Volume 55 - Number 2 - Summer 1989

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

55:20475 Abumere, S. I. Changing patterns of population movements and economic development in the ECOWAS region. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.1.1-15 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author investigates changes in patterns of population migration and economic development in the ECOWAS region, which is made up of 16 Western African countries that formed an economic community in 1980. "In the history of this region, from pre-colonial to post-colonial periods, it is possible to recognize distinct periods within which movement patterns have differed, not only with respect to volume and origin/destination patterns, but also with respect to causes or influences. This paper attempts to assess population movements in relation to these periods. The term movement is used here in a general sense to include both permanent and temporary migrations....The discussion in this paper has...necessarily been restricted to the countries for which data are available."
Correspondence: S. I. Abumere, Department of Geography, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20476 Bartiaux, Francoise. A household approach to the analysis of elderly migration: a comparison between Italy and the United States. [Une etude par menage des migrations des personnes agees: comparaison des resultats pour l'Italie et les Etats-Unis.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 2, Autumn 1988. 247-71 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Who moves among the elderly? With whom do the elderly move? With whom will they stay once they have migrated? These are the main questions discussed in this paper. On the basis of a sample of individual data obtained from the censuses of Italy and the United States, data which were analysed by taking the household--and not, as is traditionally done, the individual--as the observation unit, the author concludes that there are some significant differences between the two countries as far as migration behavior of the elderly is concerned, even if there are also many similarities."
Correspondence: F. Bartiaux, Institut de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20477 Cushing, Brian J. Use and misuse of the allocation rate in models of population migration. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 23, No. 1, May 1989. 51-8 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"In empirical work on population migration, researchers have utilized many different measures of migration. One measure that is used periodically is an 'allocation rate', most commmonly defined as the number of persons moving from origin i to destination j during the time period divided by the total number of outmigrants from origin i during the period....In this paper, previous work on allocation rates is discussed and one study is replicated for the 1975 to 1980 period. It is demonstrated that inclusion of origin variables in such models is theoretically incorrect and results in substantial biases in empirical work. Inclusion of ratios of destination-to-origin variables is valid only with a very narrow interpretation." Data are from the 1960 U.S. census.
Correspondence: B. J. Cushing, Department of Economics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6025. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20478 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Bando, Rieko. Major findings of the Second National Survey on Migration in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 188, Oct 1988. 63-72 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors analyze data from the Second National Migration Survey conducted in 1986 in Japan. Topics covered include trends in migration by province, family characteristics, and age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20479 Kindahl, James; Sutton, Gordon F. Age-migration benchmarks: studying initial migration from parental community. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 75-7 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Preliminary results are discussed of a study of the relationship between migration and change in local economies. The focus is on developing measures of out-migration response in areas showing changes in local economies. Data are from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a national longitudinal study of 5,000 families in the United States.
Correspondence: J. Kindahl, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20480 McCall, B. P.; McCall, J. J. A sequential study of migration and job search. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, Pt. 1, Oct 1987. 452-76 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper designs a multiarmed bandit (MAB) sequential model for the analysis of the migration-job search process. The implications either are compatible with well-known migration behavior or, when novel, are also plausible. For example, regions with large wage variability attract migrants, and regions with large nonpecuniary returns increase both in migration and out migration. A major advantage of this approach is the relative ease with which martingale estimators can be derived from the martingale structure of the model. These martingale methods are exemplified for the return migration phenomenon."
Correspondence: B. P. McCall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

55:20481 Oucho, John O. The relationship between internal and international migration: concepts, methodology and interpretation. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.3.15-29 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between internal and international migration not only in general terms but also in the African context. The [second] section of the paper identifies and defines basic concepts of migration. Section three discusses methodology adopted in collecting data and estimating migration. The final section analyses interpretation of migration from the available data as well as from potential data sets."
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi, POB 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20482 Prothero, R. Mansell. International and internal migration: some African perspectives. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.3.31-8 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Suggestions are made for ending conventional distinctions between international and internal migration which have limited relevance in Africa. Adequate means do not exist for measuring forms of population movement which are important in Africa and which are relevant for realistic social and economic planning. There is need to devise means for undertaking truly comparative cross-cultural studies of circulation, with an adequate longitudinal perspective which will allow processes and changes over time to be evaluated."
Correspondence: R. M. Prothero, University of Liverpool, POB 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20483 Sandefur, Gary D.; Jeon, Jiwon. Migration, race, and ethnicity, 1960-1980. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-50, 1988. 32, [6] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines racial/ethnic differences and similarities in migration by analyzing interstate and interregional migration among native-born Asian Americans, blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and whites. More specifically, the paper examines the prevalence and determinants of interstate migration, patterns of interregional migration, and the extent to which these patterns changed during the period from 1960 to 1980....[It is noted that] significant differences in regional distribution and region-to-region migration patterns between whites and minority groups persist." Data are from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 U.S. censuses.
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 495).
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20484 Trager, Lillian. The city connection: migration and family interdependence in the Philippines. ISBN 0-472-09390-8. LC 88-22342. 1988. xvi, 218 pp. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Migration in the Philippines is analyzed through an examination of migrants in Dagupan City, a provincial city in the lowland Philippines. The focus of the study is on the ties maintained between migrants and family members residing elsewhere. Data, collected in 1978-1979, are from a series of in-depth family case studies, which include biographical information on individual migrants and their relatives, and data on interactions among family members. "These case studies are placed into the larger structural context, including data on urban and regional economic patterns, migration patterns, and features of Filipino culture and social structure that affect migration." The study indicates how migration of all kinds plays an important role in increasing a family's income.
Correspondence: University of Michigan Press, 639 Greene Street, POB 1104, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20485 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]. Population and Hospital Statistics Division (London, England). Migration in 1987. Population Trends, No. 54, Winter 1988. 32-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data for international and internal migration affecting the United Kingdom are presented. The data on international migration are for 1986 and 1987 and are presented by citizenship, sex, country of last residence, and area of residence in the United Kingdom. The data for internal migration are also for 1986 and 1987.
