Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

55:40036 Adibi, Hossein. Population redistribution in Iran: the case of Kermanshah city. Urban Geography, Vol. 10, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 270-81 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Since 1979, when the new government came to power in Iran, there have been fundamental structural changes in Iranian society. The focus of this essay is on the pronounced redistribution of population, which has taken place largely as a result of the new Iranian government's policy favouring rural-urban migration." The author notes that the government has promised to provide urban migrants with housing facilities, including urban land and housing loans. "This has caused a mass migration of rural settlers to the cities. In order to examine different aspects of how this redistribution has occurred, it will be useful to study in detail what has taken place in one city affected by the changes. The city of Kermanshah will be considered here as such a case study."
Correspondence: H. Adibi, Flinders University of South Australia, Department of Sociology, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:40037 Del-Cid, Jose R. Populating a green desert: population policy and development. Their effect on population redistribution. Honduras, 1876-1980. Pub. Order No. DA8909645. 1988. 379 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The relationships among population distribution and population and development policy in Honduras during the years 1876-1980 are explored. The author identifies two types of development options, "the enclave and a more integrated way of development. The central tenet of this dissertation is that the style of development conditions the pace and course of population redistribution although government intervention may modify this relationship."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(2).

55:40038 Jiang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Wenxian. The economic law of population distribution and migration. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1989. 5-12 pp. Bradford, England. In Eng.
"The economic law of population distribution and migration has been studied chiefly based on the Chinese situation. The distribution and development of productive forces decide the distribution and migration of population, and in turn, the latter influences the former. The population distributions in three different stages of social development, namely agricultural, industrial and information society, are described. A new concept in population economics is introduced, i.e. population economic density, which is different from the concept of population density. The formula of population economic density is P(population)/R(resources). Many kinds of migration are analysed, and it is believed that the main efficient cause of migration is economy."
Correspondence: X. Jiang, McGill University, 845 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40039 Napolitano, Pierpaulo. On the analysis of population distribution over a predetermined territory. [Sul metodo di analisi delle distribuzioni di popolazioni su un territorio prefisso.] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 153-65 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Methods for analyzing spatial distribution over a predetermined territory using computer-generated statistical maps are discussed. Some properties of an index of dissimilarity based on distance are discussed.
Correspondence: P. Napolitano, Istituto Centrale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 16, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

55:40040 Andersson, Roger. The urbanization of Sweden: the contextualization of concepts and processes. [Den svenska urbaniseringen: kontextualisering av begrepp och processer.] Geografiska Regionstudier, No. 18, ISBN 91-506-0640-9. LC 88-110247. 1987. xiv, 279 pp. Uppsala Universitet, Kulturgeografiska Institutionen: Uppsala, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
Urbanization in Sweden over the last 120 years is explored within theoretical and empirical contexts. The first part of the study is a general review of research in urbanization and the second part focuses on Swedish urbanization. The author hypothesizes that the causes of Swedish urbanization should be examined in the context of industrial capitalism and the development of wage labor. Urbanization in two regions is then studied in detail. The study concludes by examining individuals in the urbanization process. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of urbanization is stressed.
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Box 554, S-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40041 Cilliers, S. P. Managing rapid urbanisation. Department of Sociology Occasional Paper, No. 13, ISBN 0-908422-81-4. Jun 1989. 26 pp. University of Stellenbosch, Department of Sociology, Research Unit for Sociology of Development: Stellenbosch, South Africa. In Eng.
The management of current and future urbanization trends in South Africa is explored. Consideration is given to the nature and scope of urbanization, factors determining the rate and pattern of migration, state actions affecting urbanization, problems posed by rapid urbanization, and the development of a national urbanization strategy. The author concludes that policymakers must accept South Africa's status as a developing country and incorporate all sectors of the population into solving the nation's urbanization problems.
