Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

55:40519 Banister, Judith. The aging of China's population. Problems of Communism, Vol. 37, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 62-77 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author first points out that if China successfully implements its one-child policy, by the year 2050 an unprecedented 40 percent of its population will be 65 or older. "Until the mid-1980's, however, Chinese officials failed to perceive that elderly dependence would ever be a problem in China in part because of the traditional family support system. More recently, the government has had to recognize that its attempts to control population growth through a one-child policy are leading inexorably to the dramatic aging of its population, and the care and support of the nation's future elderly has become a source of concern. Given the underdeveloped state of China's system of health and social services, the limited number of pension programs available to China's workers, and a weakened family support system due to low fertility and the effects of recent economic reforms, a major focus of the debate over the aging of the population has centered around issues of demographic policy. Increasingly the unpopular one-child policy has come under question, stimulating a lively debate."
Correspondence: J. Banister, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, China Branch, Scuderi Building, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:40520 Chayovan, Napaporn; Wongsith, Malinee; Saengtienchai, Chanpen. Socio-economic consequences of the ageing of the population in Thailand: survey findings. ASEAN Population Programme, Socio-Economic Consequences of the Ageing of the Population Project, Pub. Order No. 161/88. ISBN 974-569-713-3. Nov 1988. xi, 183 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Major findings are presented from the Socio-Economic Consequences of the Ageing of the Population in Thailand (SECAPT) project. "The primary objective of the SECAPT project is to collect baseline data on current status and characteristics of the aged in Thailand." Chapters are included on the survey background, objectives, and methodology; economic circumstances of the elderly, including labor force participation, sources of income, and social and psychological status; living arrangements; health conditions of the elderly; and knowledge of and attitudes toward old-age welfare.
Correspondence: Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Bangkok, Thailand. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40521 Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados [SEADE] (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The youth of greater Sao Paulo. [O jovem na grande Sao Paulo.] Colecao Realidade Paulista, ISBN 85-85016-25-6. Dec 1988. 275 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
This is a detailed study of the population under age 20 who constitute approximately one-half the total population of the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Included are data on how they live, why they drop out of school, their health, and their precarious position in the labor market. Projections to the year 2000 serve as a basis for a discussion of future social policies for Brazilian youth.
Correspondence: SEADE, Av. Casper Libero 464, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40522 Howe, Anna L.; Sharwood, Penny. The old old or the new old? Part 2--health status and trends of the population aged 80 years and over. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 6, No. 1, May 1989. 18-37 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper is the second part of a study of the old old population, those aged 80 years and older, in Australia. It poses the question, as the experience of advanced old age becomes increasingly the norm, are more people living longer because of better health, or surviving longer in poorer health? Three aspects of population health are examined: patterns and trends in mortality, the morbidity implications of these findings, and service utilization. The study identifies a need to integrate analyses of mortality, morbidity and service use, and to develop a methodology able to express the diversity of the old old population."
For Part 1, published by the same authors in 1988, see 55:10586.
Correspondence: A. L. Howe, La Trobe University, Lincoln Gerontology Centre, Aged Care Research Group, 206 Drummond Street, Carlton VIC 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40523 Levy, Michel L. Twelve population pyramids, plus one. [Douze pyramides des ages, plus une.] Population et Societes, No. 238, Sep 1989. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Age pyramids are presented for the European Community as a whole and for the 12 constituent countries. The data are taken from official Eurostat sources.
Correspondence: INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40524 Li, Rongshi. An analysis of China's population in 1987. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1988. 28-38 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author analyzes China's population structure, based on a national one percent population sampling survey taken in July 1987. Data are included on population size, natural increase, sex and age structure, and educational levels. Minority group proportions and population distribution in urban areas are described.