Correspondence: Population and Hospital Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20486 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Geographical mobility: March 1986 to March 1987. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 430, Apr 1989. v, 120 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Detailed statistics on U.S. migration are provided for the year March 1986 to March 1987 using data from the March 1987 Current Population Survey. In the introductory text, attention is given to annual rates of moving, the characteristics of movers, metropolitan mobility patterns, and regional patterns of moving. In most cases, data are provided by sex, race, and age.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

55:20487 Adepoju, Aderanti. Overview of international labour migration in Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.3.1-14 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author presents a broad overview of international labor migration in Africa. Topics considered include regional migration flows; primary labor sending and receiving countries; patterns and characteristics of labor migration; the formation of ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States; the effects of labor migration on the sending countries; the brain drain; and migration policy.
Correspondence: A. Adepoju, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20488 Arsenov, Sava. Past, present, and future migration trends in Yugoslavia. [Poreklo, stanje i perspektive jugoslovenskih migracija.] Kadrovi i Udruzeni Rad, Vol. 18, No. 5, 1988. 293-300 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Past, current, and future trends in international labor migration from Yugoslavia are examined. Emphasis is on the implications of such trends for policy-making in Yugoslavia concerning employment, since generally such migration is intended to be temporary.
Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20489 Bankole, Akinrinola. Migration status and investment in rural productive activities: evidence from Oyo State, Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 249-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper presents an attempt to investigate the differential contributions of return migrants and non migrants [in Nigeria] to rural economy with respect to their level of investment in rural productive activities. The study is [a] sequel to the controversy generated by the selectivity theory which tends to suggest that return migrants are superior to, and more enterprising than non migrants. The relevant data were collected from 363 returnees and non migrants....An examination of the differential characteristics of the two groups shows that returnees are slightly superior to their non migrant counterparts. The differential characteristics seem to translate to differences in investment level and the general conclusion is that return migrants are likely to invest more in rural productive activities than non migrants."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20490 Bustamante, Jorge A. Mexican migration to the United States: defacto rules. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, Vol. 5, No. 3, Autumn 1988. 225-36 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Migration from Mexico to the United States is viewed very differently by those two nations. The United States perspective is that of illegal immigrants invading their nation, especially during times of national unemployment. From the Mexican perspective, people migrate across the border in response to quite predictable labor supply and demand pressures. The fact that for many years the United States held undocumented labor to be punishable for the worker but not for the employer suggests a tacit recognition of the labor supply/demand factor, but a recognition tainted by discrimination."
Correspondence: J. A. Bustamante, P.O. Box L, Chula Vista, CA 92012. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20491 Centro Studi Emigrazione (Rome, Italy). Proceedings of the Conference on the Foreign Presence in Italy. [Atti del Convegno su la Presenza Straniera in Italia.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 25, No. 91-92, Sep-Dec 1988. 299-653 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference on the foreign presence in Italy, held in Rome, December 17-18, 1987. The contributed papers are grouped under the headings of information systems concerning the foreign population; the current status of university research; and future prospects for research, policy, and migration flows. The papers are in Italian, with the exception of a French paper concerning the situation in France and an English paper concerning illegal migration in the United States.
Correspondence: Centro Studi Emigrazione, Via Dandolo 58, 00153 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20492 Cremer, Georg. Deployment of Indonesian migrants in the Middle East: present situation and prospects. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Dec 1988. 73-86 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the Indonesian overseas employment program. It is limited to overseas deployment through the official channels, i.e. organised by licensed labour suppliers and approved by government authorities. The main destination of this official labour migration is the Middle East. Indonesian officials have indicated that the government aims to increase overseas employment and to shift deployment from houseworkers to better skilled workers. It is argued in the paper that, in view of a shrinking labour market for migrants, even limited realisation of these hopes would depend upon some distinct changes in the overseas employment program."
Correspondence: G. Cremer, Research and Documentation Centre for Manpower and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20493 Diamond, Ian; Clarke, Sue. Demographic patterns among Britain's ethnic groups. In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 177-98 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Trends in international migration to Great Britain are discussed, with particular attention given to migrant populations from the New Commonwealth and Pakistan. "The chapter will start by describing the extent of post-Second-World-War immigration by identifying trends in the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the migrants and their regional distribution. It then discusses recent patterns of nuptiality, fertility, morbidity and mortality within different ethnic communities." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: I. Diamond, Department of Demography, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20494 Findlay, A. M. From settlers to skilled transients: the changing structure of British international migration. Geoforum, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1988. 401-10 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines trends in British emigration using the results of the International Passenger Survey. Settlement emigration has declined in importance while in the early 1980s temporary skilled labour transfers have become dominant. Two parallel mechanisms are proposed to explain the regional patterns of skilled emigration, with particular emphasis being given to the role of international recruitment agencies in controlling which skills are sought in certain regional labour markets."
Correspondence: A. M. Findlay, Department of Geography, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20495 Findley, Sally E.; Ouedraogo, Dieudonne; Ouaidou, Nassour. From seasonal migration to international migration: an analysis of the factors affecting the choices made by families of the Senegal River valley. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.3.39-53 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Trends in seasonal emigration from Africa's Senegal River valley, comprising Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania, are analyzed, with a focus on reasons why some individuals migrate to France and some to other African destinations. "The underlying premise of this study is that the migrants who end up in France are members of households and communities which differ significantly from those who have members who have migrated to African destinations....In particular, we expect that the household's demographic structure, ethnicity, prior migration experience, diversity and level of economic activities affect...migration choice."
Correspondence: S. E. Findley, Mali and African Studies Center, Boston University, 147 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20496 Friedberg, Asher; Kfir, Aharon. Jewish emigration from Israel. Jewish Journal of Sociology, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jun 1988. 5-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Issues raised by the emigration of Jews from Israel are discussed. The primary focus is on the debate within Israel concerning what measures could be taken to reduce emigration levels or to induce emigrants to return to Israel.
