Volume 55 - Number 3 - Fall 1989

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

55:30569 Benjamin, B. Demographic aspects of ageing. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 16, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 185-235 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The first part of this paper examines future changes in the age structure of the population of England and Wales which are likely to occur as a result of past and future changes in fertility and mortality....On the basis of conservative estimates of these changes, estimates are made of the future economic strain of dependency and there is some discussion of the way in which this might be best handled to the advantage of both the active and the elderly populations. The second part of the paper looks at different ways of examining improvements in longevity and also discusses some of the biological and environmental factors involved. Reference is made to the limited morbididty data available and the tentative conclusion is reached that improvement in longevity, so far, owes less to the reduction of disease incidence than to medical maintenance."
Correspondence: B. Benjamin, Centre for Insurance and Investment Studies, City University Business School, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30570 Cronk, Lee. Low socioeconomic status and female-biased parental investment: the Mukogodo example. American Anthropologist, Vol. 91, No. 2, Jun 1989. 414-29 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data concerning the Mukogodo of Kenya are used to test the Trivers-Willard hypothesis that low socioeconomic status is correlated with a bias in parental investment in favor of daughters. Data are from anthropological research conducted from 1985 to 1987. "The data fulfill the prediction that there should be a bias in parental investment in favor of daughters. The sex ratio of the 0-4 age group and the reported sex ratio at birth are both female-biased. Although there is no evidence of infanticide, sons may be neglected in favor of daughters. Evidence from a dispensary and from a clinic run by a Catholic mission both show that the Mukogodo take daughters for treatment more often than they take sons. Also, daughters may be nursed longer than sons."
Correspondence: L. Cronk, Department of Anthropology, 811 Swift Hall, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30571 Kono, Shigemi. A treatise on the change in age structure and its determinants: an appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 1, Apr 1989. 1-18 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to review...recent...trends in population age structure in the world and its major regions, to assess the determinants of those trends, and to explore [issues] relating to recent and projected changes in the age structure of population and relationships of those changes to economic and social developments." Comparisons are made between developed and developing countries concerning age structure, life expectancy, birth and mortality rates, and demographic aging.
Correspondence: S. Kono, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30572 Leeson, George W.; Spohr, Hanne; Matthiessen, Poul C. New times--new elderly: population. [Nye tider--nye aeldre: befolkningen.] EGV-Fondens Fremtidsstudie, ISBN 87-89084-02-0. 1988. 95 pp. EGV-Fonden: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
Issues concerning the aged in Denmark are examined in this study, which includes population projections up to 2150, and changes in the elderly population over time are reviewed. Sections are included on past trends in population; probable trends up to 2025; issues related to changes in marital status, 1986-2001; alternative population trends; and the aged and the family situation. Selected data from other European countries are included for comparative purposes.
Correspondence: EGV-Fonden, Vesterbrogade 97, 1620 Copenhagen V, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30573 Ntozi, James P. M. Estimating age distributions from African successive censuses. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 7.1.47-62 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper three methods that utilize data reported at two censuses to correct age distributions have been presented and discussed. In theory, all the methods are based on the same assumptions and lead to more or less the same results. However, in practice, the Period Age Interval Method may be easiest to use in African situations....The results of the application of the method to a series of age data observed in censuses of Turkey and Malawi show consistency with data from other sources and hence seem plausible. Although the present application of the method is to censuses five years apart, it is possible to extend the technique to correct single year age structure and data from decennial censuses of some sub-Sahara African countries."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

No citations in this issue.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

55:30574 Beeghley, Leonard; Dwyer, Jeffrey W. Income transfers and income inequality. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1989. 119-42 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article attempts to advance understanding of the impact of income transfers on the size distribution of income [in the United States] since about World War II. Two contending interpretations exist, which we label the inequality reduction and the inequality stability hypotheses, respectively....This paper helps to resolve the dilemma posed by these contradictory hypotheses; it shows that the inequality reduction literature omits income transfers going to the nonpoor population and presents empirical data that addresses this omission. The result supports the inequality stability hypothesis."
