Volume 55 - Number 3 - Fall 1989

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

55:30604 Akimov, A. V. An economic-demographic model for global population projection. [Ekonomiko-demograficheskaya model' dlya global'nogo demograficheskogo prognozirovaniya.] In: Metody issledovaniya, edited by A. G. Vishnevskii. 1986. 151-69, 182 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents a model for projection of worldwide trends in demographic development. The model takes into account past experience concerning the demographic transition as well as the impact of socioeconomic factors on future demographic trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30605 Boulding, Kenneth E. Population factors in development economics. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 262-80 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author traces the role of population factors in economic development theory from Adam Smith to the present day. The essay is divided into three main sections on the conditions for economic development, the reliance on equilibrium theory when development is in disequilibrium, and new approaches in development economics.
Correspondence: K. E. Boulding, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

55:30606 Astorga Almanza, Luis A. Genealogy and criticism of "population policies" in Mexico. [Genealogia y critica de la "politica de poblacion" en Mexico.] Cuadernos de Investigacion Social, No. 16, 1987. 153 pp. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author describes the change in values and attitudes in the field of demographic research in Mexico over the past 30 years. He notes a shift from a general agreement that population growth was desirable to a growing consensus that the rate of population growth has to be reduced if the country is to achieve its objectives in social and economic development.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City D.F., Mexico. Location: New York Public Library.

55:30607 Hess, Peter N. Static and dynamic cross-sections: inferences for the contemporary fertility transition. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-17, May 1988. 25 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"A simple two equation simultaneous model for aggregate fertility change and economic growth is estimated for a cross-section of 57 developing nations. Static and dynamic versions of the sample are compared. Regression diagnostics are applied to both sets of estimations to assess the sensitivity of the results to multicollinearity and to identify outlier nations. The conclusion reached is that there are significant differences between the static and dynamic versions of the model. Thus caution is warranted with respect to purely static analyses of the contemporary fertility transition."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 489).
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30608 MacNeill, Jim. Strategies for sustainable economic development. Scientific American, Vol. 261, No. 3, Sep 1989. 154-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established by the United Nations in 1983, and discusses economic development and ways in which it can be reconciled with environmental needs. Consideration is given to poverty, debt, and financial flows in developing countries; resource dependence in the third world; the cost of achieving sustainable development; and the impact of military spending on human welfare and natural resource protection budgeting.
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

55:30609 Mehta, Swarnjit; Mehta, H. S. Political economy of population growth. Population Geography, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1987. 1-15 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of [the] Malthusian model during the period of de-colonisation and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in...developing and developed countries." The authors briefly examine trends in the birth rate in India, China, and Japan, and then provide a more detailed analysis of population growth in India.
Correspondence: S. Mehta, Department of Geography, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30610 Nuqui, Wilfredo G. The Philippine development plan, population program and poverty alleviation. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 51, Apr 1989. v, 45 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The objectives of this paper are: to examine the various aspects and dimensions of Philippine poverty within the context of the Philippine Development Plan and the National Population Program, and to identify issues and areas of concern where policy intervention, program changes, and other actions are needed to attain poverty alleviation and population growth targets in the development process." The author makes recommendations concerning changes in macroeconomic structure, agrarian systems, debt reduction programs, fertility reduction measures, and education, health, and nutrition services.
Correspondence: Population Research Institute, Nihon University, 3-2, Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30611 Okita, Saburo. Economic development and population. Populi, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1989. 48-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an excerpt from a lecture in honor of Rafael M. Salas, founder of the United Nations Population Fund. The author discusses population and development in light of the Japanese experience and compares this with the situation in developing countries. Six factors are identified as being important in reducing the birth rate in currently developing countries: "broad-based primary education, an increase in the income level, improved nutrition, a decline in infant mortality, a rise in the social position of women and decisive governmental action in population policies." Also discussed are the global environment and its interrelationship with development.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30612 Ratcliffe, John W. China's population policies: attempting to "resolve the wrong problem"? [Les politique chinoises de population: essai pour "resoudre le faux probleme"?] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 3, No. 4, Mar 1989. 5-88 pp. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The hypothesis is developed that international efforts to resolve population problems have failed because of two basic misconceptions. The first concerns how the population problem has been defined, and the second concerns the nature of the relationship thought to exist between population factors and the process of socioeconomic development. The example of China is used to illustrate the hypothesis. The author suggests that the path to reductions in fertility lies through the successful achievement of social development, which would improve the general quality of life and in turn lead to the desire for fewer children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30613 Ruiz, Lucia; Bilsborrow, Richard. Demographic effect of rural development projects: a case study of Ecuador. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-26, Sep 1988. 25, 2, [6] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors examine several integrated rural development projects in Ecuador and assess their demographic effects. It is noted that the aim of Ecuador's rural development policy is to reduce mortality, fertility, and rural-urban migration and to promote economic and social development. Data were collected from projects begun during the period 1981-1985.
