Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical to the modern, defined as being World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

55:40499 Becker, Charles; Diouf, Mamadou; Mbodj, Mohamed. The demographic sources of the history of the Senegambia. [Les sources demographiques de l'histoire de la Senegambie.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 15-31 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors review the available sources of historical demographic data for the Gambia and Senegal. They stress the need to study historical demographic trends in order to understand the history of social development in the region and show that the necessary data can be retrieved from a variety of unorthodox sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40500 Dyson, Tim. India's historical demography: studies in famine, disease and society. Collected Papers on South Asia, No. 8, ISBN 0-913215-43-0. 1989. ix, 296 pp. Riverdale: Riverdale, Maryland; Curzon Press: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 10 studies by different authors on aspects of the historical demography of India. Following a general introduction, papers are included on depopulation in rural Tamil Nadu, 1780-1830; population and economic growth in Uttar Pradesh, 1800-1900; mortality and fertility, 1881-1961; mortality, fertility, and the status of women, 1881-1931; the historical demography of Berar, 1881-1980; famine in nineteenth-century Punjab; influenza in 1918-1919; cholera mortality, 1817-1947; and a comparative historical perspective of India, Europe, and the Far East.
Correspondence: Riverdale Company, 5506 Kenilworth Avenue, Riverdale, MD 20737. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40501 Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette. The functioning of the stem family in the baronies of the Pyrenees before 1914. [Le fonctionnement de la famille-souche dans les baronnies des Pyrenees avant 1914.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 241-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic trends in French Pyrenees villages from 1660 to 1914 are analyzed using family reconstitution data from parish records and available official sources, such as censuses and tax rolls. The results indicate that a limitation of fertility among married women over 35 years of age occurred and that families were able to adjust their demographic behavior in response to changing economic conditions over time.
Correspondence: A. Fauve-Chamoux, Centre de Recherches Historiques, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40502 Garcia Jimenez, Bartolome. The demography of rural Andalusia: Rute in the ancien regime. [Demografia rural andaluza: Rute en el antiguo regimen.] Estudios Cordobeses, No. 37, ISBN 84-505-3592-1. 1987. 470 pp. Excma. Diputacion Provincial de Cordoba, Servicio de Publicaciones: Cordoba, Spain. In Spa.
This is a detailed demographic history of the small town of Rute, in the Spanish province of Cordoba, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Chapters are included on data sources and methodology, fertility, nuptiality, mortality, population characteristics, the abandonment of children, and minority populations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40503 Imhof, Arthur E. The life span: on the postponement of death and the art of living. [Die Lebenszeit: vom aufgeschobenen Tod und von der Kunst des Lebens.] ISBN 3-406-33211-0. LC 88-189072. 1988. 363 pp. C. H. Beck: Munich, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The increase in life expectancy in Europe and other developed countries over the past three centuries is described. Past and current effects of this trend on society are analyzed. The final sections of the book deal with the relevance of the European experience to other countries, including India, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand.
Correspondence: C. H. Beck'sche, Verlagsbuchhandlung Oscar Beck, Wilhelmstrasse 9, Postfach 400340, D-8000 Munich 40, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40504 Lalou, Richard; Boleda, Mario. An underutilized source: the censuses during French rule. [Une source en friche: les denombrements sous le Regime francais.] Revue d'Histoire de l'Amerique Francaise, Vol. 42, No. 1, Summer 1988. 47-72 pp. Outremont, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article proposes to evaluate the quality of the censuses of the Canadian population carried out between 1685 and 1739. Analysis of the internal coherence of these documents suggests that certain categories of the population were under-recorded, for example, women in the 17th century and young boys in the 18th century. In order to determine the extent of underenumeration, the present study compares the size of the recorded population to the number of people present at the time of census-taking, as estimated by the technique of cumulated natural increase. The results of this comparison suggest that the population is under-recorded in all the censuses. However, with an average rate of omission of a little more than 10%, these documents are nonetheless, for the pre-statistical era, of a high enough quality to make their use worthwhile."
Correspondence: R. Lalou, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Case Postale 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40505 Leboutte, Rene. At the crossroads of change: fertility, standard of living, and popular culture. [Au carrefour des transitions: fecondite, niveau de vie et culture populaire.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 175-211 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The process of demographic transition at the local level is analyzed using Belgian data for the period 1806-1976. "This paper deals with a micro-demographic analysis of the history of the population in the Eastern part of Belgium, called the Basse-Meuse. With the help of quantitative and qualitative data, it tries to give a better understanding of the cultural context in which the demographic changes have taken place. The new demographic pattern appears to be associated with the great economic depression of the years 1870-1890, which created a deep fear of falling back again into the traditional poverty."
