Volume 55 - Number 2 - Summer 1989

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

55:20662 Day, Lincoln H. Limits and possibilities relating to family structure and care of the aged in populations with unprecedentedly low fertility. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 5, No. 2, Nov 1988. 178-87 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"While demographic conditions need not necessarily be prime determinants of the quality of people's lives, there can be no doubt that they determine the limits of that quality. This paper discusses these limits with reference to family and kinship structure, and particularly the wellbeing of the elderly, in European populations (both in Europe and overseas) currently subject to especially high rates of ageing as a result, primarily, of unprecedentedly low fertility. Emphasis is placed on the fact of heterogeneity within populations, the great variety of possible social responses to human needs and demographic conditions, and the fact that the future is fraught with uncertainty, despite the degree of ineluctability associated with certain demographic processes." Comparative data for Australia are presented.
Correspondence: L. Day, Department of Demography, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20663 Diamond, Ian. Education and changing numbers of young people. In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 72-89 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter demonstrates the important role which demographic data and projections play in planning education provision. It focuses specifically on the contribution of demographic projections to education planning in the context of declining numbers of young people [in Great Britain] in the 1980s and 1990s....This chapter will therefore also discuss the implications of alternative strategies of education planning." Consideration is given to gender issues, social class, age, and parental education.
Correspondence: I. Diamond, Department of Demography, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20664 Hobcraft, John. People and services: central assessment of local needs. In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 133-56 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to review how demographic and other information are used in determining expenditure needs, as assessed by Central Government [in Great Britain]." Comparisons are made among the approaches used by the central and local governments and by the national health service. Consideration is given to grant-related expenditure, an assessment formula named after the acronym of the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP), the quality of indicators, and a discussion of broader criteria for resource allocation procedures.
Correspondence: J. Hobcraft, Department of Population Studies, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20665 Orubuloye, I. O. Population growth and educational development in Plateau State of Nigeria, 1976-2001. Research for Development, Vol. 3-4, Jul 1987. 96-114 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to examine the linkages between population growth and educational development in Plateau State of Nigeria with special reference to the primary and secondary school education." The author concludes that the current rate of population growth may oblige the state to choose between reducing the rate of population growth or cutting expenditures on other social services in order to achieve its goals of universal primary and secondary school education by the year 2000.
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Department of Sociology, Ondo State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Ondo State, Nigeria. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20666 Ryabushkin, T. V. The age groups outside of the labor force: social and demographic aspects. [Netrudosposobnoe naselenie: sotsial'no-demograficheskie aspekty.] 1985. 224 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
An analysis of the population outside the labor force in the USSR is presented. This population consists of those too young or too old to work. The focus is on the state's provision of resources to this dependent population and on the availability of social services.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20667 Wingen, Max. Three-generation solidarity in an aging society. [Drei-Generationen-Solidaritat in einer alternden Gesellschaft.] In: Demographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: vier Jahrzehnte Statistik, Forschung und Politikberatung. Festschrift fur Karl Schwarz, edited by Charlotte Hohn, Wilfried Linke, and Rainer Mackensen. Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 18, 1988. 197-205 pp. Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This paper focuses on the problems of maintaining intergenerational solidarity among children, the economically active population, and the elderly in societies characterized by demographic aging and declining fertility. The emphasis is on the Federal Republic of Germany and other European countries. The need for a family policy that addresses these problems is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

55:20668 Franks, C. E. S. Native Canadians: the question of their participation in northern public services. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan 1989. 79-95 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author addresses the issue of native (North American Indian) participation in the public sector in Canada. "Using data for the Northwest Territories from the 1981 census as an example, the failure of native groups to achieve representation in virtually all segments of government except local band affairs is documented. Although affirmative action programs are achieving some improvements, major barriers to progress exist, the foremost being the failure of the educational system to keep a sufficient number of students in school to generate an adequate supply of qualified graduates for the public sector labor force."