Correspondence: A. Friedberg, Department of Political Science, Haifa University, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20497 Gould, W. T. S. Skilled international labour migration. Geoforum, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1988. 381-445 pp. Pergamon Press: Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains five papers on aspects of the international migration of skilled labor.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Pergamon Press, Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10253. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20498 Gould, William T. S. Government policies and international migration of skilled workers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Geoforum, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1988. 433-45 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between the international migration of skilled labor and government policies affecting migration both directly and indirectly in Sub-Saharan Africa is explored. "At an intercontinental scale the deleterious effects of the global division of labour have not merely been passively accepted; within the continent new patterns of skilled-labour migration have been created by increasingly differentiated economic performance and political relationships. A case study of Kenya, a country of small current net immigration of skilled workers, is used to specify some of the processes that establish the relationships between immigration and emigration policies, and how these have been mediated by conditions for skilled workers."
Correspondence: W. T. S. Gould, Department of Geography, Liverpool University, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20499 Hogan, Robert. A pack of dole bludgers? The distribution and selected characteristics of the New Zealand born population in Australia. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1988. 19-45 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to use demographic data to test [the] stereotype of the New Zealander [migrant] in Australia [as intent on exploiting the Australian social security system] and with it the idea that New Zealanders are of inferior 'quality' to other overseas born populations in Australia. At the same time it should be possible to offer some comment on the other stereotyped image which has emerged in relation to New Zealanders migrating to Australia--that of the Trans-Tasman 'brain drain' from New Zealand....The analysis is based largely on 1986 Census results." The author examines characteristics of this migrant population, including age distribution, spatial distribution, occupational levels, labor force participation, and length of residence in Australia.
Correspondence: R. Hogan, Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs, P.O. Box 25, Belconnen ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20500 Icart, Jean-Claude. Haitian emigration. [l'emigration haitienne.] Equinoxe, Vol. 12, No. 25, Jan 1988. 39-55 pp. Cayenne, French Guyana. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Past and present trends in emigration from Haiti are reviewed. The author notes that over one million persons, or about one-sixth of the native-born population, are currently living abroad. This out-migration occurred primarily during the period of U.S. occupation from 1915 to 1934 and since the 1960s during the Duvalier regime. This migration has recently changed significantly in type, volume, and destination. The reasons for these changes are discussed.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20501 Iredale, R. Barriers to migrant entry to occupations in Australia. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 27, No. 1, Mar 1989. 87-108 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author makes a case for analyzing the process in Australia by which immigrants' occupational qualifications are reassessed so that migrants may become eligible to enter the labor force at the appropriate occupational level. It is concluded that the main reasons for such a reappraisal are the buoyancy of the Australian labor market and the need for skilled labor.
Correspondence: R. Iredale, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20502 Jensen, Leif. The new immigration: implications for poverty and public assistance utilization. Studies in Social Welfare Policies and Programs, No. 10, ISBN 0-313-26455-4. LC 88-25096. 1989. xiv, 205 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The nature and extent of poverty among immigrants to the United States from 1960 to 1980 is explored, with emphasis on public assistance utilization. The author first reviews U.S. immigration history, focusing on issues relevant to poverty and the receipt of public assistance. The research methodology is then described, and the results of the analysis are presented. A multivariate model of poverty at the family level is developed. The author concludes that there is some support for concerns that the increase in immigration during this period led to an increase in levels of poverty and welfare utilization among immigrants. However, although there is ample evidence that the level of poverty among immigrants increased, there is little evidence of a commensurate rise in the propensity of families to receive public assistance.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20503 Le Cointre, Gilles; Hoarau, Bertrand; Davisse, Yves. Migration special (Part 2). [Special migration (2e partie).] Economie de la Reunion, No. 31, Sep-Oct 1987. 20 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]. Service Regional de la Reunion: Sainte Clothilde, Reunion. In Fre.
This special issue presents a review of international migration as it concerns Reunion. Articles examine the economic activity of emigrants in metropolitan France, unemployment and employment, return migration and economic activity of returning migrants, and immigration to Reunion and the characteristics of immigrants.
Correspondence: INSEE, Service Regional de la Reunion, 15 rue de l'Ecole, Ste.-Clotilde 97490, Reunion. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20504 Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [STATEC] (Luxembourg). The demographic aspects of immigration. [Aspects demographiques de l'immigration.] Bulletin du STATEC, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1989. 16 pp. Luxembourg. In Fre.
Trends in immigration to Luxembourg are analyzed using official data. The report describes the characteristics and vital rates of the foreign population in Luxembourg.
Correspondence: STATEC, BP 304, 19-21 Boulevard Royal, 2013 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20505 McKee, Brian; Vlassoff, Carol; Samuel, T. J. An analysis of current Canadian emigration to the United States. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 67-86 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper describes the flow of Canadians to the United States. Through an analysis of data from 1960 to the present, it presents a comprehensive demographic and socioeconomic profile of the single most important flow of Canadian emigrants. Other studies on the emigration of Canadians to the United States are briefly examined and possible causes of the migratory flow are identified. The paper concludes with an analysis of the effects of selected economic and non-economic factors on Canadian emigration. Through the examination of the projected performances of the Canadian and American economies and future immigration legislation in the United States, the authors attempt to indicate future trends in emigration from Canada to the United States."
Correspondence: B. McKee, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20506 Mitra, S. An analysis of the consequences of certain patterns of immigration. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 401-5 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A model is presented that determines the eventual age composition of an immigrant population relative to the native population. The model considers two different types of immigration policies: one that permits entry each year to a fixed number of immigrants with unchanging age composition, and another that maintains a constant schedule of age-specific immigration rates.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20507 Molle, Willem; van Mourik, Aad. International movements of labour under conditions of economic integration: the case of Western Europe. Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, Mar 1988. 317-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The dynamics of labor migration in and among the countries of the European Community are reviewed. The authors show that the elimination of legal barriers to migration has been followed by a decline rather than an increase in international labor migration. As of 1980, only two percent of the European labor force is comprised of foreigners.
Correspondence: W. Molle, University of Limburg, Universitaire Campus, 3610 Diepenbeek, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20508 Mullan, B. P. The impact of social networks on the occupational status of migrants. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 27, No. 1, Mar 1989. 69-86 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The objective of this paper was to add an additional dimension to the conventional view of migrants' status attainment as being chiefly determined by socio-economic characteristics. This extra dimension postulates that migrants to the [United States] do not act socially or economically independently of other migrants who may be at different stages of the migrant process. Rather, there is a continuous exchange of information and knowledge between those who share the common bond of having migrated to the [United States]. The shape and form of the individual components of this information exchange constitute 'social networks'....[Findings indicate] social position can be strongly influenced by a migrant's ability to tap into a variety of informal networks, the importance of which vary across socio-economic covariates." Data were collected from rural....communities during 1982-83 and from out-migrants....in 1983. in 1983.