Correspondence: R. Li, State Statistical Bureau, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40525 Martin, Linda G. Living arrangements of the elderly in Fiji, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 627-43 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Using logit techniques and data from surveys of the elderly conducted in 1984 under the auspices of the World Health Organization, this article investigates socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic determinants of living arrangements of the elderly. Having a spouse or children with whom to live has important effects on living arrangements. The results provide only weak support, however, for hypotheses based on modernization theory and point to the need for detailed data on transitions in living arrangements and for information about the younger generation as well as the older generation, both of which are involved in deciding who lives with whom." The data concern Fiji, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the Republic of Korea.
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40526 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Profile of young Americans. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1989. 36-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Demographic trends concerning Americans aged 14-24 years in 1988 are summarized. Growth rates and projections for this age bracket are presented as well as demographic information by sex, including educational status, marriage age, family and household characteristics, and employment status. Data are from the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40527 Paillat, Paul. Ageing and old age as seen by the demographer. Impact of Science on Society, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1989. 43-55 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"This article reviews the triggering, spread and acceleration of the phenomenon of demographic ageing in both developed and developing countries. The author presents particular aspects of the process before going on to show how demographic evolution, the speed of technological progress and tensions within the family can serve to put in question the place and role of old people, and call for the best use to be made of human resources no matter what age."
Correspondence: P. Paillat, 25 Avenue du Chateau, 92190 Meudon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

55:40528 Preston, Samuel H.; Himes, Christine; Eggers, Mitchell. Demographic conditions responsible for population aging. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 691-704 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article develops and applies two expressions for the rate of change of a population's mean age. In one, aging is shown to be negatively related to contemporary birth rates and death rates. In a general sense, aging occurs when vital rates are too low, as illustrated through applications to the United States, the Netherlands, and Japan. The other expression relates the rate of aging to a population's demographic history, in particular to changes in mortality, migration, and the annual number of births. Applications to the United States and Sweden show that the dominant factor in current aging in these countries is a history of declining mortality. Migration also contributes significantly but in opposite directions in the two countries. The two approaches are integrated after recognizing that the rate of change in the mean age is equal to the covariance between age and age-specific growth rates. A decomposition of this covariance shows that the two seemingly unrelated expressions contain exactly the same information about the age pattern of growth rates."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 462).
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40529 Qiao, Xiaochuen. A population aging model and explanations. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Nov 29, 1987. 30-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
A mathematical model of demographic aging is developed based on published data from Japan. Specifically, the model is used to analyze the effect of changes in birth and death rates on demographic aging. Some general laws governing demographic aging are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40530 Rajan, S. Irudaya. Aging in Kerala: one more population problem? Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1989. 19-48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author examines demographic aging in the Indian state of Kerala. Age composition and population projections are presented and factors contributing to population aging are discussed. Also included are data on age specific mortality rates, sex differentials in mortality, age specific and total fertilty rates, life expectancy, and dependency ratios. Implications for policy making are outlined.
Correspondence: S. I. Rajan, Centre for Development Studies, Global Training Programme in Population and Development, Ulloor, Trivandrum, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40531 Rosenberg, Mark W.; Moore, Eric G.; Ball, Suzanne B. Components of change in the spatial distribution of the elderly population in Ontario, 1976-1986. Canadian Geographer/Geographe Canadien, Vol. 33, No. 3, Autumn 1989. 218-29 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using data from the 1976, 1981, and 1986 [Canadian] Censuses for Ontario, components of change in the elderly population are obtained by cohort survival methods. The significance of rapid metropolitan growth of the elderly compared with the slow growth of the rural elderly is highlighted, while intra-county distributional shifts in the elderly population raise important questions for the next decade."
Correspondence: M. W. Rosenberg, Queen's University, Department of Geography, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40532 Sarkar, B. N. Demography of aged people. May 1989. 16 pp. Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Survey Research Centre: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Current and future trends in demographic aging in India are examined. Differentials according to state, social group, sex, and caste are presented. The author discusses the impact of the combined effects of demographic aging and fertility decline on India's health services and social services programs. Data are from official Indian sources.