Correspondence: C. E. S. Franks, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20669 Lempert, David. A demographic-economic explanation of political stability: Mauritius as a microcosm. Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Jun 1987. 77-90 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper examines current models of economic and political development--social modernization theory, political and economic characteristics of stable regimes, and cross country analysis of political stability--and tests them on the Indian Ocean Island of Mauritius. The analysis continues with a causal explanation for political stability in Mauritius' recent history, derived from an examination of economic policies and demographic patterns. Political change in Mauritius over the past sixty years seems to be explained best by a model for political stability which integrates specific economic and demographic factors. The model, applicable to development in other third world nations, revises Malthus' conclusion that population and economic conditions move in an oscillatory relationship and replaces it with a more comprehensive theory, suggesting that political stability is a function of both economic development and a repeating cyclical relationship between economics and population."
Correspondence: D. Lempert, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: New York Public Library.

55:20670 Linke, Wilfried. Analysis of the voting population. [Analyse der Wahlbevolkerung.] In: Demographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: vier Jahrzehnte Statistik, Forschung und Politikberatung. Festschrift fur Karl Schwarz, edited by Charlotte Hohn, Wilfried Linke, and Rainer Mackensen. Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 18, 1988. 69-91 pp. Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Changes in the age and sex structure of the population that is eligible to vote are analyzed for the Federal Republic of Germany for the period 1957-1987. Voter turnout and party choices are also examined. The data are from representative samples of Bundestag election statistics. Some projections to 1991 are also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20671 Sliwinski, M. Afghanistan: the decimation of a people. Orbis, Vol. 33, No. 1, Winter 1989. 39-56 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The demographic impact of the war in Afghanistan is analyzed, using data from surveys conducted among the refugees in Pakistan in 1987. The data indicate that by the end of 1987 approximately nine percent of the population had been killed during the war, totalling between 1 and 1.5 million persons. Consideration is given to trends in mortality over time, the demographic characteristics of those killed, emigration, and geographical differences in war-related mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20672 Vishnevskii, A. Has a thaw set in? Concerning demographic trends and social policy. [Led tronulsya? O demograficheskikh protsessakh i sotsial'noi politike.] Kommunist, No. 6, Apr 1988. 65-75 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author suggests that, thanks to perestroika, some positive changes in demographic trends are occurring in the USSR. These include an increase in life expectancy since 1985, particularly for men. Although infant mortality has not changed significantly, the birth rate increased substantially in 1986 and 1987. An analysis of current social policy concerning the family and various population subgroups is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

55:20673 Anson, Ofra. Marital status and women's health revisited: the importance of a proximate adult. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1989. 185-94 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"It is suggested here that marriage is positively related to health partly through social ties and social regulation. If so, then living with other adult(s) may serve as a functional alternative in maintaining health. Data on women of working age (18-55) from the 1979 [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey were used to test this hypothesis for three measures of health status and three of illness behavior....It is...suggested that social statuses and arrangements affect illness behavior more than they affect health status. Implications for social integration and social regulation theory are discussed."
Correspondence: O. Anson, Department of Sociology of Health, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20674 Caselli, Graziella. AIDS and its possible impact on population structure and dynamics. [L'AIDS e il suo possibile impatto sulla struttura e sulla dinamica della popolazione.] Materiali di Studi e di Ricerche, No. 10, Oct 1987. 28 pp. Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The author first discusses the development of AIDS and its geographical distribution, with particular reference to the cities of New York and San Francisco in the United States and Kinshasa in Zaire. She then considers the characteristics of the population at risk and the most important components for the spread of the disease. She concludes with an examination of the possible effects of the disease on the structure and dynamics of a population.
Correspondence: Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20675 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Yoddumnern-Attig, Bencha; Singhadej, Orapin. The effect of reduced family size on the status of MCH in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 121, ISBN 974-586-416-1. Jul 1988. [xvi], 148 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
The impact of family size on health in Thailand is examined, with a focus on maternal and child health (MCH). Data were collected in 1985 and are for 2,583 women from remote regions of both northern and southern Thailand who were interviewed concerning socioeconomic status, fertility, family planning, and health-related issues. A subsample of 1,622 women and their children under five years of age were also given physical examinations. Information is included on nuptiality patterns, ideal and actual family size, pregnancy history, as well as contraceptive knowledge and use. The authors conclude that reduced family size can be shown to have positive and direct benefits on both maternal and child health. They also suggest that the findings support the case for integrating MCH and family planning services.
