Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

55:40382 Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I. Regional marriage patterns and trends in northern Sudan. African Demography Working Paper, No. 18, Aug 1989. 16 pp. University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on marriage patterns and trends in Northern Sudan. It documents, in the light of data already available, the rising trend of age at first marriage for both sexes. The data used here pertain to the 1973 census and the 1978/79 Sudan Fertility Survey...." Regional differences are noted, and a comparison of Sudan's nuptiality patterns with those of other countries is made.
Correspondence: University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40383 Bozon, Michel; Heran, Francois. Finding a spouse: a survey of how French couples meet. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 90-121 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The impact of social homogamy on mate selection in France is studied. The focus is on "how the spatial segregation of the different social classes leads to a parallel segregation in their meeting-places, which in turn favours [social] homogamy." A historical overview of the initial places where met during the period 1914-1984 is presented, and the differences and similarities in couples' occupational levels, educational levels, and social class are analyzed.
This is a translation of the two-part French article published in 1987 and 1988 and cited in 54:20464 and 20465.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40384 Bumpass, Larry L.; Sweet, James A. National estimates of cohabitation. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 615-25 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Data from the 1987-1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households are used to provide national estimates of cohabitation trends and levels. The rapid increase since around 1970 is documented over both birth cohorts and marriage cohorts. Almost half of the persons in their early 30s and half of the recently married have cohabited. Changes in the proportion ever married are compared with changes in the proportion who have either married or cohabited. Much of the decline in marriage has been offset by increased living together without being married. The stability of unions of various types is compared....Multivariate analysis reveals higher rates of cohabitation among women, whites, persons who did not complete high school, and those from families who received welfare or who lived in a single-parent family while growing up."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 514).
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40385 Burkart, Gunter; Fietze, Beate; Kohli, Martin. Love, marriage, and parenthood: a qualitative study on the change in the importance of partner relationships and its demographic consequences. [Liebe, Ehe, Elternschaft: eine qualitative Untersuchung uber den Bedeutungswandel von Paarbeziehung und seine demographischen Konsequenzen.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 60, 1989. 314 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Results are presented from a 1987-1988 study of changes in the importance of unmarried cohabitation, marriage, and parenthood in the Federal Republic of Germany. The study involved 42 interviews with married and unmarried women and men in four different regions. Topics examined include nuptiality, fertility, cohabitation, one-person households, and female labor force participation and career orientation. Consideration is given to socio-regional differences, demographic implications, and the consequences for family policy.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 5528, D-6200, Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40386 Gutmann, Myron P. Protoindustrialization and marriage ages in eastern Belgium. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 143-73 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article examines the relationship between nuptiality and industrial development in five parishes in eastern Belgium, between the mid-seventeenth century and 1790. The first sections discuss the protoindustrialization hypothesis as established by Mendels and others, and relate the industrial development of the Verviers region. The main sections of the article compare a series of mean marriage ages for women to various measures of economic conditions. The results show no significant relationship, contradicting some parts of the hypothesis. Then the article attempts to replicate Mendels's analysis more closely, by using annual changes in the number of marriages as a proxy for the crude marriage rate. While there were some relationships, they were not as expected. The conclusions to the article call for reexamination of the protoindustrialization hypothesis, because of the difficulty we have had replicating some parts of it."
Correspondence: M. P. Gutmann, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40387 Jelin, Elizabeth. Celibacy, solitude, and personal autonomy: personal choice and social restrictions. [El celibato, la soledad y la autonomia personal: eleccion personal y restricciones sociales.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1989. 117-38, 216 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between celibacy and the status of single persons is examined at the individual and societal levels, with a focus on the impact of social changes in marriage patterns, family structure, and personal autonomy. The geographical scope is worldwide, with some emphasis on Latin America.
Correspondence: E. Jelin, Centro para el Estudio del Estado y la Sociedad, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40388 Landale, Nancy S. Marriage and agricultural structure. Rural Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1989. 439-55 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes Plutzer's (1986) model of fertility variation within rural areas to examine the implications of agricultural structure for rural marriage at the turn of the century. Multilevel data from the 1900 U.S. Census are analyzed to assess whether the availability and cost of farmland, the mechanization of agriculture, and the prevalence of various tenurial arrangements affected the likelihood of early entry into marriage. The findings provide support for the thesis that agricultural structure influenced rural marriage behavior, and suggest that future studies of links between rural social organization and fertility would benefit from explicit consideration of the marriage process."