Correspondence: Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Survey Research Centre, 157 Asokegarh, Calcutta, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40533 Sethaput, Chanya. Changes of population structure in rural Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jan 1989. 259-78, 294 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines past trends and future projections of Thailand's rural population structure. It is found that changes in the age distribution were affected by improved socioeconomic conditions and by the acceptance of a family planning program, and that these factors also influenced fertility decline. The impact of demographic aging on the dependency burden is discussed. Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses and from official population projections.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40534 Sly, David F.; Serow, William J. The component structure of elderly population growth in the Netherlands: 1950-1980. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 4, Jul 1989. 271-81 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"While there is no doubt about the magnitude of the growth of older age groups in industrialized nations, its structural components are less well understood. This paper examines the roles played by cohort succession and mortality in the process for the Netherlands during the period 1950 to 1980. While the size of the population aged 65 and over has increased for both males and females, increases in the size of succeeding cohorts explain all of the growth in the older male population. Reductions in mortality at the older old ages play a much greater role than do reductions at younger old ages; the latter reductions occur among females only."
Correspondence: D. F. Sly, Center for the Study of Population, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40535 Vessillier, Michele. The demography of the creative arts. [La demographie des createurs.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 292-310 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author reports on the demography of persons in the creative arts in France using data from a 1987 survey of professional writers and artists whose income exceeded a predetermined level. Sex, income, age, career length, family characteristics, marriage patterns, and geographic location of this population are presented.
Correspondence: M. Vessillier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 26 rue Boyer, F-75971 Paris Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40536 Visaria, Leela; Visaria, Pravin. Prospective changes in the age and gender structure of India's population and their socio-economic implications. Sociological Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 2, Sep 1986. 95-116 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to review briefly the past and the prospective changes in the sex-age composition of the population of India and to speculate about their socio-economic implications. The basic data are drawn from the decennial censuses and the Sample Registration System; but the discussion extends beyond them."
Correspondence: L. Visaria, Gujarat Institute for Area Planning, Pritamrai Marg, Post Bag 2, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40537 Visaria, Leela; Visaria, Pravin. Prospective changes in the age and gender structure of India's population and their socio-economic implications. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning Working Paper, No. 6, Mar 1987. 29 pp. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
The authors examine trends in the sex and age composition of the Indian population from 1901-1981, with a focus on the social and economic implications of these changes. Data are from decennial censuses and the Sample Registration System.
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Area Planning, Pritamrai Marg, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40538 Wojciechowska-Ratajczak, Bogumila. Spatial differentiation of the socioeconomic composition of the population. [Zroznicowanie przestrzenne struktury spoleczno-zawodowej ludnosci.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 11, Nov 1988. 1-4 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Differences in population characteristics among the administrative districts of Poland are analyzed. The characteristics examined include density, place of employment, urban population growth, population employed in agriculture, and migration.
Correspondence: B. Wojciechowska-Ratajczak, Akademia Rolnicza w Poznaniu, Ul. Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40539 Xu, Qin. The system of the demography of the aged. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 1, Jan 29, 1988. 23-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
This is an introduction to the demographic study of the elderly population. Topics covered include reasons for research on the aged and the main subject areas involved, which are population characteristics, demographic aging, and the relationship between demographic aging and socioeconomic development. Some results of recent research are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

55:40540 Al-Abdul Jabbar, Fahad; Wong, Simin S. Menarcheal age, marriage, and reproduction among Saudi women. Annals of Saudi Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 6, Jan 1988. 438-42 pp. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"Analysis of data gathered from 2,899 Saudi women between the ages of 14 and 59 years showed a decline in the age at menarche. The mean age at menarche was 13.24 years, but women born in the past 20 years matured more than half a year earlier than their mothers' generation. The average number of pregnancies among the sampled women was 4.48. Women with older age at menarche had a slightly higher number of pregnancies, and there was a positive correlation between older age at menarche and reported live births. The proportion of women reporting one or more miscarriages was not associated with age at menarche."
