Volume 55 - Number 2 - Summer 1989

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

55:20067 Asegedom, Amare. The spatial organization of the population of Ethiopia, 1965-1984. Ethiopian Journal of Development Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, Apr 1987. 1-20 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
Changes in the spatial distribution of the population of Ethiopia over the period 1965-1984 are analyzed. The author develops a theory of spatial organization based on a consideration of the use of space by individuals. "It is also hypothesized that most of the overall population changes are largely attributed to micro-scale adjustments of the people or movements of [an] intra-regional nature."
Correspondence: A. Asegedom, Faculty of Education, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20068 Bracken, I.; Martin, D. The generation of spatial population distributions from census centroid data. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 21, No. 4, Apr 1989. 537-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Census data are commonly used in geographical analysis and to inform planning purposes, though at the disaggregate level the basis of enumeration poses difficulties. In this paper an approach to surface generation is described that offers the prospect of revealing an underlying population distribution from centroid-based data which is independent of zonal geography. It is suggested that this can serve a wide variety of analytical, cartographic, and policy purposes, including the creation of spatial indicators of economic and social conditions and enhancing the value of census data. The approach is illustrated by reference to an analysis of part of the valleys of South Wales, in the United Kingdom."
Correspondence: I. Bracken, Department of Town Planning, University of Wales, Colum Drive, Cardiff CF1 3EU, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20069 Fielding, A. J. Migration and urbanization in Western Europe since 1950. Geographical Journal, Vol. 155, No. 1, Mar 1989. 60-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in population redistribution are reviewed for the 14 countries of Europe to the west of a line drawn from the Baltic to the Adriatic for the period from the 1950s to the present. Consideration is given to both urbanization and counterurbanization. The author notes the re-emergence both of broad regional patterns of growth and decline linked to new economic trends, and specifically to the spatial division of labor.
Correspondence: A. J. Fielding, Department of Geography, School of Social Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20070 Keeble, David. The dynamics of European industrial counterurbanization in the 1980s: corporate restructuring or indigenous growth? Geographical Journal, Vol. 155, No. 1, Mar 1989. 70-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The shift of manufacturing capacity from urban centers to rural areas in Europe is examined, and its impact on the spatial distribution of the population is considered. The author concludes that "the environmental and quality of life attractions of many small towns and rural areas of Northern Europe are thus arguably exerting a major influence both on selective population migration and associated [small and medium-sized towns] and high technology counterurbanization in a period of rising real incomes, increasing personal mobility and communications accessibility, and growing demand from industry for highly qualified workers."
Correspondence: D. Keeble, St. Catherine's College, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1RL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20071 Lappo, G. M.; Pivovarov, Yu. L. The geography of the Soviet population under conditions of technological revolution: the main factors and changes in settlements. [Geografiya naseleniya SSSR v usloviyakh NTR: osnovnye faktory i izmeneniya rasseleniya.] ISBN 5-02-003359-6. 1988. 165 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The system of settlements in the USSR is examined, with a focus on possible ways to improve the system in order to adapt more efficiently to the conditions imposed by the technological revolution. The process of population concentration in conjunction with socioeconomic changes is noted. The authors propose several alternative ways to study changes in settlement patterns and to develop regional settlement systems in the framework of large economic regions.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

55:20072 Alatas, Secha. Urbanization, the growth of big cities, and some associated problems. [Urbanisasi, pertumbuhan kota-kota besar dan sekitar permasalahannya.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 15, No. 30, Dec 1988. v-vi, 83-101 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in urbanization in Indonesia are reviewed. The author notes that, as in many former colonial countries, there is a dominance of the primate cities. The urban population in 1985 reached 43 million, or 26.2 percent of the total population, and the main growth occurred in the largest cities, rather than in the medium-sized or smaller towns and cities. The problems associated with current patterns of urbanization are noted, and the need for policies to encourage the growth of smaller cities stressed.
Correspondence: S. Alatas, Institute of Demography, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Indonesia, Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20073 Anjaneyulu, D. Urbanisation and economic development. Journal of Income and Wealth, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jul 1985. 137-41 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between urbanization and economic development is explored. Theoretical considerations and previous research hypotheses are first reviewed, followed by a consideration of the major determinants of this relationship. The author concludes by suggesting guidelines for an appropriate strategy for India.
Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20074 Basile, Liliana; Callegari, Antonio. Demographic evolution and production structure in Naples according to the information of the latest censuses. Journal of Regional Policy, Vol. 7, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 523-77 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
Changes in the industrial structure of Naples, Italy, between 1971 and 1981 are examined using census data. The first part analyzes demographic shifts in the city's population. "In the closing years of that period a decline in population growth was observed and, over its last decade, there was also a change in its structure in that there was an increase in the labour force due to the huge number of young people who entered the labour market."