For the article by Eric Plutzer, published in 1986, see 52:30336.
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, University of Chicago and NORC, Department of Sociology, Population Research Center, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40389 Leridon, Henri; Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. The new couples: number, characteristics and attitudes. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 203-35 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The authors examine family characteristics in France based on a 1985-1986 INED family history survey. They question whether the decrease in nuptiality is an actual representation of the number of cohabiting couples or if it reflects a change in the definition of a couple. They explore attitudes toward marriage, numbers of married and unmarried couples, and illegitimacy rates. Findings indicate the necessity of a broader definition of the word couple.
This is a translation of the French article published in 1988 and cited in 54:30339.
Correspondence: H. Leridon, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40390 Lesthaeghe, R. Marriage seasonality, moral control and reproduction in Belgium (1600-1900). IPD Working Paper, No. 1989-4, Mar 1989. 16 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines the history of social control as exercised by the Catholic Church and trends in secularization by studying the seasonality of marriages in Belgium during the period 1600-1900. Marriages during Lent and Advent (March and December) are approximated and an index is created to indicate the level of church control during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and of secularization during the nineteenth century.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, IPD, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40391 Liefbroer, Aat. Cohabitation or marriage? Differences between the plans of young adults and the attitudes attributed to their parents. [Samenwonen of trouwen? Verschillen tussen de plannen van jong-volwassenen en de aan hun ouders toegeschreven opvattingen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Jul 1989. 83-108 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article looks into the extent to which young adults anticipate that their own plans for living together or marrying in the future and the attitudes held by their parents will conflict. It also studies whether the quality of the relationship between young adults and their parents, and the degree to which the attitudes of the parents differ from those of the friends and the partner (if any) of the young adults, will increase the probability of such conflicts arising between young adults and their parents." Data are from a survey conducted in 1987-1988 among 1,775 18-, 22-, and 26-year-old men and women in the Netherlands.
Correspondence: A. Liefbroer, Vrije Universiteit, Vakgroep Methoden en Technieken van Sociaal-Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Koningslaan 22-24, 1075 AD Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40392 Lutinier, Bruno. Female nuptiality. [La nuptialite des femmes.] INSEE Resultats: Demographie-Societe, No. 1, ISBN 2-11-065322-1. Aug 1989. 248 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is one in a new series of INSEE publications that will give detailed results from surveys and national accounts concerning France. This volume presents data from a sample survey carried out in conjunction with the 1982 census. The data concern marital status, the celibacy rate, place of marriage, age differences between spouses, age at first marriage, differences in marriage patterns by class, seasonality of marriage, remarriage, and prenuptial pregnancies and births preceding marriage.
Correspondence: INSEE, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40393 Lutz, Wolfgang; Wolf, Douglas. Fertility and marital status changes over the life cycle: a comparative study of Finland and Austria. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 27, 1989. 15-28 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The authors use a multistate life table approach to compare marriage patterns and fertility in Austria and Finland. "For Finland the data are based on a complete record of all family status transitions in 1984 and for Austria the rates come from a micro-census survey conducted in 1986. The empirical findings are organized around five questions concerning women's status: the influence of premarital childbearing on later marital status, the influence of number of children on divorce as well as remarriage, family status and subsequent births within marriage, [and] expected times in different status given a specific status at a specific age. Finally, the authors discuss the possible future extension and application of the family status multi-state life table methodology."
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40394 Maneker, Jerry S.; Rankin, Robert P. Correlates and comparisons of marital duration of black and white couples in California, 1966-1976. Journal of Divorce, Vol. 11, No. 2, Winter 1987. 33-49 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The authors compare marriage durations of black and white couples in California using data for the period 1966-1976. Socioeconomic, educational, and religious differentials are discussed. Findings indicate a decline in marriage duration for black couples.
Correspondence: J. S. Maneker, California State University, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Chico, CA 95929. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40395 Matsushita, Keiichiro. Economic analysis of age at first marriage. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, Sep 1989. 103-19 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This article develops an economic model of marriage which gives interior solutions to the optimum age at first marriage and which does not include an explicit argument about the age at marriage in the utility function. In theoretical analysis, [the] life cycle model is modified to capture different aspects of the decision of when to get married. Results from empirical analysis support implications derived from the theoretical analysis."