Correspondence: F. Al-Abdul Jabbar, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40541 Arshat, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng; Ramli, Nazileh. A study on the age at menopause and menopausal symptoms among Malaysian women. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jun 1989. 1-9 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
The authors examine age at menopause and menopausal symptoms among 677 Malaysian women interviewed in 1986. Consideration is given to psychological as well as physical effects. Findings indicate that approximately 7 out of 10 women entered menopause between ages 45-54 and that socioeconomic status did not affect onset or symptoms.
Correspondence: N. P. Tey, National Population and Family Development Board, P.O. Box 10416, 50712 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40542 Aubenque, Maurice. The sex ratio at birth: a retrospective review and commentary. [Indice de masculinite a la naissance: apercu retrospectif et commentaires.] Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Vol. 130, No. 2, 1989. 80-102 pp. Nancy, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in the sex ratio are examined, and the possible effect of new biotechnologies on sex preselection is discussed. "We recall that this ratio is very stable, around 105 males for 100 females (live births). However, in France, a slight decreasing trend during the 19th century can be observed (from 107 to 104). At the present time this ratio seems to be maintained at a level of 105.3. The great demographic perturbations, particularly caused by wars, have been marked by a slight but notable increase in the indicator (106) when natality rises again after a deep depression. The variations, always small, of this indicator are more dependent on the male than on female natality, for reasons that are unclear." A comment by Paul Damiani is included (pp. 99-102).
Correspondence: M. Aubenque, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40543 El-Shalakani, Mostafa. Factors determining decline in sex ratio in Kuwaiti population. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jun 1985. 10-27 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"Census data of Kuwait show that the sex ratio among Kuwaiti nationals has been declining. This paper examines the influence of various factors on the sex ratio. Among the 5 factors considered here, the results show that two of them, viz, the mortality differential between Kuwaiti males and Kuwaiti females and the mixed marriages of Kuwaitis with Non-Kuwaitis, contributed towards 70 percent of the decline in the sex ratio during the intercensal period 1975-80."
Correspondence: M. El-Shalakani, Kuwait University, Department of Statistics, POB 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40544 Khatamee, Masood A.; Leinberger-Sica, Anayansi; Matos, Peter; Wesley, Alvin C. Sex preselection in New York City: who chooses which sex and why. International Journal of Fertility, Vol. 34, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 353-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Sex preselection choices among couples in New York City are analyzed. Of the 178 couples, 57 were from countries other than the United States. It is noted that although the U.S. couples chose to have boys or girls with equal frequency, depending on the gender of previous children, all the non-U.S. couples chose to have boys for economic, cultural, or personal reasons.
Correspondence: M. A. Khatamee, 877 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40545 Liu, Shuang. An analysis of the sex ratios at birth of China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, May 29, 1988. 33-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The sex ratio at birth in China is analyzed using data from the 1982 census. The focus is on geographic differentials in sex distribution and the impact of population density on those differentials. Findings indicate that the sex ratio at birth was lower in urban populations than in rural populations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40546 Mertens, Frits. Do the fittest survive? Psychosocial and demographic determinants of longevity from a 12-year longitudinal study on relocation of the aged. [Overleven de fitsten? Psychosociale en demografische determinanten van levensduur uit een 12-jarig longitudinaal onderzoek rond verhuizing bij ouderen.] Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, Vol. 19, No. 4, Sep 1988. 153-62 pp. Deventer, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article attention is paid to longevity [in the Netherlands] and some predictors of longevity in 455 respondents in a 12-year longitudinal research that started in 1974 on relocation of older people. Participants in this research project stemmed from five groups, which can be distinguished by the degree of diminished autonomy of (desired) housing facility. The more autonomous the housing facility, the lower the mortality rate appeared to be."