Correspondence: B. P. Mullan, Policy Research Institute, The Queen's University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20509 Orubuloye, I. Olatunji. Recent immigration of West African citizens into Nigeria. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.1.57-68 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author investigates recent trends in the migration from the rest of Western Africa to Nigeria. The objectives are "to discuss the characteristics of the migrants, the motivating factors for migrating into Nigeria, the mode and cost of migrating into Nigeria and the mechanisms of adjustment; and to examine the socio-economic and political implications of illegal movement of population within the sub-region." Data are from a 1983 survey of 2,203 migrants to Nigeria from other Western African countries.
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Department of Sociology, Ondo State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20510 Piesowicz, Kazimierz. Major migratory movements, 1945-1950, Part I. [Wielkie ruchy migracyjne w latach, 1945-1950, Czesc I.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/94, 1988. 51-90 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes major trends in international migration concerning Poland between the years 1945 and 1950. The displacement of the population from the USSR and from elsewhere to Poland after World War II is documented. The return migration of people who left Poland prior to 1939 and returned during the post-war period is also discussed. Attention is paid to the available data concerning the number of people of German origin present in Polish territory in 1946.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20511 Rosoli, Gianfausto. European emigration and the Brazilian people. Proceedings of the Euro-Brazilian Congress on Migration (Sao Paulo, August 19-21, 1985). [Emigrazioni europee e popolo brasiliano. Atti del Congresso Euro-Brasiliano sulle Migrazioni (Sao Paulo, 19-21 agosto 1985).] ISBN 88-85438-16-4. 1987. 445 pp. Centro Studi Emigrazione: Rome, Italy. In Fre; Ita; Por.
These are the proceedings of a conference on migration from Europe to Brazil, held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in August 1985. The papers, which are in Italian, French, or Portuguese, are grouped under three main headings. The first section has nine papers that deal with socio-juridical issues, focusing on immigration policy, the treatment of immigrant workers, illegal immigration, and cultural and scientific cooperation between countries of origin and destination. The second section includes nine papers on European immigration to Brazil, primarily from Italy, from 1824 to 1980. The third section contains seven papers on socio-anthropological topics, including ethnic minorities in Brazil, cultural aspects of immigration, and the impact of immigration on agriculture.
Correspondence: Centro Studi Emigrazione, Via Dandolo 58, 00153 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20512 Salt, John. Highly-skilled international migrants, careers and internal labour markets. Geoforum, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1988. 387-99 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper is addressed to the interplay of careers and internal labour markets (ILMs) in explaining the international migration of professional and technical personnel, particularly within transnational corporations (TNCs). It begins by reviewing the current state of the theoretical art, focusing on five main elements: the international spatial division of labour; the concept of career; the organization of ILMs; the lubrication of the migration system by recruitment, placement and relocation agencies; and reintegration of returning expatriates. There follows a discussion of selected aspects of the volume and characteristics of ILM migrations among the highly-skilled, using government, employer organization's and individual company data."
Correspondence: J. Salt, Department of Geography, University College, 26 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20513 Sanchez-Albornoz, Nicolas. Spaniards to America: mass emigration, 1880-1930. [Espanoles hacia America: la emigracion en masa, 1880-1930.] Alianza America Monografias, No. 20, ISBN 84-206-4220-7. 1988. 346 pp. Alianza Editorial: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This work, which is the product of a series of conferences held in Spain between 1984 and 1987, is a compilation of studies by various authors concerning migration from Spain to the Americas from 1880 to 1930. An introductory chapter gives a general overview of migration in this period, during which some 4 million Spaniards migrated to the Americas. The first part contains eight papers on emigration as it affected the various regions of Spain. The second part presents six papers on the situation in the countries of immigration, including Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico.
Correspondence: Alianza Editorial, Calle Milan 38, 28043 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20514 Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth M. Caribbean skilled international migration and the transnational household. Geoforum, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1988. 423-32 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper briefly outlines the occupational profile of Caribbean migrants and raises questions concerning the extent to which migrant outflow represents absolute loss....It is argued that circulation is not confined to commuter-type mobility but in the Caribbean it is also a feature of long-stay migration and the establishment of what are effectively transnational households. Though the characteristics and spatial behaviour of the household vary with the specific migration type, the transnational household provides a more appropriate model for analysing Caribbean migration and its implications than does the model based on migration as displacement."
Correspondence: E. M. Thomas-Hope, Department of Geography, Liverpool University, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20515 Verdugo Lazo, Aida C. G.; Rathie, Pushpa N. An information measure and integration of immigrants. Janasamkhya, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jun 1988. 49-56 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
The integration of migrants from Japan, Portugal, Spain, and Italy into the population of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period 1931-1976 is analyzed by comparing marriage data for endogamy and sex.
Correspondence: A. C. G. Verdugo Lazo, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, CP 1170, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20516 White, Paul. Skilled international migrants and urban structure in Western Europe. Geoforum, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1988. 411-22 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The few existing empirical studies of high-status migrants in Western European cities suggest that classical urban models describing and explaining the segregation of immigrant groups in the city do not apply to these movers. When compared to low-status movers of the recent past, high-status movers display certain marked differences, particularly in the presence of dependants from the outset and in voluntary extensive employer involvement in housing provision or search, but there are also similarities in their restriction to the privately-rented housing sector. The characteristics and location of high-status migrants and of gastarbeiter in Vienna are here compared, demonstrating that there is a need for new urban models to deal with high-status migrant settlement in Western European cities."
Correspondence: P. White, Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

55:20517 Berry, Brian J. L. Migration reversals in perspective: the long-wave evidence. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1988. 245-51 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"Although the pattern of polarization reversal reported by Vining and Pallone in the 1970s and the re-emergence of core-ward net migration that they now report for the 1980s are problematic if viewed from the perspective of a short-term time horizon, they are easily understandable in a long-wave context. Evidence is provided for 55-year waves of urbanward migration [in the United States], each of which reached its nadir during the nation's major stagflation crises. The periodic repetitions of the phenomena described by Vining and Pallone suggest the relevance of the interpretations provided by long-wave theory."