Correspondence: K. Matsushita, Ryukoku University, Department of Sociology, Shiga, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40396 Montgomery, Mark R.; Sulak, Donna B. Female first marriage in East and Southeast Asia: a Kiefer-Neumann model. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1989. 225-40 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article we ask how the schooling levels of husband and wife come to be associated with each other through the marriage market. The Kiefer-Neumann model of labor market search is adapted to marital search, the aim being to explain both the positive sorting on education levels for spouses, and the positive relationship between female schooling and age at first marriage. World Fertility Survey data for Indonesia, Korea, and Malaysia are employed in the analyses."
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40397 Rankin, Robert P.; Maneker, Jerry S. Correlates of marital duration and black-white intermarriage in California. Journal of Divorce, Vol. 11, No. 2, Winter 1987. 51-67 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
Characteristics of black and white intermarriages in California are examined. Findings indicate that "although there are many similarities between same-race and black-white intermarriages, marriages which involve black husbands and white wives differ in several respects from other types. Not only are they shorter in duration of marriage; they have fewer children or none at all; spouses rank relatively high in education...[and] they involve relatively few teenage marriages....In addition, when black husbands are married to white wives, they are less likely than husbands in other marriages to file for divorce, leaving white wives to take that initiative, wives who tend to have slightly higher educational levels than their black husbands." The data are from a 10 percent sample of all marriages in 1977.
Correspondence: R. P. Rankin, California State University, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Chico, CA 95929. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40398 Schoen, Robert; Wooldredge, John; Thomas, Barbara. Ethnic and educational effects on marriage choice. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 3, Sep 1989. 617-30 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The marriage patterns of Spanish surnamed and non-Spanish surnamed persons in California in 1970 are studied using measures that control for compositional effects. The results show that the level of intergroup marriage is substantial, and that the patterns are largely consistent with an exchange theory perspective that predicts females will 'marry up' with regard to education, males will 'marry up' with regard to ethnicity, and exchanges will occur involving male educational level and female ethnicity."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40399 Stirling, Kate J. Women who remain divorced: the long-term economic consequences. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 3, Sep 1989. 549-61 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This examination of the economic experiences of long-term divorced women [in the United States] finds that in the initial years of divorce economic well-being declines by more than 30 percent and remains at that same low level, a more serious decline than suggested in other studies. This study, unlike others, follows a cohort over time and uses the last three years of marriage as its basis for comparison. Changes in divorced women's economic behavior include increased labor force participation, but not further schooling." Data are from a sample drawn from the University of Michigan's Panel Study on Income Dynamics.
Correspondence: K. J. Stirling, University of Puget Sound, Department of Economics, Tacoma, WA 98416. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40400 Tutterova, Jitka; Rychtarikova, Jitka. Developing trends in divorce after 1950 in the Czech and the Slovak Socialist Republics in the context of legislative changes. [Vyvojove trendy rozvodovosti po roce 1950 v CSR a SSR v kontextu legislativnich zmen.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1989. 200-19 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in and determinants of divorce in Czechoslovakia since 1950 are analyzed using data from official sources. The analysis is presented separately for the Czech and Slovak parts of the country. The results indicate that Czechoslovakia, particularly the Czech region, has a high divorce rate. Factors considered include divorce legislation, marriage rates, and age at marriage.
Correspondence: J. Tutterova, Vyzkumny Ustav Socialniho Rozvoje a Prace, Prague, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

55:40401 Ali, Syed M. Does son preference matter? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 399-408 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author considers the question of whether "the demand for additional children is influenced by the presence of sons within a family. This study is based on cross-sectional data of 9,416 currently married women under age 50 from a Pakistan national survey in 1979-80. The analysis suggests that having at least one son in the family influences the demand for additional children. Urban and rural comparisons indicated a higher preference for sons in urban areas. Unless the socioeconomic milieu changes, son preference is likely to remain strong in Pakistan."