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30614 Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina. The agricultural production and income of wives left in charge of farming in Nyeri, Kenya. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.1.47-60 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author compares the agricultural productivity of female and male farmers in Kenya. Due to extensive male labor migration, women in rural Kenya are often left to run the farm. Using data collected in a small rural village during 1985 and 1986, the author finds that "men's and women's agricultural productivity and income depend more on the institutional conditions prevailing in the area than upon the gender of the farmer."
Correspondence: C. Safilios-Rothschild, 240 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30615 Seoane, Marta H. Demographic factors in Argentine development: a comparative analysis with Canada and Australia. 1988. University of Southern California: Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This dissertation deals with the possible effect of demographic factors in the development of Argentina. For this purpose, Argentina is compared with two other New World countries--Canada and Australia--which are roughly similar in basic resources, European background, and timing of settlement. It is found that historically, especially during the period from 1850 to 1930, Argentina had a higher birth rate, a higher rate of natural increase, and a greater rate of migration than the other two countries had. As a consequence it had a more rapid increase of population and as of 1986 had 5.029 million more people than Canada and 14.786 million more than Australia." Consideration is given to population sizes, migration, labor force, income, infant mortality, education, and the overall development of Argentina. The author develops the hypothesis that Argentina has placed emphasis on expansion of population numbers rather than on improving the quality of the labor force, and that this has had an impact on the rate of economic development.
Correspondence: Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0892. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30616 Sharma, Miriam; Vanjani, Urmila. Women's work is never done: dairy 'development' and health in the lives of rural women in Rajasthan. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 17, Apr 29, 1989. WS 38-44 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of a governmental dairy development project on the lives of poor women in a rural Indian village. "A description of Shankpur village also looks at patterns of women's work and their general health. A third section details the dairy 'camp' and events that transpired during the training. The next analyses the implementation of the scheme within the realities of women's existence, while the conclusion presents a critical assessment of its implications for women's work, health, and development."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30617 Srinivasan, K. Developmental and demographic changes in India since independence. LC 88-900526. 1987. iv, 34, [7] pp. J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research: Dharwad, India. In Eng.
Socioeconomic development and demographic trends in India since independece in 1947 are reviewed. Comparisons are made with 12 other large developing countries. The author concludes that the country has been relatively more successful in influencing demographic change than in achieving satisfactory levels of development.
Correspondence: J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30618 Tabbarah, Riad. Human resources development and its population dimension in the Arab world. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 32, Jun 1988. 3-29 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"After tracing the genesis and evolution of human resources development and its role in economic development, the study provides a definition of this multi-disciplinary concept at the micro and macro level. It goes on to describe the human resources situation [specifically population growth and distribution and international migration] in the Arab world at the macro-level and stresses that, in the context of underdevelopment, strict economic criteria should not be applied to human resources development. Finally, the study outlines a number of urgent measures that need to be undertaken in the Arab region."
Correspondence: R. Tabbarah, Social Development and Population Division, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, P.O. Box 27, Baghdad, Iraq. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30619 Weeks, John. Economic crisis and household survival strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.1.21-45 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The argument of this paper is that for the last two decades the monetary sectors of African economies have been constrained by export demand. So severe has been the constraint that the monetary sectors have in several cases virtually collapsed. This collapse has driven households, both urban and rural to subsistence production. The constraints on subsistence production in urban areas [have] had the effect of de-urbanizing urban areas, in the sense of stimulating links to rural areas through extended families and expanding urban agriculture. It is a mistake to view these changes as bringing about allocative efficiency. So severe has been the African economic crisis that the [Sub-Saharan] region is in a process of economic reversion (of 'involution'), which is in its essence not merely economic decline but a process of de-modernization and underdeveloping."