For the study by Daniel R. Vining and Robert Pallone, published in 1982, see 49:20580.
Correspondence: B. J. L. Berry, School of Social Sciences, University of Texas, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20518 Champion, Anthony G. The reversal of the migration turnaround: resumption of traditional trends? International Regional Science Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1988. 253-60 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"Cochrane and Vining's study of recent trends in core-periphery migration, while suffering from some weaknesses in methodology and interpretation, confirms very clearly that the reversal of the metropolitan migration turnaround is a widespread phenomenon in the developed non-Communist world. Evidence from the United Kingdom also supports this observation. An examination of the possible factors responsible for the rise and fall of counterurbanization over the past two decades suggests that two major forces--population deconcentration and regional restructuring--are operating simultaneously but relatively independently and that they both fluctuate in their nature and strength over time in response to prevailing demographic and economic circumstances."
For the study by Steven G. Cochrane and Daniel R. Vining, also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, Department of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20519 Champion, Tony. Internal migration and the spatial distribution of population. In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 110-32 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter outlines the main changes which are taking place in the spatial distribution of the British population and examines the migration patterns which form the principal mechanism behind these trends. Particular attention is given to the accentuation of the drift from North to South since the late 1970s, the current scale of population deconcentration from the major metropolitan centres to smaller towns and more rural areas, and the emerging population patterns in the so-called 'inner city areas'." Attention is also paid to the importance of subnational perspectives and the inadequacy of data on local area populations. The author concludes with a discussion of the challenges of population redistribution and associated social polarization.
Correspondence: T. Champion, Department of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20520 Cochrane, Steven G.; Vining, Daniel R. Recent trends in migration between core and peripheral regions in developed and advanced developing countries. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1988. 215-43 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"The main finding of this article is that net internal migration to the core regions in the countries of the developed world, which subsided in the 1970s, increased in the 1980s, although not to the level of the 1960s. In some countries of northwest Europe there is a balance now in net flows between core and periphery. In the countries of the periphery of Europe and Japan net internal migration to the core regions increased slightly in the 1980s. Net migration flows to the periphery have completely reversed in Canada, and net flows out of the core regions of the United States have been significantly reduced. In eastern Europe, however, there is still moderate net migration to the core regions without any interruption as seen in western Europe, North America, and Japan. In South Korea and Taiwan rates of net migration to the core regions have been reduced from their high levels of the 1970s, but they are still quite high and show no clear sign of a break from the past."
Correspondence: S. G. Cochrane, Department of Regional Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6209. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20521 Congdon, Peter. Modelling migration flows between areas: an analysis for London using the census and OPCS Longitudinal Study. Regional Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1989. 87-103 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper analyses migration between the London boroughs using a discrete probability model, but with a correction for excess dispersion to that expected under the Poisson process. Two sources of migration data are used: one-year migration from the 1981 Census; and ten-year migration from the OPCS Longitudinal Study. The evidence from both sets is that both housing and labour market factors are relevant to explaining interborough migration, in addition to the distance and mass terms of the basic gravity model. The labour market effects suggest that migration generally equilibrates differences in excess labour supply between the boroughs, though less strongly in the recession year 1980-81."
Correspondence: P. Congdon, Population and Statistics Group, London Research Centre, Parliament House, 81 Black Prince Road, London SE1 7SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20522 De Meo, Giuseppe. The economic effects of migration and the South-North gap. [Effetti economici delle migrazioni e divario Sud-Nord.] Rivista di Storia Economica, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1988. 151-72 pp. Turin, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the economic effects of migration in Italy, with a focus on the role of large-scale movements from the South to the North. He notes that despite government policy designed to promote economic growth in the South, the economic gap between the South and the more prosperous North has in fact widened in recent years. The author calculates that during the 30-year period from 1951 to 1981, the total advantage gained by the central and northern regions through migration from the South is the equivalent of 3.7 times the gross domestic product of Italy in 1986.
Correspondence: G. De Meo, Universita degli Studi La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20523 Fielding, A. J. Inter-regional migration and social change: a study of South East England based upon data from the Longitudinal Study. Institute of British Geographers: Transactions, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1989. 24-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data from the [Office of Population Censuses and Surveys] Longitudinal Study are used to trace the social class effects of migration between the South East region and the rest of England and Wales in the period 1971-81. The analysis begins with the migration streams into and out of the South East of those people who were in the labour market (including the unemployed) at both census dates. The paper then proceeds to an analysis of the migration streams of those who entered or left the labour market between 1971 and 1981. Finally, the effects of the migration streams on the social class composition of both the South East and the rest of England and Wales are summarised. The results are interpreted in the light of debates about change in the British urban and regional system."
Correspondence: A. J. Fielding, Department of Geography, School of Social Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20524 Frey, William H. The re-emergence of core region growth: a return to the metropolis? International Regional Science Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1988. 261-7 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
Recent trends in migration in the United States are reviewed, focusing on the links between regional and metropolitan population change. Three explanations for the counterurbanization phenomenon of the 1970s are presented and their implications for future migration trends considered. The author concludes that "while 1970s core region declines may have been strongly linked to the counterurbanization process, post-1980 core region gains do not appear to signal a return to the metropolis."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20525 Greenwood, Michael J.; Hunt, Gary L. Jobs versus amenities in the analysis of metropolitan migration. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan 1989. 1-16 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"This paper demonstrates that jobs and wages are considerably more important than location-specific amenities in explaining net metropolitan migration of employed persons [in the United States]. These results, which are derived mainly from a unique set of annual migration data, differ considerably from the earlier findings of P. E. Graves...that show amenities to be powerful contributors to the analysis of net metropolitan migration. Several hypotheses are offered and tested to explain the appreciable difference between Grave's results and those of the present study, but the importance of economic factors as opposed to amenities persists."
For the study by Graves, published in 1979, see 45:3472.