Correspondence: F. Mertens, Intervakgroep Sociale Gerontologie KUN, Postbus 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40547 Vandenbroucke, J. P. Life expectancy in man in adulthood and old age. [De levensduur van de mens op volwassen en oudere leeftijd.] Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Vol. 132, No. 15, Apr 9, 1988. 664-7 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut.
Biological factors affecting human aging and life expectancy are reviewed. Data are from a variety of published sources and concern Europe and the United States. Attention is given to the impact on life expectancy of improvements in sanitation and hygiene and of progress in medicine. Future trends in longevity are estimated.
Correspondence: J. P. Vandenbroucke, Academisch Ziekenhuis, afd. Klinische Epidemiologie, Postbus 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

55:40548 Adams, Richard H. Worker remittances and inequality in rural Egypt. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 38, No. 1, Oct 1989. 45-71 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author proposes a framework and techniques to analyze the impact of remittances from migrants working abroad on rural income distribution. Data are from a survey conducted in Minya Governorate, Egypt, in 1986-1987 of some 1,000 households. The results indicate that remittance earnings of this kind have had a negative impact on rural income distribution, as they have been earned mainly by upper-income villagers.
Correspondence: R. H. Adams, International Food Policy Research Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:40549 Dodoo, Francis. Race and immigrant stratification in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA8908325. 1988. 154 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study investigates the earnings determination process of the black immigrants to the United States, in an attempt to explain differential earnings between these migrants and their native born counterparts. Data from the 1980 U.S. Census of Population is employed in a multiple regression format to analyze the observed earnings differentials. The model combines human capital and segmented labor market frameworks. The findings are that black immigrants do not assimilate too well in the United States; earnings differences between the black immigrants and other groups are mostly a result of discrimination, generally on the basis of race, not immigrant status."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(1).

55:40550 Griffith, D. A.; Bennett, R. J.; Haining, R. P. Statistical analysis of spatial data in the presence of missing observations: a methodological guide and an application to urban census data. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 21, No. 11, Nov 1989. 1,511-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper a simple introduction and guide to a widely applicable method for estimating missing data in fields of enquiry such as census maps or LANDSAT images are presented. The method given is a maximum likelihood procedure....The algorithm is presented in the form of a simple tutorial guide. An example, of median income levels in Houston [Texas], is worked through in detail for missing cells in census data. The example is characterised by a variable mean and a general variance-covariance matrix."
Correspondence: D. A. Griffith, Syracuse University, Department of Geography, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:40551 Hussien, Amina E. A. Development of an analytical model for studying the possibility of transition among different socio-economic status states. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Dec 1986. 83-91 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
The author develops an index for determining the socioeconomic status of individuals and a model to estimate the possibility of transition by an individual from one socioeconomic level to another.
Correspondence: A. E. A. Hussien, Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Commerce, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40552 Pestieau, Pierre. The demographics of inequality. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1989. 3-24 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper presents a survey of recent literature on the effects of demographic variables on economic inequality. First, a number of conceptual and methodological questions are raised and discussed. They pertain to what is meant by inequality, what the range of demographic variables is, and how variable and endogenous are the demographic variables most widely used. The paper then turns to a review of empirical works on the distributive incidence of the following demographic variables: baby boomers entering the job market, aging population, variable fertility and mortality rates, internal and external migrations, divorce and widowhood, and finally donations and bequests. It appears that a lot of caution is needed when assessing the incidence of any demographic variable changing the size of the population because in this case standard inequality measures yield conflicting signals." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: P. Pestieau, University of Liege, Department of Economics, 7 Boulevard du Rectorat, B-4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40553 Pollard, Kelvin M. The dilemma in estimating postcensal state poverty rates. Population Today, Vol. 17, No. 10, Oct 1989. 6-7, 10 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Problems in estimating change in state poverty rates in the United States are discussed. In particular, the author tests the reliability of data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and uses 1980 U.S. census data as a basis for comparison. "The results of the test for statistical significance call into question sole reliance on the CPS in estimating state poverty rates, for which its sample design was not intended."