Correspondence: J. Weeks, Economics Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

55:30620 Auerbach, Alan J.; Kotlikoff, Laurence J.; Hagemann, Robert; Nicoletti, Giuseppe. The dynamics of an aging population: the case of four OECD countries. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 2797, 1989. 34, [19] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
A demographic simulation model is used to examine the effects of impending demographic changes, particularly demographic aging, in Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, and the United States. "The simulation results indicate that these changes will have a major impact on rates of national saving, real wage rate and current accounts. One of this paper's fundamental lessons is that allowing for general equilibrium adjustments reduces the adverse welfare effects of increasing dependency ratios. Nevertheless, the welfare costs, and particularly their distributions across cohorts, pose serious challenges for policy makers in some cases."
Correspondence: NBER, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

55:30621 Chaloupek, Gunther; Lamel, Joachim; Richter, Josef. Population decline and the economy: scenarios for Austria up to 2051. [Bevolkerungsruckgang und Wirtschaft: Szenarien bis 2051 fur Osterreich.] Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beitrage, No. 4, ISBN 3-7908-0400-2. LC 88-154239. 1988. vi, 470 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collective work in which a number of different scholars examine aspects of projected population trends in Austria up to the year 2051, with particular reference to their implications for the country's economy. Consideration is also given to the financial implications of demographic trends such as demographic aging and their effects on pensions, intergenerational transfers, and public expenditures for health and education. With regard to the impact of demographic changes on employment, the study considers the decline in both the demand for and the supply of labor. It is concluded that all likely scenarios lead to a loss in overall economic welfare in terms of national accounts. The political choices available to mitigate the effect of this loss, such as a change in retirement age or an increase in immigration, are discussed.
Correspondence: Physica-Verlag GmbH, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30622 Karaman, Igor. The beginnings of the demographic transition in Croatia and its socioeconomic foundations (until 1918). [Poceci tranzicije stanovnistva u Hrvatskoj i njihova socioekonomska osnova (do 1918).] Sociologija Sela, Vol. 24, No. 91-94, 1986. 63-78 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This is a historical survey of the process of modernization and the formulation of political and economic systems in Croatia, Yugoslavia, from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Population dynamics and concurrent demographic transitions are addressed.
Correspondence: I. Karaman, Faculty of Economics, University of Zagreb, Trg Marsala Tita 14, POB 815, 4100 Zagreb, Yogoslavia. Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

55:30623 Martin, Linda G. The graying of Japan. Population Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jul 1989. 43 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Current trends and future prospects concerning demographic aging in Japan are reviewed. The author notes that although family support for the elderly has been strong traditionally, the recent decline in parental coresidence with children indicates a change in such support. The government's attempts to encourage employment of the elderly and to raise the pension eligibility age are also described. It is concluded that demographic aging is unlikely to lead to economic decline, as restructuring of the economy and overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

55:30624 Andel, Jiri. Searching for the connections between the quality of the environment and selected demographic characteristics. [Hledani souvislosti mezi kvalitou zivotniho prostredi a vybranymi demografickymi charakteristikami.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1989. 105-16 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationship between changes in demographic variables and the deterioration of the environment is explored. The data concern the North Bohemian region of Czechoslovakia, the area with the most damaged environment, as well as the Czech part of Czechoslovakia. The results show that environmental deterioration has a negative effect on total mortality, infant mortality, health-related migration, and abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30625 Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Stupp, Paul W. The effects of population growth on agriculture in Guatemala. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-24, Sep 1988. 20, 3, 6 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper has been to stimulate recognition of the key linkages between population growth/distribution and agriculture, including environmental stress, based on an overview of the situation in Central America, particularly Guatemala. [The authors describe] four problem areas...(1) growing lack of food security and dependence on imports, (2) increasing land fragmentation and rural poverty, (3) rural underemployment and out-migration, and (4) deforestation and environmental stress in rural areas." Policy problems are also examined.