Correspondence: L. Beeghley, Department of Sociology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30575 Das Gupta, Prithwis. Methods of decomposing the difference between two rates with applications to race-sex inequality in earnings. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1989. 15-36, 89 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Four general methods of decomposing the difference between two rates into several components are provided. For data cross-classified by several factors, all four methods can be used treating the factors either hierarchically or symmetrically, and within each treatment, the methods are expected to give very similar results. Since the results may differ significantly depending on whether the factors are hierarchical or symmetrical and since there is no objective way of arranging the factors hierarchically, symmetrical treatment of the factors is recommended. The latter approach is used to study race-sex inequalities in mean annual earnings for year-round full-time workers in the United States based on the 1980 census data cross-classified by education, age, and occupation."
Correspondence: P. Das Gupta, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30576 Dooley, Martin D. An analysis of changes in family income and family structure in Canada between 1973 and 1986 with an emphasis on poverty among children. QSEP Research Report, No. 238, Nov 1988. 47 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper presents preliminary findings from a research project concerned with changes in family structure and the distribution of income in Canada. The project will focus on the economic welfare of children, especially child poverty. The data for this paper come from the Survey of Consumer Finances...for the (income) years 1973, 1979, 1985 and 1986."
Correspondence: Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Faculty of Social Sciences, Mcmaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30577 Hyclak, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint. Real wage rigidity in regional labor markets in the U.K., the U.S., and West Germany. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Aug 1989. 423-32 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper examines the extent to which regional differences in wage rigidity exist and can help explain interregional differences in unemployment trends. Phillips-curve models of manufacturing wage inflation are estimated for the 10 largest states in the U.S., the 10 economic regions in the United Kingdom, and the 11 Lande in the Federal Republic of Germany over the 1971 to 1985 period. There is evidence of significant differences in the responsiveness of wage inflation to unemployment and the rate of change in consumer prices across the regions within each country and across the three nations."
Correspondence: T. Hyclak, Department of Economics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:30578 Maxwell, Nan L. Demographic and economic determinants of United States income inequality. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 2, Jun 1989. 245-64 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Analysis of annual [U.S.] Current Population Survey data from 1947 to 1985 reveals that industrial employment shifts had a greater impact on increasing income inequality than other economic or demographic influences. The greater impact is primarily due to the size of the shift. Increased dependency and occupational employment shifts also increased inequality over the period. While the effect of dependency on inequality was equivalent to that of the industrial employment impact, its smaller change led to a smaller overall effect. Most of the inequality increase was from bottom-to-top movement of income. Offsetting some of this increase were increased government spending and within-component distributional shifts."
Correspondence: N. L. Maxwell, Department of Economics, California State University, Hayward, CA 94542. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30579 Parcel, Toby L.; Mueller, Charles W. Temporal change in occupational earnings attainment, 1970-1980. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 4, Aug 1989. 622-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We investigate change in occupational earnings [in the United States] during the 1970s by comparing similar models at either end of the decade. Since the 1970s were years of relative economic stagnation, we anticipated that they would not be favorable to women....[The authors find that] although earnings attainment generally appeared less dependent on workers' status characteristics in 1980 than in 1970, incomes increased less for occupations where concentrations of women were high. Earnings returns to human capital increased during the interval, largely owing to stronger returns among males. In addition, female earnings were more sensitive than male earnings to workers' status characteristics." Data are from a variety of official and other published sources.
Correspondence: T. L. Parcel, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30580 Plotnick, Robert D. How much poverty is reduced by state income transfers? Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 112, No. 7, Jul 1989. 21-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article presents [U.S.] State poverty data for the mid-1980's and uses them to derive and compare the impact of income transfer policies on poverty among the States. The article first describes how the data were developed. It explains the three alternative poverty measures used in the analysis and the different types of information they yield. Then, the poverty indexes and the impact of income transfer policies on poverty are presented." Data are from Current Population Surveys for 1984, 1985, and 1986.
