA's passage, and current policies on legal immigration and refugees; IRCA's myriad provisions, including its landmark legalization programs and unprecedented employer sanctions for hiring illegal aliens; how the Act's mandates have been carried out during the first three years of its five-year implementation period; preliminary measures of IRCA's effects, including its impact on illegal entry; and Congressional proposals to alter legal immigration.
Correspondence: Urban Institute Press, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40657 Blanchet, Didier. Regulating the age structure of a population through migration. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 23-37 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author examines the consequences of using migration to regulate age structure in developed countries, with a focus on controlling the ratio of working-age population to the population of retirees. "What is under discussion here is not the general idea of compensating low fertility through migration, but the de-stabilizing consequences of a stop and go migration policy motivated only by short-run considerations....We shall first explore the problem by means of a very simple model with only four age groups. We then examine the more complex situation where age is treated as a continuous variable. Finally, our conclusion will illustrate these results with some projections applied to the French case, which will clearly contrast the consequences of migration policies directed by short-run and long-run demographic considerations."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1988 and cited in 54:30690.
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40658 Briggs, Vernon M. Efficiency and equity as goals for contemporary U.S. immigration policy. Population and Environment, Vol. 11, No. 1, Fall 1989. 7-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author makes the case for changing U.S. migration policy to be "capable of responding to changing domestic economic conditions. Currently, the nation's immigration policy is dominated by political motivations that give priority to family reunification and humanitarian goals. Immigration can be a short run means to provide skilled and educated workers to fill critical worker shortages. But in the long run, equity considerations derived from the nation's multiracial and multicultural character of the labor force also come into play. It is imperative that citizen workers be prepared for the high quality jobs in the growth industries of its postindustrial economy. Immigration must not inhibit market pressures from encouraging employers to provide better opportunities for training and employment of citizens....It is essential that immigration does not provide only workers who can be employed in the declining occupations and industries. With a sizeable adult illiteracy problem already, the nation can ill-afford to increase the pool of unskilled and poorly educated workers, which increases the competition among such workers for the shrinking number of jobs available to them."
Correspondence: V. M. Briggs, Cornell University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, 393 Ives Halls, Ithaca, NY 14851-0952. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40659 Hawkins, Freda. Critical years in immigration: Canada and Australia compared. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History, Vol. 2, ISBN 0-7735-0622-5. 1989. xx, 368 pp. McGill-Queen's University Press: Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
Government responses to international migration are analyzed and compared for Australia and Canada. The author provides an overview of the evolution of immigration policy and related issues in the two countries from 1972 to 1984. The study "links the policy areas of immigration, population, refugee policy, and multi-culturalism and examines the ways in which these have been managed in two federal states with similar political systems, historical backgrounds, and dilemmas related to vast territory, impressive resources, and small populations."
Correspondence: McGill-Queen's University Press, 849 Sherbrooke Street W, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:40660 Kastoryano, Riva; Schnapper, Dominique. The politics of immigration in Europe and the United States. [Les politiques d'immigration en Europe et aux Etats-Unis.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1989. 139 pp. Universite du Poitiers: Poitiers, France. In Eng; Fre. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
This special issue contains nine papers, in English or French, on aspects of immigration in the United States and Europe. The focus is on the assimilation of immigrants and the role that government policy can play in this process. The papers are from a workshop on immigration policy held at the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales in Paris, France, April 20-21, 1988.
Correspondence: Universite de Poitiers, Departement de Geographie, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40661 LeMay, Michael C. The gatekeepers: comparative immigration policy. ISBN 0-275-93079-3. LC 88-17993. 1989. xx, 208 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of six papers by different authors that examine the politics and policies of immigration in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Israel, and Venezuela. In each chapter the authors analyze how social and economic trends have shaped national immigration policies. The examples provided also demonstrate the effect of special interest groups on immigration policies and confirm the inherently political nature of the immigration process and policy.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40662 Maletta, Hector. From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants. [Del pasivo al activo: una politica para los emigrados de America Latina.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 3, No. 10, Dec 1988. 497-521 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Migration policies of selected Latin American countries are reviewed. The author critically analyzes policies implemented by countries of origin to encourage the return of migrants and discourage emigration. He discusses alternatives for effective migration management.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40663 Marmora, Lelio. The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America. [La fundamentacion de las politicas migratorias internacionales en America Latina.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 3, No. 10, Dec 1988. 375-96 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This is an overview of international migration policies in Latin America from the seventeenth century to the present. Historical and contemporary trends in labor migration, colonization, and international relations and their effect on migration policy are discussed. The author concludes that socioeconomic forces are stronger than governmental agencies in determining migration flows.
Correspondence: L. Marmora, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Sociologia, Calle Viamonte 430/444, 1053 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40664 Russell, Sharon S. Politics and ideology in migration policy formulation: the case of Kuwait. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 1989. 24-47 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Theoretical approaches to international migration for employment largely ignore the role of government policies in shaping both migratory flows and the functioning of international labor markets, despite empirical evidence that such policies exist. To facilitate considerations of policy in migration theory, this article examines politics and ideology in the evolution of migration policy in Kuwait. Policy determinants are found to include not only changes in economic conditions, but also shifts in power among political actors and the salience of issues on the political agenda: security issues, regional political events, demographic changes and perceived social costs of immigration. Future prospects for the Gulf are also considered."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 409).
Correspondence: S. S. Russell, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40665 United States. General Accounting Office [GAO] (Washington, D.C.). Immigration reform. Major changes likely under S.358. Pub. Order No. GAO/PEMD-90-5. Nov 1989. 112 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a report to the chairman of the Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs of the Committee on the Judiciary of the U.S. Senate on the likely effects of proposed legislation S.358 concerning immigration to the United States in the period 1990-1999. The proposed bill involves switching the emphasis of immigration policy from family reunification objectives to meeting U.S. economic needs. The report concludes that "increasing immigration to meet the needs of the U.S. economy may help increase its international competitiveness, solve labor problems associated with low birth rates, and deal with weaknesses in the education of young U.S. workers."
Correspondence: U.S. General Accounting Office, P.O. Box 6015, Gaithersburg, MD 20877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40666 Zhu, Guohong. A historical survey of international migration of the Chinese population. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 4, Jul 29, 1987. 24-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The history of emigration policy in China is reviewed using data from published sources. The emphasis is on Guangdong and Fujan provinces, from which 90 percent of overseas Chinese originate. Consideration is given to policy changes since the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1989-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.