Correspondence: K. M. Pollard, Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40554 van der Berg, S. On interracial income distribution in South Africa to the end of the century. South African Journal of Economics/Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Ekonomie, Vol. 57, No. 1, Mar 1989. 35-51 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"This article provides some estimates of historical distribution of personal incomes per capita according to race group [in South Africa]...and sets out to investigate the likelihood of interracial income redistribution during the last two decades of this century under various growth scenarios....The main conclusion of this study can be stated as follows: without rapid economic growth, only limited redistribution of primary incomes between groups is likely, because higher Black wages could be expected to be counteracted by fewer employment opportunities."
Correspondence: S. van der Berg, University of Stellenbosch, Department of Economics, Stellenbosch 7600, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40555 Verma, R. B. P.; Basavarajappa, K. G. Employment income of immigrants in metropolitan areas of Canada, 1980. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 27, No. 3, Sep 1989. 441-65 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The economic achievements of the migrant population living in Canada are compared with those of the Canadian-born population. Employment income is analyzed for the year 1980, and income differentials by sex, age, educational status, country of origin, and length of Canadian residence are presented. Based on these comparisons, the authors analyze variations in the economic adaptability of migrants.
Correspondence: R. B. P. Verma, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

55:40556 Desai, Sonalde; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Michael, Robert T. Mother or market? Effects of maternal employment on the intellectual ability of 4-year-old children. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 545-61 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article uses the [U.S.] 1986 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set to investigate the impact of maternal employment on children's intellectual ability, as measured at the age of 4 by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Results from multivariate regression analysis show a statistically significant adverse effect of mother's employment on children's intellectual ability, but only for boys in higher income families. Furthermore, the negative impact was related to the timing of maternal employment: employment during the boys' infancy had a statistically significant negative effect on PPVT scores at the age of 4. This pattern was not found for girls, for children in low-income families, or for families in which mothers resumed their employment after the child's first year of life. The impact of other demographic trends in recent years--declining fertility and rising marital instability--are also investigated."
Correspondence: S. Desai, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40557 India. Office of the Registrar General. Demography Division (New Delhi, India). Census of India, 1981. Household literacy, drinking water, electricity and toilet facilities. Occasional Paper, No. 1, 1989. i, 51 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng; Hin.
This volume reports on the findings of the 1981 Indian census regarding availability of drinking water, electricity, and toilet facilities in urban and rural households. Household size and the number of literate members are also surveyed. The data are in tabular form and cover all districts of India.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Demography Division, 4/19 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40558 Mori, G. A.; Burke, B. 1986 census of Canada: educational attainment of Canadians. Focus on Canada Series, Pub. Order No. 98-134. ISBN 0-660-54026-6. Apr 1989. 50, 52 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This report is one in a series of analytical studies based on data from the 1986 census of Canada and is concerned with educational status. "In particular, it looks at how much education Canadians have currently attained and how these levels have changed over the past quarter of a century. The report then presents an overview of various facets of Canadian education, such as regional variations, selected educational indicators such as median years of schooling, high school certification rates and levels of schooling of the immigrant population." The report ends by examining the economic performance indicators of postsecondary graduates in selected fields of study.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: University of Texas at Austin, Population Research Center Library. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 98, Jul 1989.

55:40559 Porri, Mario; Schiavoni, Claudio. Aspects of women's status and employment in Rome during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. [Aspetti della condizione femminile e del lavoro della donna a Roma fra XVII e XVIII secolo.] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 245-63 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The status of unmarried women in Rome during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is examined. "The structure of the domestic groups where widows, spinsters and women temporarily alone lived and of which they were the head has been analysed as well as the socioeconomic conditions of these 'solitary women'....Almost always the female heads of a family were widows, [heirs] to a trading and/or artisan activity that they could manage temporarily only. As a matter of fact strict rules provided that a man should manage any kind of firm." Data are from parish registers.