Correspondence: R. D. Plotnick, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98915. Location: Princeton University Library (DOCS).

55:30581 Ray, Ranjan. Household composition and optimal commodity taxes: do demographic variables matter? Department of Econometrics and Social Statistics Discussion Paper, No. ES199, Mar 1988. 16 pp. University of Manchester, Department of Econometrics and Social Statistics: Manchester, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates conditions under which demographic variables will have no impact on commodity taxes. We allow nonlinear and nonseparable preferences, a general demographic demand procedure, and a demogrant scheme linked to the number of children. Formulae for demographic revision of tax estimates are presented in a form that can be easily applied, and the only marginal data requirement is the number of children in the household. The paper extends an earlier exercise...in avoiding the need for equivalence scales, and in using a demogrant scheme that is consistent with current practice in [the United Kingdom and] several European countries."
Correspondence: Department of Econometrics and Social Statistics, Manchester University, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30582 Rietveld, P.; Ouwersloot, H. Intraregional income distribution and poverty: some investigations for the Netherlands, 1960-81. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 21, No. 7, Jul 1989. 881-904 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is addressed to intraregional income inequalities in the Netherlands. Various concepts are used to measure the degree of regional poverty. In addition, dissimilarity between intraregional income distributions is studied. At the provincial level, relatively small and decreasing dissimilarities are observed. However, at lower spatial levels (especially within metropolitan areas) much larger dissimilarities in mean income and income distribution occur. In the Netherlands, urban poverty has become a more intense and widespread phenomenon than rural poverty."
Correspondence: P. Rietveld, Department of Economics, Free University, P.O. Box 7161, 1007 MC Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:30583 Rosenfeld, Rachel A.; Kalleberg, Arne L. The gender gap in earnings: a cross-national comparison. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-14, Apr 1988. 31, 8, [11] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Using national labor force samples from the United States, Canada, Norway, and Sweden, this paper decomposes sex differences in each country's income determination process into components due to: (1) distributions across (a) labor market, (b) family, and (c) human capital variables; and (2) different income returns to these variables. Country differences in these components are interpreted by a conceptual framework that emphasizes cross-national differences in industrial relations systems."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 518).
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30584 Shukla, Vibhooti; Stark, Oded. Why are urban formal sector wages in LDCs above the market-clearing level? Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 44, Jun 1989. 29 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper we link urban labor market dualism and the fixity of formal sector wages in expected income migration models with urban agglomeration economies [in less developed countries]. A possible productivity-efficiency rationale for the 'institutional' wage is identified and explored. In addition, a rationalization for the informal sector is suggested in this context. We propose a motivation for [determining] high urban wages as part of a choice-theoretic behavioral framework, perform illustrative simulations of factors influencing an equlibrium urban wage premium, and point out directions for further research delineated by our analytical propositions."
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30585 Sullivan, Teresa; Cardenas, Gilberto; de la Garza, Rodolfo. Nativity, industry, and the reactions of Latino entrepreneurs to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 10: 1988, No. 10.13, Oct 1988. 23, [27] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the general economic position of Mexican-origin business owners [in the United States] and finds differences among them by nativity and industry. The impact of IRCA [the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986] was assessed in a two-wave study of Mexican-origin business owners in six cities. [Findings indicate that] Mexican immigrants are more likely to be self-employed than are Mexican-Americans, [and that]...in restaurant and retail trade, two traditionally low-paying industries, Mexican immigrant owners earn higher incomes than do native-born Mexican-Americans. Although the national sample of Mexican immigrant owners appear to be better off, those in our six-city sample reported more adverse impact from IRCA." Additional data are from the 1980 U.S. census.