Correspondence: S. M. Ali, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, POB 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40402 Aufhauser, Elisabeth; Lutz, Wolfgang. Demographic analysis of family-related life cycles of Austrian women: a multidimensional model of marriage, fertility, and divorce behavior in the years 1976-1986. [Demographische Analyse des familienbezogenen Lebenszyklus osterreichischer Frauen: ein multi-dimensionales Modell des Heirats-, Fertilitats- und Scheidungsverhaltens in den Jahren 1976-1986.] Demographische Informationen 1988/89, [1989]. 61-72, 155 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Summary results are presented from a research project designed to investigate the family life cycle of Austrian women by using a multidimensional model of marriage, fertility, and divorce. Data are from the 1976 and 1986 microcensuses. Topics discussed include the impact of illegitimate birth on women's future marital status, the relationship between number of children and the probability of divorce and of remarriage, the average number of years spent in different phases of the family life cycle, and the implications of current behavior patterns for future family structure in Austria.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40403 Bartlema, Jan. Modelling stepfamilies: first results. NIDI Report, No. 3, ISBN 90-70990-09-1. 1989. ix, 34 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A combined macro-micro model is applied to a population similar to that forecasted for 2035 in the Netherlands in order to simulate the effect on kinship networks of a mating system of serial monogamy. Also, the importance of incorporating a parameter for the degree of concentration of child-bearing over the female population is underlined."
For a related article by the same author, published in 1988, see 55:30433.
Correspondence: NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40404 Berquo, Elza; Faria, Vilmar E. Migration, family, and fertility: an experiment in integrated analysis. [Migracao, familia e fecundidade: um experimento de analise integrada.] 1986. 98 pp. Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento [CEBRAP]: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
An attempt is made to analyze the interrelations among fertility, migration, and family dynamics in a sample of 398 urban and 400 rural residents of Santo Cruz do Sul, Brazil, over the period 1940-1980. Comparisons are made among natives, natives who left and returned, migrants, and migrants who left and returned. Consideration is given to the demographic impact of the changes in social and economic conditions that occurred during the period.
Correspondence: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Cidade Universitaria Zeferina Vaz, CP 1170, 13100 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40405 Chou, Liping. Study on changes in the structure and size of the urban family in China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1987. 2-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author describes a mathematical model for the study of changes in family composition and size in urban areas of China. Data are from a survey conducted in five cities in 1982-1983. Future changes in family characteristics are projected.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40406 Courgeau, Daniel. Family formation and urbanization. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 123-46 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"This article will deal with two stages in the family life course: formation of the couple through marriage, and the birth of successive children....We shall investigate whether migration into or out of a metropolitan area modifies the formation of the family, and conversely whether the different stages in family formation modify migration behaviour....First, using a nonparametric approach, we shall consider the sequence of events throughout an individual's life-course, and thereby demonstrate how the occurrence of one life-event alters the probability of the occurrence of others." Next, a semiparametric approach is used to analyze the impact of variables such as educational level, occupational level, and social class on marriage, fertility, and migration. The geographic focus is on France.
This is a translation of the French article published in 1987 and cited in 53:20442.
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40407 Ermisch, John F. Purchased child care, optimal family size and mother's employment: theory and econometric analysis. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, Sep 1989. 79-102 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The paper develops a model of family size decisions in which couples choose explicitly a combination of mother's time and purchased childcare (e.g. childminders, nannies) for the care and rearing of children. The theoretical model implies that the impact of the mother's wage on her completed fertility varies with the market price of childcare, and that this effect increases (becoming less negative or more positive) with the level of her wage. Econometric analysis of British micro-data confirms the main predictions of the model."
Correspondence: J. F. Ermisch, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 2 Dean Trench Street, Smith Square, London SW1P 3HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40408 Faessen, W. B. M.; Heerschop, M. J. The generalized partial enumeration of January 1, 1987. [Generalisatie registertelling op 1 januari 1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 7, Jul 1989. 11-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
An enumeration of the population of the Netherlands was conducted on January 1, 1987, using data from the computerized population registers of the 393 municipalities with such facilities. The authors describe the methods by which similar estimates were calculated for the 321 municipalities without computerized population registers. The objective of the estimation procedure was to establish the family characteristics of the municipalities concerned.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40409 Goldscheider, Frances K.; DaVanzo, Julie. Pathways to independent living in early adulthood: marriage, semiautonomy, and premarital residential independence. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 597-614 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 are used to examine factors influencing young adults' departure from the parental home and the initial pathways taken, including leaving home for marriage, residential semiautonomy (Semi), and premarital residential independence (PRI)....Our conceptualization of nest leaving focuses on five broad types of influences: resources of the young adults, home resources, preferences for coresidence or privacy, community characteristics, and contemporaneous roles....This analysis...has shown that the timing of young adults' leaving home responds to a variety of sociodemographic factors, as do the pathways taken. Available resources and social values that shape preferences about nonfamily living before marriage, together with household and community structure and the timing of other life-course transitions, all affect the residential transition to adulthood."