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30626 Davis, Kingsley; Bernstam, Mikhail S.; Sellers, Helen M. Population and resources in a changing world: current readings. LC 89-60189. 1989. xii, 532 pp. Stanford University, Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies: Stanford, California. In Eng.
This is a collection of 37 articles published primarily in the last three years on the interrelationship between population and resources. The first section includes four papers on population theory and demographic trends. In the second section, demographic aspects are examined, including projections, fertility, age structure, and urbanization. Resources relevant to population are then discussed, with separate consideration given to energy, fresh water, land, food, biological resources, and the atmosphere. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 95305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30627 Diejomaoh, Vremudia P. Population growth, land use, and food self-sufficiency in Africa: an overview. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.2.1-21 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper we shall attempt to relate the issue of population growth in Africa to the question of food self-sufficiency with emphasis on the links between population growth and land use, and between land use and the food self-sufficiency objective." Sections are included on past trends in food production and food self-sufficiency in relation to population growth and the African drought and famine, changes in land use patterns, and the possibility of future African food self-sufficiency.
Correspondence: V. P. Diejomaoh, ILO/Jobs and Skills Programme for Africa, POB 2788, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30628 Kidane, Asmerom. Demographic consequences of the 1984-1985 Ethiopian famine. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 515-22 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article analyzes demographic responses to the 1984-1985 Ethiopian famine and compares them with Bongaarts and Cain's (1982) hypothesized responses. After briefly describing the data collection, I estimate the age distribution and the age-specific mortality and fertility rates of Ethiopian famine victims in a resettlement area and compare these with mortality estimates for the 1972-1973 Bangladesh famine and with fertility estimates from the 1981 Ethiopian demographic survey. The results show that the mortality rate among Ethiopian famine victims was about seven times higher than the rate among the Bangladesh victims and that the Ethiopian famine-related mortality was general and not a function of household socioeconomic variables. The data also show a 26 percent lower total fertility rate among famine victims."
For the article by John Bongaarts and Mead Cain, published in 1982, see 48:10730.
Correspondence: A. Kidane, Department of Statistics, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30629 Kneese, Allen V. The economics of natural resources. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 281-309 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to theoretical aspects of natural resource economics. The author notes that an interdisciplinary approach is necessary to the study of the use and abuse of natural resources.
Correspondence: A. V. Kneese, Resources for the Future, 1755 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30630 Mellor, John W. The intertwining of environmental problems and poverty. Environment, Vol. 30, No. 9, Nov 1988. 8-13, 28-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The close link between environmental problems and poverty in developing countries is reviewed, with particular reference to the impact of growing populations on the environment. Separate consideration is given to the relationships between population and income and between poverty and health.
Correspondence: J. W. Mellor, International Food Policy Research Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

55:30631 Simon, Julian L. Lebensraum. Paradoxically, population growth may eventually end wars. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 33, No. 1, Mar 1989. 164-80 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
It is argued that population growth may eventually end wars by "progressively [reducing] one of the motives for making war. Namely, population growth threatens shortages of resources, and especially land. Impending shortages cause a search for ways to mitigate the shortages. The discoveries eventually produce greater availability of resources than if population growth and pressure on resources had never occurred. The argument runs as follows: (1) Rhetoric about resource scarcity induced by population density has often contributed to international conflict, even if economics has not been the main motive in making war. (2) In the pre-modern era, war to obtain land and other natural resources may sometimes have been an economically sound policy. (3) Politicians and others in industrially developed nations believe resources may still be a casus belli. (4) Land and other productive resources are no longer worth acquiring at the cost of war."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30632 Teitelbaum, Michael S.; Winter, Jay M. Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions. ISBN 0-521-37538-X. LC 89-878. 1989. vii, 310 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on the Western intellectual tradition of involvement in the issues of population and resources. Sections are included on historical and modern thought and on natural and social science approaches to the subject. The papers are from a seminar held at Pembroke College, Cambridge, in August 1987, under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Committee on Population, Resources, and the Environment. These papers were also published as a supplement to Volume 14 of Population and Development Review in 1988.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30633 Thiam, Abou. The process of desertification: causes and consequences. [Processus de desertification: causes et consequences.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.4.17-30 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the process of desertification as it is occurring in the Sahel countries of Africa. Poor resource management is identified as the main cause of desertification. The importance of developing policies to reduce population growth in the affected geographic areas is stressed. The impact on rural populations is found to be especially critical due to the declining carrying capacity of the Sahel.