Correspondence: Texas Population Research Center, University of Texas, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30586 Veeck, Gregory; Pannell, Clifton W. Rural economic restructuring and farm household income in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 79, No. 2, Jun 1989. 275-92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper describes and analyzes the effects of [economic] reforms on farm-family income in eight counties located in four agricultural regions of Jiangsu Province [China]. Specifically, it will attempt to describe the sources of income for the families and to analyze the most important factors in determining the evolving patterns of family income. We also seek to identify and explain locational patterns associated with how farm families in these different regions and counties of Jiangsu earn their livings. Income data for the study were derived from interviews with members of 167 farm families in the studied areas during 1986-87." The authors identify three household types based on income sources: traditional agricultural, mixed, and industrially focused.
Correspondence: G. Veeck, Department of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4105. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

55:30587 Avramov, Dragana. Educational attainment of the Yugoslav population. Demografska Sveska CDI, No. 11, [1987?]. 37 pp. University of Belgrade, Institute of Social Sciences, Demographic Research Centre: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
The author presents a historical overview and analysis of the current educational attainment of the Yugoslav population for the period 1971-1981. This survey treats education "as the process of transmitting and acquiring knowledge in specialized institutions, i.e. schools. It will make use of aggregate data on the highest level of formal education attained within the framework of the regular school system in Yugoslavia." Regional differences in economic and social development are discussed, and variations in the levels of educational attainment according to geographic region, sex, and age are noted.
Correspondence: Demographic Research Centre, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Belgrade, Narodnog fronta 45, Postanski fah 927, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30588 Blake, Judith. Number of siblings and educational attainment. Science, Vol. 245, No. 4913, Jul 7, 1989. 32-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Family background continues to be closely related to individuals' educational attainment in the United States. A notable change in one aspect of this background, number of siblings, is occurring as fertility is becoming extremely low. Examination of the negative relation between individuals' sibling number and years of schooling indicates that education among those with many siblings is disproportionately cut short before high school graduation. Because there is a strong negative relation between number of siblings and scores on tests measuring verbal ability, recent reductions in sibling number would be expected to contribute to enhanced verbal ability and increasing years of schooling for those born now in the United States."
Correspondence: J. Blake, School of Public Health and Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1772. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

55:30589 Cochrane, Susan H.; Mehra, Kalpana; Osheba, Ibrahim T. The educational participation of Egyptian children. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 421-44 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors test hypotheses about the determinants of Egyptian children's educational participation and achievement. "Besides age, sex and region, there were four types of variables hypothesized to affect educational behaviour. These were aspirations, parental education, economic factors and access. These factors were in turn related to the costs and benefits of and ability to afford education. The results of this analysis indicate that aspirations which represent the parents' weighing of costs/benefits of and ability to afford schooling are very important in explaining participation in schooling and, to a slightly lesser extent, years of school attended." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and concern a sample of 4,300 children. Results are compared with those found for rural areas of Nepal and Thailand.
Correspondence: S. H. Cochrane, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30590 Galster, George. Residential segregation in American cities: a further response to Clark. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1989. 181-92 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Professor Clark's (1986) claim that discrimination plays little role in explaining segregation [in U.S. cities] was challenged in my contrary review (1988). Clark (1988) has responded, and here I offer a rejoinder. I go further and suggest that the multiple factors related to segregation should be seen as interdependent components in a complex web of mutually causal interrelationships. Preliminary attempts to estimate such a model suggest that discrimination may play an even more important role than is conventionally believed." A reply by Clark is included (pp. 193-7).
For the articles by Clark, published in 1986, and by Galster and Clark, published in 1988, see 53:10075 and 54:40625.
Correspondence: G. Galster, Department of Economics, College of Wooster, Wooster, OH 44691. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30591 Gosal, R. P. S. Literacy in India's scheduled caste population: a spatial analysis. Population Geography, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1988. 42-60 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
Literacy by geographic region in India's scheduled caste population is examined, with a focus on urban-rural and sex differentials. Education, migration, religion, and economic development are considered as factors affecting literacy rates. Data are from official Indian sources for 1981.