Correspondence: R. Leboutte, Universite de l'Etat a Liege, Place du 20-Aout 7, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40506 Locoh, Therese. To preserve contemporary sources of historical demography in Africa. [Pour une sauvegarde des sources de l'histoire demographique contemporaine en Afrique.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 51-5 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author emphasizes the need to take active steps to preserve the available sources of data on Africa's demographic history, using the example of Togo. These steps include the adequate storage of both documents and data in machine-readable form, the setting up of archives, and the restoration and preservation of documents that are in poor condition.
Correspondence: T. Locoh, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40507 Low, Bobbi S. Occupational status and reproductive behavior in nineteenth-century Sweden: Locknevi Parish. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1989. 82-101 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the persistence and increase/decrease of family lineages in an agricultural Swedish parish during the nineteenth century. Its purpose is to analyze in detail patterns of fertility and mortality before and during the demographic transition, using data on family lineages for individuals of different occupations, in the parish of Locknevi, Sweden, from 1824-96."
Correspondence: B. S. Low, University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Evolution and Human Behavior Program, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40508 Martinez Carrion, Jose M.; Hernandez Moreno, Angela. Agricultural change and family organization in the irrigated region of Murcia from the mid-nineteenth century to 1935. [Cambio agrario y organizacion familiar en la huerta de Murcia desde mediados del siglo XIX a 1935.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 61-92 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Changes in marriage patterns and family and household types in three parishes in the irrigated part of Murcia, Spain, are studied in relation to changes in agricultural practices over the course of the nineteenth century up to 1935. Marriage characteristics studied include frequency of marriage by month, age at first marriage, age differential between spouses, marriage by social group, celibacy, widowhood, and remarriage. Family and household aspects include social type, family type, number of generations in the household, and effects of the death of the head of the household.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40509 McGregor, Patrick P. L. Demographic pressure and the Irish famine: Malthus after Mokyr. Land Economics, Vol. 65, No. 3, Aug 1989. 228-38 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper presents a fresh analysis of demographic pressure in pre-Famine Ireland. The crucial issue is one of measurement. Population pressure is taken as the ratio of population to non-reproducible natural resources, that is, land." The author develops a measure of land quality that is used to test the Malthusian hypothesis. "The central finding of this paper may be stated quite simply: when proper account is given to the measurement of land quality and demographic pressure, then the Malthusian hypothesis that income per capita decreases with population pressure is not rejected by the evidence of pre-Famine Ireland."
Correspondence: P. P. L. McGregor, University of Ulster, Applied Economics and Human Resource Management Department, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40510 Nelson, Marie C.; Rogers, John. Urbanisation and the epidemiologic transition. Meddelande fran Familjehistoriska Projektet/Reports from the Family History Group, No. 9, ISBN 91-506-0757-X. 1989. 135 pp. Uppsala University, Department of History, Family History Group: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
Three papers are presented from the November 1987 meeting of the Social Science History Association's session on Urbanization and the Epidemiologic Transition. The papers concern a comparative study on the development of health services in England, Germany, and Sweden in the context of trends in urbanization and mortality; the role of the military in developing health services in Sweden; and the relationships among infectious diseases, poverty, sanitary conditions, childrearing practices, and congenital factors in the decline of infant mortality in England.