Correspondence: University of Stellenbosch, Department of Sociology, Research Unit for Sociology of Development, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40042 Clayton, Elizabeth; Richardson, Thomas. Soviet control of city size. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 38, No. 1, Oct 1989. 155-65 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Restrictive policies on domestic migration in the USSR and their role in preventing excessive urbanization are discussed. The authors first describe the policy tools that the Soviet government has used to control city size. They then test how effective Soviet policy has been by comparing the actual distribution of Soviet city sizes to a distribution estimated by the rank-size rule. A concluding section evaluates current Soviet strategy in this area.
Correspondence: E. Clayton, University of Missouri, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:40043 Dasgupta, Biplab. Urbanization, migration and rural change: a study of West Bengal. LC 88-900967. 1988. 523 pp. A. Mukherjee: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers by Indian scholars from various disciplines on aspects of urbanization in the Indian state of West Bengal. Several of the 21 papers included examine the links between urban development and rural change. Topics covered include rural-urban migration, industrialization, the distribution of health and educational facilities, administrative and financial aspects, and other development-related issues. Several case studies on individual towns are also included.
Correspondence: A. Mukherjee and Co. Pvt. Ltd., 2 Bankim Chatterjee Street, Calcutta 700 073, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40044 Drakakis-Smith, David. Urbanisation in the developing world. ISBN 0-7099-0884-9. LC 86-4551. 1986. 265 pp. Croom Helm: Dover, New Hampshire/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 12 papers presented at a symposium held in Lille, France, in August 1984 on aspects of urbanization in developing countries. The first section contains five papers on theoretical aspects of urbanization, including the study of urbanization in Latin America, capital networks, the international financial system, the international division of labor, and labor migration. There are seven papers on historical or empirical topics in the second section, concerning Southeast Asia, Zimbabwe, Turkey, the Ivory Coast, and South Africa.
Correspondence: Croom Helm, Provident House, Burrell Row, Beckenham, Kent BR3 1AT, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40045 Driessen, B. G. J.; Verhoeff, R.; ter Welle-Heethuis, J. G. P. Population development and policy: an overview of autonomous and nonautonomous population development in the western urban developments of Arnhem and Utrecht. [Overheid en bevolkingsontwikkelingen; een onderzoek naar autonome en niet-autonome bevolkingsontwikkelingen in de stadsgewesten Arnhem en Utrecht.] Nederlandse Geografische Studies, No. 54, ISBN 90-6809-064-X. LC 89-104353. 1987. 160 pp. Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap: Amsterdam, Netherlands; Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Geografisch Instituut: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Population trends in the main urban areas of Utrecht and Arnhem in the Netherlands are examined for the period 1960-1984. The authors analyze the cyclical aspects of population trends, the relationship among population trends and the physical and social characteristics of spatial considerations, and the extent to which population trends are influenced by policy.
Correspondence: Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Weteringschans 12, NL-1017 SG Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40046 Gu, Baochang. On the development of the city system of China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, May 29, 1988. 3-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Urbanization in China for the period 1922-1982 is studied with the use of a city-size index formulated by the author. Regional variations in city size and urban spatial distribution are compared. Data are from censuses and other official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40047 Kozhukhov, Yu. S. Basic natural regularities in the location of the urban population of the USSR. [Osnovnye prirodnye zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya gorodskogo naseleniya SSSR.] Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Seriya 5: Geografiya, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 14-23 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The distribution of the urban population in the USSR is analyzed, with particular reference to natural features in mountainous and steppe regions. Factors affecting the location and distribution of urban populations are identified, and their relevance to the forecasting of future urban trends is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:40048 Luo, Maochu. A review and evaluation of China's policy of developing small cities and towns. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1988. 14-27 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author describes China's urbanization policy for the development of small towns and cities, the background of the policy, and its goals. Successes and problems are analyzed based on data from the period 1978-1985. The impact of urbanization on economic development is also discussed.