Correspondence: A. Thiam, Institut des Sciences de l'Environnement, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30634 Thiam, Babaly. The demographic consequences of desertification and the type of population policy to adopt in the Sahel. [Les consequences demographiques de la desertification et le type de politique de population a adopter au Sahel.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.4.1-16 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the demographic causes and consequences of desertification in the Sahel, particularly Mali. Factors considered include migration, high fertility, uneven population distribution, urbanization, data reliability and availability, and nuptiality.
Correspondence: B. Thiam, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, Institut du Sahel, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30635 Western, S. Carrying capacity, population growth and sustainable development: a case study from the Philippines. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 27, No. 4, Dec 1988. 347-67 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationships among carrying capacity, environmental degradation, and population growth are analyzed using the example of the island of Palawan in the Philippines. The author identifies those parts of the island where rural carrying capacity has been exceeded to the point that sustainable development is threatened, due primarily to rapid population growth caused by both natural increase and in-migration. A strategy to achieve sustainable development in light of projected population trends up to the year 2007 is proposed.
Correspondence: S. Western, Hunting Technical Services Ltd., Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, England. Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

55:30636 Arnaudova, Tsvetana. Economic activity of the population after retirement age. [Ikonomicheska aktivnost na naselenieto v nadtru dosposobna vazrast.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1989. 31-6 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The article considers economic activity of the population [in Bulgaria] after retirement age in the ten-year period between the last two censuses (1975-1985). The author points out the trends of the economic activity of the population, the factors and the motives for economic activity. Some recommendations concerning the more effective use of the labour of the population after retirement age are given."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30637 Banerjee, Nirmala. Trends in women's employment, 1971-81: some macro-level observations. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 17, Apr 29, 1989. WS 10-22 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to understand the overall directions of the changes in the position of women as workers in the Indian economy and to place these changes in the context of the overall changes in the size and structure of the Indian labour force and its utilisation for productive purposes." Unemployment, women's participation in the agricultural sector, incidence of child labor, and women's employment status in various sectors are discussed. Data are from official Indian sources for the period 1971-1981.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30638 Bediako, Grace. Employment problems in urban labour markets: a study of correlates of informal sector employment in urban Ghana. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.3.41-55 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper we examine how individuals' status of employment in both formal and informal sectors is associated with their personal characteristics, such as age, migration status and educational attainment. Applying the multiple logit model as the analytical tool, we estimate the effects of these characteristics on the odds of being in [a particular] employment status category..., and infer from the effect coefficients the differential participation of various categories of males and females in a predominantly formal sector, informal sector or mixed formal/informal status." The geographical focus is on urban Ghana; data are from the 1971 post-censal enumeration survey.
Correspondence: G. Bediako, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30639 Brinton, Mary C. Gender stratification in contemporary urban Japan. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 4, Aug 1989. 549-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Female labor force participation in Japan is analyzed. The author finds that "Japanese women participate in the labor force at rates similar to women in Western industrial nations, but gender stratification patterns are sharper....These aggregate patterns imply that Japanese women are seldom placed in career-track positions in large firms early in their careers. Analyses on labor market entry data from the 1984 'Survey on Work Patterns' substantiate this view. Although Japanese men and women enter large firms at equivalent rates upon leaving school, 22 percent of men and only 7 percent of women enter career ladders....Causal processes governing entrance to large firms and career tracks are examined in the paper, with particular attention to the relative returns to different levels and types of education for Japanese men and women."
Correspondence: M. C. Brinton, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30640 Brown, Lawrence A.; England, Kim V. L.; Goetz, Andrew R. Location, social categories, and individual labor market experiences in developing economies: the Venezuelan case. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1989. 1-28 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"Individual labor market experiences [in Venezuela] are examined in terms of educational attainment, labor force participation, and wages received. Explanatory factors include personal attributes and two multivariate scales measuring place characteristics related to development. The results indicate that place characteristics associated with development have important effects on labor market experiences....Among the key findings of this research are that educational attainment most affected labor force participation by women and wages of men."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Department of Geography, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:30641 Charmes, Jacques. The dynamics of the informal sector and its impact on the urban labor market. [La dynamique du secteur informel et son impact sur le marche du travail en ville.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.3.25-39 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the impact of the informal sector of the African job market on the urban labor force. Information is included on the types of jobs provided by the informal sector, the wages paid for these jobs, and the proportion of the total labor force involved in the informal sector.