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of History, Family History Project, St. Jonassesgatan 21, S-752 35 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40511 Ortega Berruguete, Arturo R. Marriage, fertility, and the family in the Basque country at the limits of the modern age. [Matrimonio, fecundidad y familia en el pais vasco a fines de la edad moderna.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1989. 47-74 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Demographic trends in the Basque region of Spain are analyzed over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. With respect to nuptiality, the author examines age at first marriage, age differences between spouses, civil status before marriage, and proportion of women married. Aspects of fertility considered include birth rate, intervals between births, and illegitimacy. Concerning family structure, data are provided on types of families and households and on multiple-generation households.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40512 Simon Tarres, Antoni. The demographic history of Catalonia. A bibliographic essay. [La demografia historica en Catalunya. Un balance bibliografico.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 37-60 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author presents and discusses a bibliography of some 190 references to the demographic history of the Spanish region of Catalonia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40513 Spree, Reinhard. The "epidemiological transition" in Germany: concrete and differential observations. [Der "epidemiologische Ubergang" in Deutschland. Konkretisierende und differenzierende Anmerkungen.] Demographische Informationen 1988/89, [1989]. 32-8, 155 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The concept of the "epidemiological transition", involving fundamental changes in causes of death, is first described. Prussian death records from the last quarter of the nineteenth century are then analyzed in an effort to examine the epidemiological transition in Germany, its socioeconomic causes, and differentials by sex, age, and region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40514 Vinovskis, Maris A. Have social historians lost the Civil War? Some preliminary demographic speculations. Journal of American History, Vol. 76, No. 1, Jun 1989. 34-58 pp. Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
"As a first step toward an assessment of the Civil War's influence, this article explores its demographic impact. By looking at the number of Union and Confederate soldiers who died and comparing the results with mortality in other wars one can gauge the magnitude of the Civil War. Having established that a very high proportion of military-age white males fought and died in the Civil War, the article considers how the peculiarities of that conflict may have affected the participants' wartime experiences. Then, preliminary results from an in-depth study of Newburyport, Massachusetts, during the Civil War, are used to sketch the social and economic background of those who fought and died in that conflict. Finally, the article examines the impact of the Civil War on the survivors. Given the paucity of research on the influence of the Civil War on the postwar lives of ordinary Americans, I offer a preliminary demographic analysis of the federal pension program using aggregate statistics as one indication of the type of studies that might be done."
Correspondence: M. A. Vinovskis, University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research, Center for Political Studies, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40515 Walter, John; Schofield, Roger. Famine, disease and the social order in early modern society. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, No. 10, ISBN 0-521-25906-1. LC 88-30181. 1989. xiv, 335 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of eight studies by different authors on the process whereby European societies escaped from the permanent threat of famine in the early modern period. The emphasis is on England, one of the first countries to escape from the threat of famine. The contributions combine detailed local studies, broader analyses of the impact of hunger and disease, and methodological studies that examine the impact of crisis mortality on early modern societies. "The essays examine the complex inter-relationships between past demographic, social and economic structures, and demonstrate that the impact of hunger and disease can provide a unique vehicle for an exploration of early modern society."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past in order to obtain further demographic information. Relevant items are coded here and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models if of more general interest than to historical demography alone.

55:40516 Blum, Alain. An estimate of local adult mortality based on family cards. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 39-56 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author reviews several methods of adult mortality estimation for seventeenth- and eighteenth-century France using data from family records "to obtain an estimate of local mortality, either limiting hypotheses (constant underregistration, or restriction to children, independence of migration and mortality) have to be made, or else a single age group chosen, for which it becomes possible to make more accurate calculations. In the present paper, [the author] has opted for the second alternative and has obtained very accurate results for the mortality of adults, by taking into account any indication denoting their presence before they disappear either through death or migration."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1987 and cited in 53:20604.
Correspondence: A. Blum, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40517 Canova, Eliska; Horska, Pavla; Maur, Eduard. The nominal lists of Bohemia, a source of data for social history and historical demography. [Les listes nominatives de la Boheme, source de donnees pour l'histoire sociale et la demographie historique.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 295-312 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The article gives an analysis of two kinds of sources for population research in Bohemia [Czechoslovakia] between 1585 and 1700: of several ecclesiastical lists of inhabitants and of several registers of subjects. The article deals with the possibilities of studying the precise number of inhabitants of some regions in Bohemia and their division into sexes, into children and adults, into married, unmarried and widowed, the distribution by age or by marital status, the sex-ratio of males per 100 females, the marriage market, the size and composition of households, the structure of the household and the socio-economic characteristics."
Correspondence: E. Canova, Ceskoslovenska Demograficka Spolecnost, nam A. Zapotockeho 4, 130 67 Prague 3, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40518 Henry, Louis; Blum, Alain. Techniques of analysis in historical demography. [Techniques d'analyse en demographie historique.] 2nd ed. ISBN 2-7332-2005-5. 1988. viii, 180 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a manual on techniques of analysis in historical demography, with emphasis on the use of data from French sources. The techniques described are closely linked to the types of documents available for analysis. The first part of the book is concerned with analyzing data from a nominal list or enumerator's schedule, with regard to both the state of the population and natural increase. The second part examines the calculation of civil status without family reconstitution in the absence of a census. The third part deals with the same process using family reconstitution and includes separate chapters on marital fertility, the family, nuptiality, and mortality. The fourth part considers civil status and census data. A fifth and final part covers the analysis of data from series of nominal lists or schedules.
Correspondence: INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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