Correspondence: IPSR, Mahidol University, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakornpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20676 Kaseje, Dan C. O.; Otieno, Tabitha A.; Odera, Perez; Ahmed, Shahana; Verjee, Nizar. Health information systems: the Aga Khan Health Service, Kisumu primary health care project. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 3.1.23-39 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the information system developed by the Aga Khan Health Service in Kisumu District, Kenya. "This paper reviews the three levels of information system with a view to determining not only their utility but also their sustainability and replicability without substantial external inputs of resources and specialized personnel. The usefulness of other sources of routine data are also considered in an attempt to suggest a possible information system that would be sustainable by any ministry of health and based at the district level....The rate of use of services has been correlated with the intermediate and final outcomes to determine whether high use of services may in fact reflect lower mortality rates in a given area and vice versa."
Correspondence: D. C. O. Kaseje, Aga Khan Health Service, Kisumu PHC, P.O. Box 530, Kisumu, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20677 Mbacke, Cheikh. Some difficulties concerning the measurement of child mortality for the purpose of evaluating health programs in Africa. [Quelques difficultes liees a la mesure de la mortalite des enfants pour l'evaluation des programmes de sante en Afrique.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 3.1.1-22 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes an approach to the evaluation of health programs in Africa that uses measurements of child mortality trends. "Evaluation of health programmes may be done on the basis of a study of changes in the mortality of children who are the most vulnerable group. This paper examines the problems of measuring programme impact on the basis of mortality changes [using data collected in Bamako, Mali, since 1976]. The relevance of mortality change as an indicator is discussed....The results of the testing of this approach in Bamako are presented and the related problems discussed. It proved to [perform well] and its generalization is accordingly recommended."
Correspondence: C. Mbacke, CERPOD, BP 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20678 McKeown, Thomas. The origins of human disease. ISBN 0-631-15505-8. LC 88-14449. 1988. vi, 233 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The focus of this study is on the relationships among conditions of life, health, and population growth. Part 1 is concerned with these relationships during the three major historical periods of human society: hunting and gathering, agricultural, and industrial. Part 2 concentrates on the origins of disease, in which diseases are classified into three main types: prenatal diseases, diseases of poverty, and diseases of affluence. Part 3 is about the control of disease. The author concludes that nutrition has played a key role in mortality and morbidity over the course of human history. He further notes that the change from a hunting and gathering society to an agricultural one was primarily due to population growth and population pressure, and that this development had a major impact on disease, both through dietary changes and the increased opportunity for the spread of infectious diseases. These changes were accelerated during the period of industrialization.
Correspondence: Basil Blackwell, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20679 Onyemunwa, Patricia. Health care practices and use of health services as factors affecting child survival in Benin City, Nigeria. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 3.1.41-55 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author assesses the effects of services provided by the Nigerian National Basic Health Services Scheme, with a focus on factors affecting child survival in Benin City. It is found that "the correlated risk ratios were lower where maternal and child health facilities provided under the primary health scheme were used or where practices such as length of breast feeding have followed those advocated under the programme. Differentials in the expected direction were also observed with regard to parity, maternal age, socio-economic and environmental factors."
Correspondence: P. Onyemunwa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 99 Gower Street, London W.C.1, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20680 Wasserheit, Judith N.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Chakraborty, J.; Kay, Bradford A.; Mason, Karen J. Reproductive tract infections in a family planning population in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 69-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This population-based study examines the magnitude and nature of morbidity due to reproductive tract infections among users of various contraceptive methods and among nonusers in a rural community in Bangladesh. Overall, 22 percent of the 2,929 women surveyed reported symptoms of reproductive tract infection....Users of intrauterine devices and tubectomy were each approximately four times as likely to report symptoms and seven times as likely to have examination-confirmed infection as nonusers. The epidemiology of reproductive tract infections in this population is addressed, and the findings are discussed in terms of their potential programmatic impact."