Correspondence: J. Charmes, ORSTOM, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30642 Chen, Chaonan. Migration and transformation of industrial and occupational structures in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 12, Jun 1989. 121-53 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
The author compares migrants' and natives' job selectivity in Taiwan during the period 1980-1985. Findings indicate that migrants are more willing to accept positions in technologically advanced industry and are generally more adaptable to changes in the labor market and industrial structure.
Correspondence: C. Chen, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30643 Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. Age structure and rate of promotion in the Canadian working population. QSEP Research Report, No. 210, Sep 1987. 28 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
The impact of demographic changes upon prospects for promotion within the Canadian labor force is examined. The authors also examine the effect of population and labor force changes on the promotional prospects of typical individuals, taking into account the differences between male and female working-life patterns. Future prospects up to the middle of the twenty-first century are also reviewed.
Correspondence: Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Faculty of Social Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30644 European Communities. Statistical Office [EUROSTAT] (Luxembourg). Demographic and labour force analysis based on Eurostat data banks. Population and Social Conditions, Series D: Studies and Analyses, Pub. Order No. CA-50-87-437-EN-C. ISBN 92-825-7767-8. 1988. 57 pp. Luxembourg. In Eng.
Data are presented on labor force, employment, unemployment, population, and components of labor force change by sex and age for the countries of the European Community from 1961 to 1986, with projections up to 2025. Data are from official national sources for the countries concerned. A brief analysis of the data is also included.
Correspondence: Statistical Office of the European Communities, BP 1907, L-2985 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30645 Hayward, Mark D.; Grady, William R.; Hardy, Melissa A.; Sommers, David. Occupational influences on retirement, disability, and death. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 393-409 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors analyze occupational influences on retirement, disability, and death, focusing on the later stages of the career cycle. "Specifically, [the paper] examines how occupations influence the timing and nature of the labor force withdrawal process for older men. This focus is based on the notion that modern social processes of distributing opportunities, resources, and rewards are linked to the occupational structure. Thus we expect that the movement of individuals into positions outside the productive core of economic activity will be related to their location within the occupational hierarchy." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: M. D. Hayward, Andrus Gerontology Center and Department of Sociology, University of Southern California, University Park MC 0191, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30646 Heath, Julia A.; Ciscel, David H. Patriarchy, family structure and the exploitation of women's labor. Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1988. 781-94 pp. Lincoln, Nebraska. In Eng.
The authors present a case for including the patriarchal model into the analysis of female labor force participation in the United States. They argue that only if it is assumed that the division of labor and distribution of goods and services are structured to benefit the male head of the family can various trends be explained, including the low relative income of women compared to men, the increase in female labor force participation without a corresponding increase in household work by men, and the increasing number of divorces initiated by women despite the fact that divorce increases female poverty.
Correspondence: J. A. Heath, Department of Economics, Memphis State University, Memphis, TN 38152. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30647 Hobbs, Frank B. Mexico's total, employed, and excess labor force: future prospects, 1985 to 2000. CIR Staff Paper, No. 47, Mar 1989. xi, 70 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The question this study sets out to answer is, 'What will be the impact of alternative emigration levels on Mexico's labor force?' To evaluate this impact, population projections, by age and sex, are prepared which incorporate four different levels of international emigration from Mexico to the United States." These projections reflect varying degrees of success of the 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act and are for the period from 1985 to 2000. The results indicate that "Mexico will continue to experience critical levels of excess labor force throughout the 20th century. The foreseeable level of net international migration in Mexico is unlikely to have a major impact on Mexico's future excess labor force levels. In contrast, Mexico's economic growth will strongly affect the extent to which the country is able to absorb the large numbers of new labor force entrants over the next 15 years."