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40410 Graniere, Robert J. Information and household fertility behavior. Pub. Order No. DA8909935. 1984. 258 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of mortality information on household fertility behavior. The analysis shows "how changes in preferences, information, and processing ability will interact to determine a household's completed family size." The geographical focus is on the United States.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(2).

55:40411 Huinink, Johannes. The second child. On the road to the one-child family? [Das zweite Kind. Sind wir auf dem Weg zur Ein-Kind-Familie?] Zeitschrift fur Soziologie, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jun 1989. 192-207, 248 pp. Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, factors affecting the probability of the birth of a second child are investigated. In particular, changes in the structure of the individual decision process of family formation in the FRG [Federal Republic of Germany] during the last decades are discussed. We contest the thesis of a trend towards the predominance of the one-child family and instead argue that with increased individual autonomy in the decision of family formation and fertility behavior couples either decide against having children or, more frequently, choose to have more than one child. While the former phenomenon is already well known, in this article the latter is shown to be empirically valid as well. There are hints that this pattern of 'polarization' in the process of family formation will increasingly be established in the future."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40412 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J.; Kulkarni, Sumati. Reproductive motivation: a comparison of wives and husbands in Maharashtra, India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 264-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study compares family size preferences, ideal sex compositions, and the motivation underlying these preferences between currently married women and their husbands in a transitional rural society in India." Factors considered include dependence on sons for old age security, a desire to continue the family line, maternal health risks, and financial and time obligations imposed by large numbers of children. The data are from a sample survey on the economic value of children and fertility behavior conducted in 1983 in Maharashtra, and concern 1,692 currently married women aged 15-44, with at least one child, and their husbands.
Correspondence: S. J. Jejeebhoy, 16-A G. Deshmukh Marg, Bombay 400 026, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40413 Kamerman, Sheila B.; Kahn, Alfred J. Single-parent, female-headed families in Western Europe: social change and response. International Social Security Review, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1989. 3-34 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Trends in single-parent, female-headed families in Western Europe are analyzed and compared. The authors "explore the 'single-parent family' phenomenon in Western Europe, the factors that account for the growth in the numbers of these families, how these families are perceived and the policy responses in the different countries; we also note some patterns." Data are from a variety of sources. Some comparisons are made with the situation in the United States.
Correspondence: S. B. Kamerman, Columbia University, School of Social Work, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

55:40414 Kerblay, Basile. The evolution of family models in the countries of Eastern Europe and the USSR. [L'evolution des modeles familiaux dans les pays de l'Est europeen et en U.R.S.S.] Cultures et Societes de l'Est, No. 9, ISBN 2-7204-0234-6. 1988. 226 pp. Institut du Monde Sovietique et de l'Europe Centrale et Orientale: Paris, France; Institut d'Etudes Slaves: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This is a selection of the papers presented at a symposium organized in Paris, France, January 9-11, 1986, which examines aspects of family development in the countries of Eastern Europe and the USSR. The papers examine questions on the interactions among the family, ideology, and industrialization; differences in family developments among cultures; and the emergence of new models of the family. The papers, with the exception of one in English, are in French.
Correspondence: Institut d'Etudes Slaves, 9 rue Michelet, Paris 75006, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40415 Legare, Jacques; Balakrishnan, T. R.; Beaujot, Roderic P. The family in crisis: a population crisis? Proceedings of a colloquium organized by the Federation of Canadian Demographers and sponsored by the Royal Society of Canada. [Crise de la famille: crise demographique? Actes d'un colloque organise par la Federation canadienne de demographie et parraine par la Societe royale du Canada.] ISBN 0-920064-26-4. 1989. iii, 463 pp. Royal Society of Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of the second national conference organized by the Federation of Canadian Demographers, held at the University of Ottawa, November 28-29, 1986. The focus of the conference was on the family in Canada and on two national surveys, on fertility and the family, that were conducted in 1984. Part 1 contains four papers on the methodological aspects of these two surveys. Part 2 includes seven papers on marriage and family trends. In Part 3, eight papers on the demographic consequences of these changes are presented. Part 4 contains six papers on the family in Canada in the international context. Papers are in English or in French.