Correspondence: R. P. S. Gosal, Geography Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, Union Territory, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30592 Halsey, A. H. British social trends since 1900: a guide to the changing social structure of Britain. 2nd rev. ed. ISBN 0-333-34521-5. 1988. xxviii, 650 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
This is a revised and updated edition of a work, originally published in 1972, on the changing social structure of twentieth-century Britain. Data are taken from both official and unofficial sources, but are primarily from the government publication Social Trends. Chapters are included on population, the economic environment, the labor force, social mobility, schools, higher education, the electors and elected, urbanization and local government, housing, health, welfare, religion, immigration and ethnicity, and crime and penal measures.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Macmillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30593 Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A. Hypersegregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: black and Hispanic segregation along five dimensions. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 373-91 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
Black and Hispanic segregation is examined along five dimensions of spatial variation in U.S. metropolitan areas. The five dimensions are evenness, exposure, clustering, centralization, and concentration. "Compared with Hispanics, not only are blacks more segregated on any single dimension of residential segregation, they are also likely to be segregated on all five dimensions simultaneously, which never occurs for Hispanics. Moreover, in a significant subset of large urban areas, blacks experience extreme segregation on all dimensions, a pattern we call hypersegregation. This finding is upheld and reinforced by a multivariate analysis. We conclude that blacks occupy a unique and distinctly disadvantaged position in the U.S. urban environment."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, NORC/University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30594 McKinney, Scott. Change in metropolitan area residential integration, 1970-80. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1989. 143-64 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author analyzes the progress made during the 1970s toward integration of residential neighborhoods in U.S. metropolitan areas. "This progress was due to the redistribution of the black population toward middle- and high-income census tracts, areas more integrated than those left behind. Econometric analysis suggests that younger, higher income blacks played an important part in this redistribution; that residential integration was positively related to metropolitan area population size and black population income inequality; and that integration was negatively related to white prejudice, especially in strongly ethnic communities. Public sector discrimination, not strongly related to either a perceived threat from the black population or to fiscal considerations, seems to have slowed the pace of integration significantly."
Correspondence: S. McKinney, Department of Economics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

55:30595 Alba, Richard D. Ethnicity and race in the U.S.A.: toward the twenty-first century. ISBN 0-7102-0633-X. LC 85-2044. 1985. v, 186 pp. Routledge and Kegan Paul: Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at the Conference on Ethnicity and Race in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century, held at the State University of New York at Albany, April 6-7, 1984. The focus of the conference was on ethnic and racial developments in the United States since the mid-twentieth century, with a view to projecting future trends up to the year 2000. The papers are by various authors and draw on a wide range of sources, including the 1980 census.
These articles were also published in a special issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume 8, Number 1.
Correspondence: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 9 Park Street, Boston, MA 02108. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30596 Allen, James P.; Turner, Eugene J. We the people: an atlas of America's ethnic diversity. ISBN 0-02-901420-4. LC 87-28194. 1988. xii, 315 pp. Macmillan Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
Maps showing the geographical distribution of 44 ethnic and racial groups in the United States are presented. Maps are also included showing internal migration by ethnic group and refugee settlement, the distribution of ethnic groups in 1920, and the distribution of the North American Indian population. Data are primarily from the 1980 census. Statistical data are also presented in tabular form concerning the population of each U.S. county by ethnic group for 1980.