Correspondence: L. Basile, Faculty of Economics, University of Naples, Corso Umberto 1, 80138 Naples, Italy. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20075 Chaichian, Mohammad A. The effects of world capitalist economy on urbanization in Egypt, 1800-1970. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, Feb 1988. 23-43 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The process of urbanization in Egypt from 1800 to 1970 is analyzed in the context of the incorporation of Egypt into the world's capitalist economy. The author focuses on "(1) the historical reasons for the structural disjunction of the peasant population from rural areas; and (2) the dynamics of rural-urban migration and the problem of overconcentration of population in a few major urban centers."
Correspondence: M. A. Chaichian, Department of Sociology, University of Dubuque, 2000 University Avenue, Dubuque, IA 52001. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20076 Champion, A. G. Counterurbanization in Britain. Geographical Journal, Vol. 155, No. 1, Mar 1989. 52-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Population trends affecting the urban population in the United Kingdom over the past 25 years are reviewed. Defining counterurbanization as the redistribution of population down the functional urban hierarchy, the author concludes that this form of population deconcentration has taken place in Britain. This process was ongoing during the 1960s, was running at its highest rate in the 1970s, and continues as the prevailing force, despite a revival in population change rates for major metropolitan areas.
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, Department of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20077 Champion, Tony; Congdon, Peter. Recent trends in Greater London's population. Population Trends, No. 53, Autumn 1988. 7-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"During the last few years there has been a marked change in Greater London's population trends, with a major recovery from the rates of population loss recorded in the 1960s and 1970s. This article examines how this transformation came about and thereby assesses how permanent the new-found equilibrium is likely to be. It begins by giving more details about recent population trends for Greater London as a whole, and then for Inner and Outer London and their constituent parts. More detailed analysis reveals that natural change, internal migration and international migration have each participated in this transformation. The most significant element in the change since the early 1970s has been the fall in net out-migration to the rest of the South East, so the article goes on to look at what the developments have meant for the rest of the region and how they have affected the South East's position within the country as a whole."
Correspondence: T. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20078 de Bremaeker, Francois E. J. The metropolitan regions: the estimated population for 1985 and 1990. [As regioes metropolitanas: a populacao estimada para 1985 e 1990.] Revista de Administracao Municipal, Vol. 35, No. 186, Jan-Mar 1988. 82-96 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Current trends in urban population size and growth in Brazil are described. It is noted that the population of nine major urban areas has grown from 24.1 million in 1970 to 35.1 million in 1980 and will likely reach 47.8 million by 1990, with Sao Paulo the fastest-growing urban area. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: F. E. J. de Bremaeker, Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas Urbanas, Instituto Brasileiro de Administracao Municipal, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20079 Dupont, Veronique. The dynamics of secondary towns and migration in Western Africa. The example of three urban centers in a plantation region of Togo: Atakpame, Kpalime, and Badou. [Dynamique des villes secondaires et processus migratoires en Afrique de l'Ouest. Le cas de trois centres urbains en region de plantation, au Togo: Atakpame, Kpalime, Badou.] Editions de l'ORSTOM: Collection Etudes et Theses, ISBN 2-7099-0793-3. 1986. 437 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The demographic dynamics of small secondary towns in Western Africa are explored in this thesis using the example of three towns in the Region des Plateaux in Togo. The author notes that the overall rate of population growth in these towns was less than one percent per year during the decade 1970-1979, since a high rate of natural increase was almost balanced by a high level of out-migration. The significant role that secondary towns play in the migration process is analyzed.
Correspondence: ORSTOM, 24 Rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20080 Egunjobi, Layi. Urban growth and housing policy dilemma in Nigeria. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.2.51-61 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The consequences of rapid urban growth and the resulting problem of housing provision in Nigeria are examined. The author first discusses "aspects of the growth of Nigerian urban centres. This is followed up in section three by an analysis of housing problems as one of the consequences of rapid urban growth. The fourth section attempts to describe and appraise the policy responses to the housing problems. The various arguments for and against both social and economic orientations are reviewed in the fifth section. The sixth and last briefly discusses the new draft policy currently being debated...."