Correspondence: Royal Society of Canada, 207 Queen, P.O. Box 9734, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 0A0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40416 Lengsfeld, Wolfgang; Linke, Wilfried; Pohl, Katharina. Family formation in the Federal Republic of Germany: results of the panel study of the Federal Institute for Population Research. [Familienbildung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Ergebnisse der Panelstudie des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 17, ISBN 3-7646-1869-8. 1989. vii, 262 pp. Harald Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"For this long-term study, a sample...of the marriage cohort 1974/75 [in the Federal Republic of Germany] was interviewed five times in succession at two year intervals. The questions referred to their fertility aspirations, the number of children, the dwelling situation, the daily routine of housewives..., economic activity, their expectations concerning family and social policy, their plans for the future and problems in the past....This volume primarily attempts to deduce from the characteristics covered [the] differences in the reasons given for the individual family sizes." The authors find "that the extent to which the partners agree on the...[significance] to be attached to marriage and family...is decisive for the process of family formation, and that the choice of the partner already largely determines the number of children a couple is going to have."
Correspondence: Harald Boldt-Verlag, Am Alten Sportplatz, Postfach 110, D-5407 Boppard am Rhein, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40417 Makhlouf, Hesham H.; Farahat, Ahmed M. A micro-economic analysis of the determinants of fertility. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, Dec 1985. 54-68 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
A microeconomic analysis of the concept of child value is presented, with a view toward understanding the determinants of fertility. A couple's expectations and perceptions about the resource requirements for childbearing are analyzed for their impact on family size decision making.
Correspondence: H. H. Makhlouf, Cairo University, Institute of Statistical Studies and Research, Orman, Giza, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40418 Manniche, Erik. The family in Denmark. 2nd rev. ed. ISBN 91-506-0722-7. 1989. 104 pp. Uppsala University, Family Study Center: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
"This volume on the Danish family is intended as an introduction for non-Scandinavian especially overseas students. It begins with a general description that also touches upon the history of family and social life in Denmark; and it gives a very brief statement of basic elements in Danish family law. This description is followed by quantitatively oriented presentations of some areas of family life that in recent years have undergone considerable change, viz., marriage rates and non-married cohabitation, reproduction, divorce, contraception (family planning) and induced abortion."
For a previous edition, published in 1985, see 54:30400.
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, Family Study Center, Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40419 Maxwell, Gabrielle M. Changing family structures: 1971-1986. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jul 1989. 17-46 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper describes the changes that have occurred in [New Zealand's] household structure over the last 15 years, by examining the public statistics. The factors underlying the changing patterns are analysed by examining the data on births, marriages and family breakdown. Maori and Pacific Island Polynesian patterns are compared with the total population picture. Additional social statistics add to the picture of the differences between cultures. Finally, some of the social consequences of the changes in family structure are discussed."
Correspondence: G. M. Maxwell, Department of Justice, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40420 McDonald, Peter. Ethnic family structure. Family Matters, No. 23, Apr 1989. 38-45 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The author studies ethnic differences in family structure and the process of acculturation among migrants to Australia. Data are from official sources and from other studies.
Correspondence: P. McDonald, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 300 Queen Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40421 Morrissey, Marietta. Female-headed households in Latin America and the Caribbean. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jul 1989. 197-210 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Twenty-five Caribbean and Latin American nations were examined to determine the relationship between potential female headed families and other social indicators. Regression analysis reveals that women's labor market participation is associated with the proportion of families potentially headed by women. The share of girls in secondary school is also associated with the dependent variable. Social indicators of modernization and dependency were regressed on potential female-headed households. Neither approach alone explains the formation of female-headed families in the region."
Correspondence: M. Morrissey, Texas Tech University, Department of Sociology, Box 4590, Lubbock, TX 79409-4590. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40422 Patarra, Neide L.; Baeninger, Rosana. The family in demographic transition: the case of Sao Paulo. [Familia na transicao demografica: o caso de Sao Paulo.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1988. 35-61 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The authors explore the relationship between the demographic transition and socioeconomic development and investigate its effect on the family in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1900 to the present. Changes in family characteristics over time among different social groups are analyzed. The impact of migration on these shifts is also considered.
Correspondence: N. L. Patarra, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Cidade Universitaria Zeferina Vaz, CP 1170, 13100 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40423 Ritamies, Marketta. Persons living alone in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 27, 1989. 29-40 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This article examines the characteristics of persons living alone in Finland primarily on the basis of official statistics exhibiting demographic, regional and socioeconomic features....Living alone has been [described as a] one-person household. Characteristics used are sex, age, marital status, urban and rural distribution, socioeconomic status, occupation, income and housing. The article ends with a...[discussion concerning] the development of one-person households and the reasons for living alone."