Correspondence: Macmillan Publishing Company, 866 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30597 McFate, Katherine. The metropolitan area fact book: a statistical portrait of blacks and whites in urban America. ISBN 0-941410-65-X. LC 88-11147. 1988. x, 109 pp. Joint Center for Political Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This work presents a selection of data concerning the quality of life for blacks in the United States and the differences between living standards of blacks and whites. "The fact book, designed for easy use by the general public, covers the 48 American metropolitan areas with black populations of more than 100,000. It provides basic demographic information and data on the major indicators of social and economic well-being for each metro area; the number and percentage of black residents; the number and percentage of blacks living in the central city versus suburban areas; labor force participation and employment rates; income, earnings, and home-ownership; educational attainment; poverty rates; and family structure."
Correspondence: Joint Center for Political Studies, 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20004. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30598 O'Hare, William P. Hispanic Americans in the 1980s: mainstream or minority? Population Today, Vol. 17, No. 7-8, Jul-Aug 1989. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of the socioeconomic assimilation of Hispanics into the U.S. population. He differentiates between the various Hispanic subgroups according to country of origin. The status of Hispanic Americans is examined according to income, education, occupation and labor force participation, home ownership, intermarriage, and literacy in English.
Correspondence: W. P. O'Hare, Population Reference Bureau, P.O. Box 96152, Washington, D.C. 20090-6152. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30599 Peach, Ceri; Robinson, Vaughan; Maxted, Julia; Chance, Judith. Immigration and ethnicity. In: British social trends since 1900: a guide to the changing social structure of Britain, edited by A. H. Halsey. 1988. 561-615 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
"This chapter is divided into three parts. First, the background to immigration and legislation controlling immigration will be reviewed; secondly, the characteristics of the main immigrant groups will be outlined; finally, the prospects for ethnic groups in British society will be discussed."
Correspondence: C. Peach, St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30600 Thornton, Russell. American Indian holocaust and survival: a population history since 1492. Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 186, ISBN 0-8061-2074-6. LC 87-40216. 1987. xx, 292 pp. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, Oklahoma/London, England. In Eng.
This is a demographic history of the American Indian populations who lived north of present-day Mexico, particularly in the conterminous United States. The author first describes the North American Indian population in 1492 and its origins. The population's decline and its causes are then analyzed for the period up to 1900. Consideration is given to disease, including alcoholism; warfare and genocide; geographical removal and relocation; and destruction of ways of life. The recovery of this population since 1900 and problems of definition and the enumeration of native Americans are discussed. The author also examines the urbanization of American Indians. An appendix is included that provides information on the native American population history of Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.
Correspondence: University of Oklahoma Press, 1005 Asp Avenue, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30601 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 438, Jul 1989. iv, 70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Hispanic population of the United States....[It] contains information about the total Hispanic population, as well as its subgroups--Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and other Spanish origin. Comparable data for the total United States and for persons not of Hispanic origin also are included. The social and economic characteristics presented include age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, school enrollment, fertility, voting and registration, employment status, family composition and size, income, and poverty status." Data are from the March 1988 supplement to the Current Population Survey.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30602 Word, David L. Population estimates by race and Hispanic origin for states, metropolitan areas, and selected counties: 1980 to 1985. Current Population Reports, Series P-25: Population Estimates and Projections, No. 1040-RD-1, May 1989. iv, 81 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents population estimates by race and Hispanic origin for [U.S.] States, metropolitan areas and selected counties for 1980 through 1985....They represent an extension of the Administrative Records method, the newest of the estimating techniques for producing population estimates for States, counties, and places at the Census Bureau." The methodology is experimental and these estimates have not been integrated into the Bureau's current estimates program.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30603 Xenos, Peter; Barringer, Herbert; Levin, Michael J. Asian Indians in the United States: a 1980 census profile. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 111, ISBN 0-86638-114-7. LC 89-16910. Jul 1989. vii, 54 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The authors review the experience of Asian Indians as an ethnic minority in the United States using data from the 1980 U.S. census. A statistical taxonomy of Asian Indians is presented, and their demographic structure in the United States is examined. Consideration is given to educational levels, occupational status, and income. Current and future trends in family and household structure are also analyzed.
Correspondence: East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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