Correspondence: Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30648 Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia; Lyon, Andrew. Taking dung-work seriously: women's work and rural development in North India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 17, Apr 29, 1989. WS 32-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The work of transforming cow-dung into economically-valued products has not been treated as a matter of significant interest by economists and analysts of the Indian rural scene. In discussions of fuel, dung-cakes are dismissed as an inappropriate use of potential fertiliser; in discussions of fertiliser, the work of transforming dung into manure is usually ignored; and in discussions of women's work, dung-work is rarely made a central focus. Drawing on research work in Bijnor district, the authors argue that this is a mistake, both for empirical reasons (it ignores a significant economic activity with considerable worth which takes a substantial proportion of women's time) and for theoretical reasons."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30649 Ko, Gilbert Kwok-yiu; Clogg, Clifford C. Earnings differentials between Chinese and whites in 1980: subgroup variability and evidence for convergence. Social Science Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1989. 249-70 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We examined earnings differences between Chinese and whites [in the United States] in 1980 using samples selected to provide relatively controlled comparisons between the two groups. The Chinese are split into three subgroups representing different levels of assimilation, defined in terms of citizenship and nativity status. Intragroup variability in earnings functions sheds light on the intergroup comparisons of most interest....Results show differentials among the Chinese subgroups that would be expected from assimilation theory. The most assimilated subgroup (the native born) differs little from the white comparison group. Unfavorable returns to education and experience largely account for the low earnings of the other Chinese subgroups, but these deficits are difficult to explain in terms of labor market discrimination factors."
Correspondence: C. C. Clogg, Department of Sociology, Pennsylvania State University, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30650 Kopacka, Ludvik. Evolution of the economically active population in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, 1961-1980. [K vyvoji ekonomicke aktivity obyvatelstva CSSR v obdobi 1961-1980.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1989. 25-36 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in the economic activity of men and women in Czechoslovakia for the years 1961-1980 are analyzed. Changes in the age and sex structure of the labor force during this period are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30651 Liu, Suoqun. The age patterns and their stability by industry and occupation in Taiwan during 1956-1980. Pub. Order No. DA8824763. 1988. 254 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The primary goals of this study are to tackle the issue of whether [Taiwanese] workers in various industrial and occupational groups have their age structures and keep them over time, and if yes, what emerges as the prominent factor in accounting for it....The hypothesis that workers of different ages 'fit' different industries and occupations emerges to be the predominating factor in formulating the specific age structures of workers in individual industrial and occupational groups." Data are from Taiwan censuses for 1958, 1966, 1970, 1975, and 1980.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30652 Looney, Robert E. Manpower problems in a capital-rich country: the case of Saudi Arabia. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 32, Jun 1988. 31-54 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"In order to provide an insight into the possible problems that face Saudi Arabia in its Fourth Five-Year Plan (1985-1990), this paper assesses several aspects of the manpower problems encountered in the Third Five-Year Plan (1980-1985). In general, it appears that the country's abundance of fixed capital, or at least the means to acquire it, only emphasizes the scarcity of other resources in the Kingdom, notably the shortage of indigenous labour and the absence of the skills required to run new industries....The paper argues that it is apparent from the performance of the Third Plan that the Government will probably use the size of the foreign labour force as a safety valve to ensure the attainment of its priorities."
Correspondence: R. Looney, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30653 Nord, Stephen. The relationships among labor-force participation, service-sector employment, and underemployment. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1989. 407-21 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this study, it is argued [that] underemployment is both affected by and affects the labor-force participation rate (LFPR) and the level of service employment. Interestingly, the analysis reveals that service employment lowers the LFPR and raises underemployment. In turn, underemployment increases the LFPR as more secondary workers are pushed into the labor market in an effort to support their households. Thus, secondary workers are not pulled into the labor market by the availability of service jobs, but are rather pushed into these jobs by the condition of underemployment that is brought on by the growing concentration of low-paying service jobs....A three-equation simultaneous equation model is developed to test our hypotheses [and] three-stage least squares...estimates of this model for the 100 largest [U.S.] metropolitan areas are presented...."