Correspondence: M. J. Greenwood, Center for Economic Analysis, Campus Box 257, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20526 Hooimeijer, P.; Dieleman, F. M.; Van Dam, J. Residential mobility of households in the reduction stage in the Netherlands. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 79, No. 5, 1988. 306-18 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The residential mobility of households in the reduction stage in the Netherlands is examined. Such households are defined as those having a female head aged 47 years or older. "In this article it is shown that the propensity to move demonstrated by these households is strongly influenced by tenure of the (previous) dwelling, quality of that dwelling, and the age of the head of the household. Housing choice of moving households is mainly related to tenure of the (previous) dwelling, household composition, and the characteristics of the housing market."
Correspondence: F. Hooimeijer, Department of Geography, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20527 Hugo, Graeme. Population movement in Indonesia since 1971. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 79, No. 4, 1988. 242-56 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to overview and assess developments in the scale, types and impact of population mobility in Indonesia since 1971." Difficulties concerning the availability of data are first considered. "Using qualitative and quantitative information from a range of sources it is evident in this paper that population mobility in Indonesia has a level, scale and complexity that belies the conventional stereotyping of most Indonesians as being highly immobile, scarcely travelling beyond the well-trodden social space of their village and its immediate environs. There are many reasons to explain the increasing population movement; however, there is uncertainty surrounding future patterns of population movement in Indonesia."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, Department of Geography, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20528 Kadi, A. S.; Sivamurthy, M. Interstate migration in India: 1971-1981. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 37-50 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper is concerned with the volume, pattern, and reasons for interstate migration in India during the decade 1971-81. The data used are from the 1981 census of India tabulated on a five per cent sample basis. It is estimated that there were about 11.37 million interstate migrants during the decade 1971-81, among whom 5.93 million were females. Among the component flows between urban-rural areas, the three flows rural to rural, rural to urban, and urban to urban were almost equal in volume, while the urban to rural flow was comparatively quite small." Reasons for migration are analyzed. The results show that "the states with large industrial and urban bases, those experiencing agricultural development, and those which are favoured by government policies experienced significant immigration during the decade."
Correspondence: A. S. Kadi, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20529 Korel', L. V.; Tapilina, V. S.; Trofimov, V. A. Conceptions of the interregional migratory redistribution of the population in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic and the housing factor. [Kontseptsii mezhregional'nogo migratsionnogo pereraspredeleniya naseleniya RSFSR i zhilishchnyi faktor.] Izvestiya Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Ekonomika i Prikladnaya Sotsiologiya, Vol. 2, No. 8, May 1988. 31-9 pp. Novosibirsk, USSR. In Rus.
Factors affecting migration within the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic are explored. The authors note that the main factor influencing migration in the long term is the location of production facilities. However, in the short term, differences in standard of living are important. The authors conclude that the demand for labor and the provision of housing are the main factors affecting interregional migration, with housing playing the crucial role.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20530 Kposowa, Augustine J. The effects of opportunities and cultural differences on interregional migrations in Sierra Leone. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 4, Nov 1987. 378-96 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1974 Population Census of Sierra Leone, this study has investigated the extent to which migration occurs in response to opportunities. A disequilibrium pattern of migration was observed in Sierra Leone, with migration flows going from less to more developed regions of the country. A relatively new measure of opportunities--economic diversity--was found to have the strongest effects on interregional migration, even in the presence of some other variables used in previous research. Analyses have also shown that cultural dissimilarity is a barrier to migration and that the former is a dimension of distance."
Correspondence: A. J. Kposowa, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20531 Kuijper, H. Hardly any further increase of changes of residence in the Netherlands. [Stijging verhuizingen binnen Nederland lijkt ten einde.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 2, Feb 1989. 29-34 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in residence in the Netherlands in 1987 are examined, with separate consideration given to moves by individuals and families.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20532 Kwon, Tai-Hwan. Estimates of net internal migration for Korea 1975-85. Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center, Vol. 17, 1988. 36-69 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
Estimates of numbers and rates of internal migration in the Republic of Korea are presented by five-year age group for the five-year intercensal periods 1975-1980 and 1980-1985. The data are presented for provinces, districts, and cities. The estimates were prepared using the forward census survival ratio method.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20533 Makowska, Krystyna. Migration processes in small towns. [Procesy migracji w malych miastach.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 10, Oct 1988. 5-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Changing migration patterns in Poland and their impact on small towns are analysed with a focus on the period since the 1950s. The analysis shows that although migration previously benefited major urban areas at the expense of small towns, the migration situation of small towns has recently improved.
Correspondence: K. Makowska, Instytut Gospodarki Przestrzennej i Komunalnej, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20534 Mera, Koichi. The emergence of migration cycles? International Regional Science Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1988. 269-75 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"With a more thorough examination of population changes in the Tokyo region, this article confirms with regard to Japan the reconcentrating trend of urban population observed more clearly elsewhere by Cochrane and Vining (1988). Through an examination of the factors which led to the turnaround in the 1980s in Japan and elsewhere, it is argued that conservative economic policy, as manifested by deregulation and privatization, is the principal cause for reconcentration of urbanization in the 1980s in the economically advanced Western countries."
For the study by Steven G. Cochrane and Daniel R. Vining, also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: K. Mera, Department of Commerce, Tokyo International University, Saitama, Japan 350. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20535 Morejon Seijas, Blanca. Changes in internal migration, urbanization, and rural settlement trends in Cuba. [Zmeny v trendech vnitrni migrace, urbanizace a ve vesnickem osidleni na Kube.] Demografie, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1988. 314-22 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in internal migration in Cuba since the Revolution of 1953 are analyzed. Governmental policy and socioeconomic factors are discussed as they have influenced rural-urban migration and the spatial distribution of the population. Other factors considered are urbanization, labor migration, manpower needs, agricultural development, and the overall quality of life in Cuba.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20536 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). The relationship between migration and education. [Relation entre la migration et l'education.] Dec 1988. 52 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
The relationship between migration and educational status in Morocco is examined, with the focus on internal migration. Data are from a 1 in 60 sample from the 1982 census. The analysis also includes consideration of residence characteristics, social status, sex, economic activity, and profession of migrants. Separate consideration is given to those in the labor force and the unemployed.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20537 Nelson, Michael A.; Wyzan, Michael L. Public policy, local labor demand, and migration in Sweden, 1979-84. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1989. 247-64 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"A model of private local labor demand and interjurisdictional migration is presented and estimated using data from Swedish counties and municipalities for 1979-84. Our goal is to compare the effects on local labor markets of distinctive public-sector programs with those of traditional market variables. We find that local income taxes and tax-equalization grants have important effects on local labor markets; regional development policy measures and geographical-mobility subsidies do not. Thus, recent efforts scaling back some of these programs may not materially alter the regional economy's performance. Wages and other traditional market variables are also often found to influence significantly local labor markets."