Correspondence: M. Porri, Universita degli Studi La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40560 Vaidyanathan, K. E. Status of women and family planning: the Indian case. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1989. 3-18 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the extent to which the status of women in India is related to awareness, knowledge and adoption of family planning....It brings out various policy implications and suggests that efforts be concentrated on promoting the education of women, raising their age at marriage and providing employment opportunities for them outside the home as well as improving the role of women in decision-making and their perceived status within the family and the community." Data are from official Indian statistics and field studies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

55:40561 Basu, Salil; Kshatriya, Gautam. Fertility and mortality in tribal populations of Bastar district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Biology and Society, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1989. 100-12 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Demographic analysis of genealogical data, collected in 1983-84 on 792 households of the four tribal populations...of Madhya Pradesh (India) is conducted employing indirect estimation techniques. The results of the study indicate that the total fertility rate of these four groups is higher than the Madhya Pradesh rural non-tribal population groups and Indian national population...." Mortality rates differ among the tribes and between the tribes and the rest of the Indian national population. "There are also sex-specific mortality differentials in the present study, with males experiencing higher mortality than females. The trends are discussed in the light of prevailing socioeconomic, cultural and health care practices among these tribal groups."
Correspondence: S. Basu, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Population Genetics and Human Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40562 Finnas, Fjalar. The demographic development of the Swedish population of Finland, 1950-1980: a study of the demography of a language group and of the effect of mixed marriages. [Den finlandssvenska befolkningsutvecklingen 1950-1980: en analys av en sprakgrupps demografiska utveckling och effekten av blandaktenskap.] Skrifter Utgivna av Svenska Litteratursallskapet i Finland, No. 533, ISBN 951-9018-20-4. LC 86-232091. 1986. 216 pp. Svenska Litteratursallskapet i Finland: Helsinki, Finland. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes demographic trends of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland over the period 1950-1980. Data are from the registers compiled by Tom Sandlund for a project on ethnicity and mobility and from official sources. The analysis shows that the Swedish-speaking population is concentrated in selected southern and western coastal regions of the country. It is also a population that is declining in numbers both through natural decrease and through language shifts associated with mixed marriages.
Correspondence: Svenska Litteratursallskapet i Finland, Snellmansgatan 9-11, 00170 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40563 Saigaonkar, D. G. Canada's native people. Population Review, Vol. 33, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 42-55 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
The author presents historical, demographic, economic, social, and political information on the native peoples of Canada. Population growth, birth, and death rates are included as well as population projections, and current issues of importance to the native community are discussed. Data are from Canada's Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and from Statistics Canada.
Correspondence: D. G. Saigaonkar, Government of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Strategic Analysis Section, Ottawa, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40564 Snipp, C. Matthew. American Indians: the first of this land. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-822-4. LC 89-6445. 1989. xxvii, 408 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, conducted for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is one in a series presenting analyses of data from the 1980 U.S. census. This volume describes the composition and characteristics of the American Indian and Alaskan Native population. The author analyzes "housing, family structure, language use and education, socioeconomic status, migration, and mortality...based largely on unpublished material not available in any other single source. He catalogs the remarkable diversity of a population--Eskimos, Aleuts, and numerous Indian tribes--once thought doomed to extinction but now making a dramatic comeback, exceeding one million for the first time in 300 years. Also striking is the pervasive influence of the federal bureaucracy on the social profile of American Indians, a profile similar at times to that of Third World populations in terms of literacy, income, and living conditions."
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40565 Wai, Lokky. The Native peoples of Canada in comtemporary society: a demographic and socioeconomic bibliography. ISBN 0-7714-1060-3. 1989. i, 82 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
This annotated bibliography is concerned with the Native peoples of Canada, defined as the Metis, Inuit, Status Indians, and Non-status Indians. It is organized alphabetically by author and includes published and unpublished materials and government documents. Subject and author indexes are included.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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