Correspondence: S. Nord, Department of Economics, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, IL 60115-2854. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:30654 Okojie, Christiana E. The absorption of labour into the urban informal sector: the position of women in Nigeria. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.3.57-72 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The paper examines labour absorption in five urban centres in Bendel State of Nigeria. More specifically, it examined the activities open to women, factors determining participation in the informal sector and the absorption of migrants in the urban economy. The positions of men and women were compared." Data from 3,471 households are applied to a theoretical model to explain labor absorption. Findings indicate that "the most important factors influencing absorption into the informal sector are education, sex, migrant status (among men), and socioeconomic status of household. Women who tend to be less educated predominate in the urban informal sector and in less prestigious occupations in the formal sector."
Correspondence: C. E. Okojie, Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30655 Pauwels, K.; Van Dongen, W.; Deschamps, L.; Bosman, E. Labor force participation of women and family building. [De arbeidsparticipatie van de vrouw en de gezinsopbouw.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1988. 95-115 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The effect of fertility on female labor force participation in Belgium is examined. Consideration is given to age factors and to differences between housewives and other working women. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: K. Pauwels, CBGS, Nijverheidsstraat 35-37, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30656 Pirozhkov, S. I. Demographic estimates of the labor force potential of the population. [Demograficheskaya otsenka trudovogo potentsiala naseleniya.] In: Metody issledovaniya, edited by A. G. Vishnevskii. 1986. 111-8, 182 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Various approaches to the estimation of labour force potential are described....The principles of computing...economic activity tables are considered and an abridged [life] table of economically active...males in the Ukranian SSR for 1968-1970 is computed. The problem of computation of more adequate multistate increment-decrement tables of economic activity which would take into account repeated transitions between states of economic activity and inactivity during [a] lifetime is discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30657 Taylor, Jeffrey R.; Banister, Judith. China: the problem of employing surplus rural labor. CIR Staff Paper, No. 49, Jul 1989. viii, 75 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyze current and future employment prospects for China's rural areas. Six topics are investigated: the origin and magnitude of rural underemployment in China; patterns of rural employment growth; government response to rural employment problems; dynamics of [the] rural labor movement; future employment prospects in rural areas; [and] productivity and inequality implications of employment changes." Data are from official sources for the year 1987. A selection of maps, tables, and figures are included.
Correspondence: China Branch, Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30658 Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France). Sex and space. [Sexe et espace.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1989. 148 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This special issue is concerned with the relationships between sex and spatial factors. It contains articles on the social geography of London, Madrid, Montreal, Texas, Spain, Quebec, France, Belgium, and Worcester, Massachusetts. In general, these articles focus on aspects of female labor force participation, employment, and occupations.
Correspondence: Espace-Populations-Societes, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30659 Unni, Jeemol. Changes in women's employment in rural areas, 1961-83. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 17, Apr 29, 1989. WS 23-31 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the conceptual, definitional and operational problems which result in under-enumeration of female workers in large-scale censuses and sample surveys. A detailed examination of the definitions used and the estimates obtained reveal that certain Indian censuses and NSS rounds had a better enumeration of women workers than others. Taking the comparable censuses/NSS rounds over the period 1961 to 1983, the widely alleged decline in female participation rates is seen to be not substantiated."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30660 Yousif, Hassan M. Structural dimensions of the urban labour markets in the Sudan: occupational patterns and their relationship with education and rural-urban migration with special emphasis on the formal sector. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.3.1-23 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The central thesis of this paper is to document some structural aspects of the urban labour force in the Sudan, which are crucial in socio-economic development....In particular, the paper will deal with occupational distribution of the labour force primarily for the purpose of documenting the role of various groups in development, understanding the access of families in urban areas to income generating activities and studying the availability of employment opportunities for men and women. Also, the paper will focus on relating education and patterns of internal and international migration to the structural aspects of the labour force. The analyses are based on the results of the 1983 census."
Correspondence: H. M. Yousif, Population Studies Centre, University of Gezira, POB 20, Wad Medani, 2667 Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30661 Zsembik, Barbara A. A question of balance: the employment of Puerto Rican women during their reproductive years. Pub. Order No. DA8901426. 1988. 180 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the employment of women during their reproductive years in Puerto Rico in light of the industrialization that took place after World War II. Sex, class, and wage differentials in the employment structure are analyzed. Reproductive behavior, women's status, and occupational levels are determined to be factors in the current fertility decline and in the reduction in completed family size.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(11).

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