Correspondence: M. A. Nelson, Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20538 Rietveld, Piet; Sadyadharma; Sudarno. Rural mobility in Java: the village economy and the rest of the world. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 9, No. 2, Dec 1988. 112-24 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
The effect of internal migration on rural populations in Central Java, Indonesia, is analyzed. The focus is on the relationship between the village and the outside world and how it affects the type and patterns of migration that occur. The data were collected in May 1985 in interviews with persons leaving or entering one village.
Correspondence: P. Rietveld, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1105, PB 7161, 1007 MC Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20539 Saenz, Rogelio. Mexican-American interstate migration flows among Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 3, Apr 1989. 153-7 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This study examines the interstate migration flows of Mexican Americans among five southwest states. From the 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample, a subsample of 3,311 Mexican American interstate migrants was taken. Anglo and Black interstate migrants in the region are included for comparative purposes. Texas, Arizona, and Colorado each received more Mexican American migrants from other states in the region than they lost to these states between 1975 and 1980. The migration patterns of Mexican Americans more closely resemble those of Anglos than Blacks, but still differ from both."
Correspondence: R. Saenz, Department of Rural Sociology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843-2125. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20540 Schachter, Joseph; Althaus, Paul G. An equilibrium model of gross migration. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1989. 143-59 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The paper presents and tests a new model of migration which differs significantly from the conventional disequilibrium approach. We show that variations in rates of gross migration across regions are equilibrium responses to variations in levels of amenities, governmental policies, etc. The model is tested using data on the gross migration of [U.S.] whites, 1975-80, together with amenities such as climate and with economic variables such as government services, taxes and unionization. Empirical results suggest that the equilibrium model is more consistent with actual migration patterns than is the conventional disequilibrium approach. We estimate compensating differentials and migration elasticities for these variables."
Correspondence: J. Schachter, Department of Economics, York College, City University of New York, 150-14 Jamaica Avenue, Jamaica, NY 11451. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20541 Steckel, Richard H. Household migration and rural settlement in the United States, 1850-1860. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1989. 190-218 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper investigates migration patterns in a national sample of nearly 1,600 families matched in the [1850 and 1860 U.S.] census manuscript schedules of population. Migration is observed at the county level, gross as well as net flows are measured, and the data support the estimation of regression models that explain mobility by individual characteristics. The findings suggest that education and a long-term decline in the importance of location-specific human capital promoted labor market integration, that departures from the South were small in overall migration flows, that frontier settlers differed little from persisters, that reverse migration was concentrated among the young, and that substantial differences in regional patterns of movement persisted after controlling for individual characteristics."
Correspondence: R. H. Steckel, Economics Department, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20542 Tienda, Marta; Wilson, Franklin D. Ethnicity, migration and income. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. OSC 89-2 (PRC), Jan 1989. 42, [12] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper investigates how internal geographic mobility [in the United States] influences the employment and earnings of black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and American Indian men using the 1980 Public Use Micro-data Sample. Drawing on Todaro's conceptual framework, migration-earnings linkages are modeled using an additive shift formulation and switching regression models....Results show that the process of earnings stratification differs not only between individuals who move across labor markets versus those who remain, but also according to race and national origin."
Correspondence: NORC Librarian, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

55:20543 Bariagaber, Hadgu. Contemporary refugee movements in East and Central Africa and their economic implications. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.1.17-39 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author analyzes refugee movements in Eastern and Central Africa during the past 20 years. The reliability and usefulness of the available socioeconomic and demographic data are first assessed. The volume of refugee movements in the past is outlined, and prospects for the future are considered. The economic implications for countries providing asylum to refugees and for countries of origin are discussed.
Correspondence: H. Bariagaber, National Urban Planning Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20544 Harrell-Bond, Barbara E.; Monahan, Laila. The sociology of involuntary migration. Current Sociology/Sociologie Contemporaine, Vol. 36, No. 2, Summer 1988. vi, 153 pp. Sage Publications: London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This special issue is devoted to problems of involuntary migration involving refugees and their resettlement. The seven articles concern general and theoretical issues, as well as case studies on Africa, the Palestinians, Afghan refugees in Pakistan, and Central America. An unannotated bibliography is included.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 28 Banner Street, London EC1Y 8QE, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20545 Khodzhaev, D. G.; Il'in, I. A. Regional issues in the development of urban and rural settlements in the USSR. [Regional'nye problemy razvitiya gorodskikh i sel'skikh poselenii SSSR.] ISBN 5-02-011918-0. 1988. 154 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a review of trends in the development of urban and rural settlements in the USSR. Attention is paid to the effect on settlement of the location of production facilities and to population distribution under conditions of perestroika, under which more emphasis is being given to freedom of choice and less to central planning. Ways to make the establishment of new settlements more efficient given regional differences are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20546 Richmond, Anthony H. Sociological theories of international migration: the case of refugees. Current Sociology/Sociologie Contemporaine, Vol. 36, No. 2, Summer 1988. 7-25, 107-8 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Current theoretical sociological studies of international migration are reviewed with a view to assessing their relevance to the study of refugee migration. The author concludes that such studies have not generally taken the case of refugees into account. He also concludes that empirical studies concerning refugees have been conducted on an ad hoc basis that is largely unconcerned with developments in sociological theory.
Correspondence: A. H. Richmond, Department of Sociology, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20547 Rogge, John R. Too many, too long. Sudan's twenty-year refugee dilemma. ISBN 0-8476-7412-6. LC 85-2058. 1985. xvii, 195 pp. Rowman and Allanheld: Totowa, New Jersey. In Eng.