Correspondence: M. Ritamies, Population Research Institute, Vaestoliitto, Kalevankatu 16, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40424 Saluter, Arlene F. Changes in American family life. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 163, Aug 1989. 30 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report provides a graphic overview of recent trends in the lifestyles of Americans. Overall, these trends indicate a movement away from 'traditional' family living. These include the high rates of marital disruption, the delay in marriage among young adults, and the increasing tendency for people to live in households either alone or with other people not conventionally related to them....The...charts, with their limited commentary, summarize major trends and focus expressly on families with children present. Data are also presented on other types of families, households, and living arrangements so that trends affecting our children and families can be interpreted in a more complete context."
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40425 Sangoi, Jean-Claude. The transmission of first names and social reproduction in Bas-Quercy during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. [Transmission des prenoms et reproduction sociale en Bas-Quercy, XVIIIe-XIXe siecles.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 263-94 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The choice of first names for children in the Bas-Quercy region of France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is studied as a means of analyzing the continuation of the stem family system in the region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40426 Sarkar, B. N. Distribution of households by family type composition (in rural areas of Bihar and West Bengal). In: Changing perspectives of anthropology in India. 1989. 267-84 pp. Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines family composition in rural areas of India, with a focus on changes from extended to nuclear family type. Determinants of family structure change are life events, including marriage and death; socioeconomic factors, including social status and caste; and geographic region. Data are from official Indian sources for the years 1978, 1980, and 1983.
Correspondence: B. N. Sarkar, Indian Statistical Institute, Demography Research Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40427 Schwarz, Karl. When do children leave their parental home? Observation of the life course by birth cohorts for the period 1972-1987. [Wann verlassen die Kinder das Elternhaus? Lebenslaufbeobachtungen nach Geburtsjahrgangen fur den Zeitraum 1972-1987.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1989. 39-58 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in the age of both children and parents at the time children leave their parental home are analyzed. Using the 1972-1987 microcensus for the Federal Republic of Germany, the author finds that such a move generally occurs around age 25 for children and that this delay is affected by trends in extended education and marriage postponement. Due to a wide range of parental ages, a common life course is not described.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40428 Shamgar-Handelman, Lea; Palomba, Rossella. Alternative patterns of family life in modern societies. Collana Monografie, No. 1, 1987. 519 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors examining aspects of recent developments affecting the family and alternative family models. It is a product of a seminar held in Israel in June 1986 and is the result of a cooperative venture between the Italian Institute for Population Research of the National Council of Research in Rome and the NCJW Research Institute for Innovation in Education in the School of Education of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The 28 papers are presented under subject headings that concern construction and reconstruction of family boundaries, variations in structure and relationships within the family, and negotiation of mutual rights and obligations between family and society. The geographical focus is generally on developed countries.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40429 Sivamurthy, M. Household headship in India: trends and implications. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 4, Jun 1988. 3-11 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Differences in size and composition of households headed by women and by men are compared for India using data from the 1961, 1971, and 1981 censuses. Age of the head of the household and urban and rural differentials are also compared.
Correspondence: M. Sivamurthy, Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40430 Wedel, Edgar. Households, 1987--method and results of the population census. [Haushalte 1987--Methode und Ergebnis der Volkszahlung.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 5, May 1989. 273-6 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The method used to define households in the 1987 census of the Federal Republic of Germany is discussed. Preliminary results concerning the number and size of households are then presented for the country as a whole and for individual states.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40431 Wolf, Douglas A. Kinship patterns and household composition: older unmarried Hungarian women, 1984. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 4, Jul 1989. 315-37 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Household composition of older unmarried women in Hungary is analyzed using data from the 1984 microcensus....A multinomial logit model distinguishing among five household types reveals that number of children, severe disabilities, age and income are all strongly related to household composition. Trends in fertility and mortality patterns suggest that kinship patterns will change in coming years; these results imply that household composition will, in turn, change as well."
Correspondence: D. A. Wolf, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40432 Zhou, Jing. The size, type, and structure of rural families in the course of modernization in China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, 1988. 17-20 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Trends in rural family size and structure in China are analyzed using data from a household survey conducted in 1986 among 508 families in Jiao county, Shandong province. The results indicate that family size has remained constant at around 4.48 family members from 1980 to 1986. A general trend toward the nuclear family is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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