Correspondence: J. N. Wasserheit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21217. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20681 Winikoff, Beverly; Castle, Mary A. The maternal depletion syndrome: clinical diagnosis or eco-demographic condition? Biology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1988. 163-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Since the late 1970's, the 'maternal depletion syndrome' has become a shorthand term for the deleterious effects of multiple or close cycles of pregnancy and lactation on maternal nutrition. Evidence for a clinical syndrome is not clear, however. This paper critically reviews the empirical evidence for the hypothesis that maternal depletion is a logical causative link between short birth intervals and infant mortality....It is concluded that reference to 'the maternal depletion syndrome' must include socio-economic conditions, maternal work and general health environment." Data are from World Health Organization studies conducted in nine countries in 1976 and 1981, and several smaller studies conducted between 1970 and 1985.
Correspondence: B. Winikoff, International Programs, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

55:20682 Harper, Peter S.; Sunderland, Eric. Genetic and population studies in Wales. ISBN 0-7083-0867-8. LC 87-123118. 1986. vii, 432 pp. University of Wales Press: Cardiff, Wales. In Eng.
This book consists of 23 chapters on aspects of the Welsh population, with an emphasis on population genetics and on the differences observed within Wales. Some chapters of demographic interest are included concerning demographic studies in Pembrokeshire, the historical demography of Wales, parish registers as sources of data, and the Cardiff Births Survey, which was inaugurated in 1965.
Correspondence: University of Wales Press, 6 Gwennyth St. Cathays, Cardiff CF2 4YD, Wales. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20683 Letourneau, Esther; Mayer, Francine M. A model for analyzing ascending genealogies. [Un modele d'analyse de genealogie ascendante.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 2, Autumn 1988. 213-32 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper presents a model of ascending genealogies, with the definition and investigation of the functions allowing for the study of these genealogies as well as with the main algorithms used in operationalizing the model on a micro-computer. Examples of the type of results one may obtain with this model are provided; they concern file outputs as well as the computation of consanguinity and completeness coefficients." The examples provided concern the island of Saint Barthelemy, Guadeloupe.
Correspondence: F. M. Mayer, Equipe de Recherches sur la Dynamique des Populations Humaines [EDYPH], Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Universite du Quebec, CP 8888 Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20684 Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N.; Boyce, A. J. Human mating patterns. Society for the Study of Human Biology Symposium, No. 28, ISBN 0-521-33432-2. LC 88-27534. 1988. vi, 237 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a two-day meeting on human mating patterns, sponsored by the Society for the Study of Human Biology and held at the Pauling Centre for Human Sciences at the University of Oxford in April 1986. "The first session was concerned with historical and demographic aspects of mating patterns. This was followed by three papers reviewing mate choice and assortative mating. On the second day the sessions dealt with the medical and biological aspects of inbreeding and the meeting concluded with reviews of social, religious and cultural aspects of the subject." The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20685 Mayer, Francine M.; Lavoie, Yolande; Letourneau, Esther; Lavoie, Jacynthe. A program of research on biocultural dynamics. [Un programme de recherches sur la dynamique bioculturelle.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 2, Autumn 1988. 289-98 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The objective of the research program presented in this note is to analyse the interrelations between biological and social factors in the process of demographic renewal. Population registers of various communities, among them those of Saint-Barthelemy (French Antilles) and Ile-aux-Coudres (Quebec), are used. The genealogies which were obtained from these registers contribute to the study of genetical epidemiology. The research program also includes the identification of social factors which may have contributed to the biological structure of the communities under study."
Correspondence: F. M. Mayer, EDYPH, Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Universite du Quebec, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20686 Philippe, P. Selection intensities in mothers of twins and in mothers of singletons. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 285-92 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Selection intensities are examined in mothers of twins and mothers of singletons in an isolated population living in Isle-aux-Coudres, Canada. "After appropriate adjustment for the increased family size of mothers of twins, results show that selection intensities are greater in twin-bearing mothers than in controls. The fertility component of the selection index is lower than that of mortality if childless women are taken into account. However, the index of opportunity for selection is rather low by current standards but, given the methodology used, should reflect genetic rather than environmental selection. Notwithstanding, it would be difficult to explain the recent change in the twinning rates in the population by the actual level of selection indices."
Correspondence: P. Philippe, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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