Refugee migration to Sudan over the past 25 years is described in the context of the overall refugee situation in Africa. Consideration is given to rural refugees, settlement schemes, and urban refugees. Data are from a number of sources. The emphasis is on refugee migration to Sudan as a result of conflicts in other countries.
Correspondence: Rowman and Allanheld, 81 Adams Drive, Totowa, NJ 07512. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20548 Thapa, Gopal B.; Weber, Karl E. Resettlement experiences and alternatives in Thailand. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 9, No. 2, Dec 1988. 141-50 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Problems concerning the resettlement of those made homeless by the construction of dams to create reservoirs in Thailand are considered. The authors attempt "firstly, to examine the rationale for spontaneous and planned resettlement in Thailand. Secondly, the determinants of the success or failure of resettlers are explored with reference to selected planned resettlement projects. Finally, resettlement alternatives for prospective reservoir evacuees are proposed."
Correspondence: G. B. Thapa, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

55:20549 Collins, Jane L. Unseasonal migrations: the effects of rural labor scarcity in Peru. ISBN 0-691-07744-4. LC 88-4084. 1988. xviii, 211 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The social and economic problems associated with the temporary rural labor scarcity existing in some developing countries are explored using an example from Peru. The study concerns the seasonal migration of Aymara-speaking highland peasants to the east Andean valleys, where they grow coffee. The author shows that the low price obtained for coffee forces these migrants to maintain highland food crop production and thus prevents their permanent migration. She concludes that "the rural labor scarcity produced by their migrations generates ecological decline in the lowlands and intracommunity conflicts and declining networks of production in the highlands."
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library.

55:20550 Galor, Oded; Stark, Oded. The economic performance of migrants and the probability of return migration. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 42, Dec 1988. 20 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper highlights a difference between migrants and the native-born viz., a positive probability of return migration. The analysis demonstrates that this probability results in migrants' saving more than comparable native-born and in migrants' work effort being higher than that of comparable native-born. This differential may explain why, even if all workers are perfectly homogeneous in skills, migrants often outperform the native-born in the receiving economy."
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20551 Rosenbaum, Harry. Return inter-provincial migration, Canada, 1966-1971. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 51-65 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study examines the inter-provincial return migration phenomenon within the context of the 1966-1971 Canadian experience, specifically, what factors differentiate return from non-return inter-provincial movers. Utilizing the individual file of the 1971 Census Public Use Sample Tape, it was possible to identify return movers, as well as the population at risk, in a more meaningful way than is possible using other traditional data sources. The employment of dummy dependent-variable regression revealed that the opportunity structure and language barrier (represented by destination region), as well as the demographic variable age, proved to be the most significant factors differentiating these two types of inter-provincial movers from one another."
Correspondence: H. Rosenbaum, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

55:20552 Archavanitkul, Kritaya. Migration and urbanisation in Thailand, 1980: the urban-rural continuum analysis. IPSR Publication, No. 122, Jan 1988. 31 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Migration to small urban centers in Thailand is analyzed using data from the 1980 census. The results show that migration flows are greater to the Bangkok metropolitan area than to other urban areas. Consideration is given to migration patterns, migrant characteristics, and reasons for moving.
Correspondence: IPSR, Mahidol University, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakornpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20553 Gelderblom, D. Cultural explanations for the persistence of migrant labour in Southern Africa: a critique. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1987. 1-6 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
In 1986 the South African government relaxed the law that made it illegal for blacks to live in urban areas. The author discusses some reasons why blacks might choose to remain in rural areas and continue as migrant laborers. In particular, a critique is presented of arguments that base their explanations of the continuance of migrant labor on the value system or culture of migrant laborers.
Correspondence: D. Gelderblom, ISODEM, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20554 Gould, W. T. S. Urban-rural return migration in Western Province, Kenya. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.1.41-55 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Trends in urban-rural return migration in Western Province, Kenya, are analyzed. The author "first examines recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the Kenyan experience, then proceeds with consideration of Western Province taken as a whole, and of one distinctive part of it, the three southern Locations of Kakamega District. The paper concludes with some suggestions for policy initiatives that will affect the patterns and nature of the population mobility between the Province and the rest of Kenya."
Correspondence: W. T. S. Gould, Department of Geography and Centre of African Studies, Liverpool University, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20555 Gubry, Patrick. The retention of the population and development in the rural setting: listening to Mafa peasants from the Mandara mountains (Cameroon). [Retention de la population et developpement en milieu rural: a l'ecoute des paysans Mafa des monts Mandara (Cameroun).] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 5, ISBN 2-87762-004-2. Nov 1988. 24 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a survey carried out in 1982-1983 in a densely populated area of northern Cameroon are presented. The survey included a section in which household heads were asked what measures should be taken to reduce rural-urban migration. "The ten actions most frequently mentioned concerned: hydraulic development; employment; health, school and transport installations; food relief; financial aid; the end of 'oppression'; agricultural development; and tax reduction."
Correspondence: CEPED, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20556 Singh, J. P. Age and sex differentials in migration in India. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 87-99 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper draws on census data to examine comparatively the patterns of age and sex differentials in rural to urban migration in two Indian states, namely Kerala and West Bengal. It is contended in the paper that migration in India is selective of a very wide range of age groups from 15 to 49 years. Age selectivity in migration tends to differ markedly by sex. In general, female migrants are younger than male migrants, and female migrants in West Bengal are still younger than those in Kerala. Since marriage plays an inevitable role in migration of women, they tend to be more migratory than men. This paper has sought to suggest that differing sociocultural conditions largely account for variations in migration differentials between states."
Correspondence: J. P. Singh, Patna University, Patna 800 005, Bihar State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20557 Tarver, James D.; Miller, H. Max. Rural-urban migration in a developing country: Botswana, Africa. Africa Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 1-2, 1987. 22-33 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Trends in internal migration in Botswana are analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Data are from the 1981 census and from a survey carried out in 1979. The authors note that even though the predominance of subsistence agriculture acts as a deterrent to rural-urban migration, it is probable that the total and percentage of people living in urban areas will increase. However, the magnitude and pattern of future migration will fluctuate over time as social and economic conditions change.
Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

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