Correspondence: M. Luo, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40049 Mason, John P. The role of urbanization in national development: bridging the rural-urban divide. AID Program Evaluation Discussion Paper, No. 27, Jul 1989. [62] pp. U.S. Agency for International Development [AID]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A primary purpose of this report is to stimulate within the U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) a discussion on urbanization in developing countries and the importance urbanization can play in shaping national economic growth and development....This report argues that urbanization in developing countries falls along a continuum between extreme types. Type 1 occurs when overall national economic growth and development are present. Type 2 occurs when there is inadequate overall growth, even underdevelopment." Selected developing countries are analyzed according to this continuum. The author then discusses factors affecting urbanization, with a focus on socioeconomic conditions, national policies, rural-urban migration, and rural-urban linkages.
Correspondence: U.S. AID, Document and Information Handling Facility, 7222 47th Street, Suite 102, Chevy Chase, MD 20815-6019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40050 Papail, Jean; Picquet, Michel. Cities and oil. Historical and prospective aspects of the urban population of Venezuela. [Ciudades y petroleo. Aspectos historicos y prospectivos de la poblacion urbana de Venezuela.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1989. 161-96, 217 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors present a historical overview of urbanization in Venezuela. The impact of the oil economy on population change and spatial distribution is emphasized. A typology of cities based on socioeconomic function and on a demographic classification of urban centers is devised. Future trends in urbanization are also considered.
Correspondence: J. Papail, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, 70 route d'Aulnay, F-93140 Bondy, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40051 Portes, Alejandro. Latin American urbanization during the years of the crisis. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1989. 7-44 pp. Albuquerque, New Mexico. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to review recent trends in the process of urbanization in major Latin American cities." Particular attention is paid to accelerating primacy, the spatial polarization of social classes, and high levels of informal employment. The author also explores the extent to which these characteristics are peculiar to Latin America and whether they are common throughout the region or are specific to certain countries.
Correspondence: A. Portes, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40052 Shorter, Frederic. Cairo's leap forward: people, households, and dwelling space. Cairo Papers in Social Science, Vol. 12, No. 1, ISBN 977-424-215-7. Spring 1989. iv, 60 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the demographic transition that occurred in Cairo, Egypt, after the end of World War II to 1986, with particular emphasis on the period 1960-1985. Topics covered include population size; urban growth; migration, fertility, and mortality trends; and family and household formation. Social class differentials in these areas are presented. The author discusses population projections and their impact on housing, employment, and education.
Correspondence: American University in Cairo Press, Cairo Papers in Social Science (DEPT. M), P.O. Box 2511, 113 Sharia Kasr el Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40053 Song, Ding. A brief analysis of the characteristics of the urban population. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 1, Jan 29, 1988. 19-22 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Characteristics of China's urban population are described. These include high population density, significant levels of heterogeneity, and frequent mobility. The problems of having a large transient population in urban areas are considered. Comparisons are made with rural population characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40054 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Jakarta. Population Policy Paper, No. 18; ST/ESA/SER.R/86, 1989. vii, 46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series on population policies and planning issues in the mega-cities of the developing world. The focus is on the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies designed to improve the standard of living and quality of life in the world's largest cities. The present study concerns the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. A chapter on demographic characteristics examines population growth, migration, and population projections.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40055 Valero Lobo, Angeles. The Spanish urban system in the second half of the nineteenth century. [El sistema urbano espanol en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1989. 7-29 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Trends in urbanization in Spain from 1860 to 1900 are analyzed. The focus is on changes in relationships among large, medium-sized, and small urban areas over time, which are studied using a rank-size model.
Correspondence: A. Valero Lobo, Universidad Complutense, Facultad de Ciencias Politicas y Sociologia, Campus de Somosaguas, 28023 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40056 Xu, Bingxuan. The characteristics of migration and the measures being taken to control it in Beijing. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, 1988. 28-31 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Migration to Beijing from other parts of China is analyzed using data from a survey conducted in 1985 of 6,339 migrants in Beijing. The characteristics of migrants to the city are described. The author also describes measures being taken to control the size of the city's population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40057 Yatmanova, V. V. On new trends in the distribution of urban population in the United States. [O novykh tendentsiyakh razmeshcheniya urbanizirovannogo naseleniya SShA.] Izvestiya Vsesoyuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, Vol. 120, No. 4, 1988. 381-7 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in urbanization in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s are reviewed, based on secondary data sources. The author considers both movements between urban areas and the surrounding suburbs and movements between major urban regions.
Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

55:40058 Zevelyov, Igor. Urbanization and development in Asia. ISBN 5-01-001123-9. 1989. 88 pp. Progress Publishers: Moscow, USSR. In Eng.
In this study, which is translated from the original Russian, the author analyzes the causes and consequences of recent urbanization in Asia and Northern Africa. Chapters are included on the nature and determinants of urban growth and the role of urbanization in the development process, the causes of rural-urban migration and urban migrant characteristics, and the role of urbanization in social development. Data are from published sources.
Correspondence: Progress Publishers, Zubovskii bul. 17, 119847 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

55:40059 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Brown, David L.; Beale, Calvin L. Rural and small town America. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-272-2. LC 89-10067. 1989. xxvii, 471 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, conducted for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is one in a series presenting analyses of data from the 1980 U.S. census. This volume provides a detailed picture of rural America and includes chapters on population distribution; small-town growth and population dispersal; age and sex composition; race and ethnicity; household growth and structure; fertility; labor force and employment; industrial structure and change; the farm population; income and poverty; characteristics of cities, towns, and rural areas; and the persisting importance of residence. "The authors find that size of place is a critical demographic factor, affecting population composition..., the distribution of poverty..., and employment opportunities....Pointing out that rural life is no longer synonymous with farming, they explore variations among nonmetropolitan populations. They also trace the impact of major national trends--the nonmetropolitan growth spurt of the 1970s and its current reversal, for example, or changing fertility rates--on rural life and on the relationship between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan communities."
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40060 Garkovich, Lorraine. Population and community in rural America. Contributions in Sociology, No. 84, ISBN 0-313-26620-4. LC 89-11802. 1989. xvi, 235 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The relationships among migration and the other components of population change and their joint effect on the structure of the rural population of the United States are analyzed in this volume. The first two chapters describe various theoretical and methodological issues; review major social, economic, and political events of the three historical eras of rural population change; and consider the social environment within which the changes occurred. Chapters 3 through 6 detail rural population changes, including major migration streams and the factors and outcomes associated with, or attributable to, these movements. Chapter 7 analyzes institutional forces that have affected both the study and interpretation of rural population change. A final chapter summarizes major changes in rural America, explains how migration continues to shape current rural populations, and identifies critical issues for future migration research.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40061 Johnson, Kenneth M. Recent population redistribution trends in nonmetropolitan America. Rural Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1989. 301-26 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This paper examines recent nonmetropolitan population redistribution trends [in the United States] and places them in historical context. Between 1980 and 1987, nonmetropolitan areas grew by 4 percent despite a slight migration loss. Metropolitan growth rates again exceeded those in nonmetropolitan areas during the period in sharp contrast to the trend of the 1970s. The nonmetropolitan population and migration gains between 1980 and 1987 are neither as large nor widespread as those during the 1970s, but they are quite substantial by any historical standard. There is little evidence in the data for the 1980s suggesting a return to an era of substantial outmigration."
Correspondence: K. M. Johnson, Loyola University, Department of Sociology, Chicago, IL 60626. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40062 Markov, E. M.; Butuzova, V. P.; Taratynov, V. A.; Musatov, V. V. The urban foundations of the development of small settlements: rural settlements and city centers in the Russian SFSR. [Gradostroitel'nye osnovy razvitiya malykh naselennykh mest: sel'skoe rasselenie i goroda-tsentry Nechernozemnoi zony RSFSR.] ISBN 5-274-00600-0. 1989. 416 pp. Stroiizdat: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Methodological and theoretical principles involved in the location of small towns and villages in the Russian SFSR are examined. The authors investigate the current and past development of small settlements, evaluate the negative aspects of that process, and propose means of overcoming them. Trends in the interrelated development of rural and urban areas are analyzed, with a focus on new forms of settlements.
Correspondence: Stroiizdat Izdatel'stvo, ul. Gogoliya 8, Leningrad, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

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