Correspondence: L. Egunjobi, C.U.R.P., Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20081 Frey, William H. Migration and metropolitan decline in developed countries: a comparative study. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 595-628, 761, 763 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Population redistribution from core to peripheral regions and down the metropolitan hierarchy in the United States and other industrialized countries has led to population losses in large metropolitan areas. This article develops hypotheses regarding national redistribution patterns and migration processes that are consistent with two alternative explanations of metropolitan decline in developed, market economy nations. These hypotheses are evaluated with population projections for large metropolitan areas and broad regions in 13 developed countries. The projections are based on migration data assembled by the Michigan Metropolitan Migration Project."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20082 Geyer, H. S. On urbanization in South Africa. South African Journal of Economics/Suid Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Ekonomie, Vol. 56, Jun-Sep 1988. 154-72 pp. Johannesburg, South Africa. In Eng.
The role of urbanization in the economic development process in South Africa is examined. The author attempts to "(1) evaluate the consequences of the concept of 'inward industrialization' for diversified economic development in both the formal and informal sectors in South Africa; (2) identify economic sectors with sufficient potential for such developmental diversification, and (3) provide a possible framework for the integration of the formal and informal sectors in urban South Africa."
Correspondence: H. S. Geyer, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, Potchefstroom, Transvaal, South Africa. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20083 Graaff, J. F. de V. The present state of urbanisation in the South African homelands: rethinking the concepts and predicting the future. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 4, No. 1, Feb 1987. 46-66 pp. Sandton, South Africa. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in the South African homelands are analyzed. The need to reconsider the definition of an urban area is first established. Consideration is given to the likely impact of the abolition of migration controls on urbanization trends in South Africa as a whole, particularly as this affects migration to urban areas in South Africa outside the homelands.
Correspondence: J. F. de V. Graaff, Department of Sociology, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20084 Hadjij, Cherifa. Some characteristics of urbanization and consequences in Algeria. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.2.31-49 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper focused attention on problems of rapid urbanization in Algeria, the notable phenomenon of over urbanization and consequences. The primary objective is to identify the complex [interrelationships] between urbanization, city size, population distribution and economic development....The secondary [focus is] on describing these changes, interpreting their significances and understanding the social [processes] which brought them about. It is also concerned with...over population and the consequences, internal migration that accompanies the spatial transformation and with the policies that are addressed to these conditions."
Correspondence: C. Hadjij, Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquee pour le Developpement, 20 Rue Mustapha Khallef, Ben Aknoun, Algiers, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20085 Lee, Y. An allometric analysis of the U.S. urban system: 1960-80. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 21, No. 4, Apr 1989. 463-76 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the present study the allometric equations for urban places in the [United States] are derived and interpreted. Data on the area and population size of the urbanized area (as defined in the U.S. Census) for 1960, 1970, and 1980 are fitted to the allometric equation. The data set for each of the three time periods is further disaggregated by population-size class (seven classes) and by region (nine regions in total). The results of the analysis are interpreted with reference to works of allometric growth in the biology and urban growth literature."
Correspondence: Y. Lee, Urban and Regional Planning Program, School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80204-5300. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:20086 Lututala, Mumpasi. Demographic aspects of African urbanization: the dynamics of growth due to migration and natural increase. [Aspects demographiques de l'urbanisation en Afrique: la dynamique de la croissance due aux migrations et au mouvement naturel.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.2.1-15 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Recent trends in urbanization in Africa are analyzed. Problems of data availability are first considered. The author notes the concentration of growth in Africa's primary cities, and concludes that rapid urbanization is due to both high rates of natural increase and in-migration. There is no evidence that these high rates of growth will not continue.
Correspondence: M. Lututala, Departement de Demographie, Universite de Kinshasa, BP 13.399, Kinshasa I, Zaire. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20087 Mabin, Alan. Households, history and black urbanisation: response to Graaff. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug 1988. 393-404 pp. Sandton, South Africa. In Eng.
A critique of a recent article by J. F. de V. Graaff concerning urbanization of blacks in South Africa is presented. A reply by Graaff (pp. 402-4) is included.
For the study by Graaff, published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: A. Mabin, Southern African Research Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20088 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Population growth of large metropolitan areas. Vol. 70, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1989. 32-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in the population dynamics of large metropolitan areas in the United States are reviewed. "The number of Americans living in metropolitan areas of the country continues to expand, with those in the West and South generally leading the way."
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20089 Mutlu, Servet. Urban concentration and primacy revisited: an analysis and some policy conclusions. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 37, No. 3, Apr 1989. 611-39 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants of urban primacy, which is of immediate interest from a policy standpoint. The plan of the article is as follows: first, previous work on the question of primacy and its determinants is reviewed; second, the causative factors and the processes that are viewed as being behind the primacy phenomena are discussed and operationalized; and third, an empirical cross-country test of hypotheses on the determinants of primacy and urban concentration are conducted." The data are from a variety of published sources, including the World Bank, and are for 95 countries.
Correspondence: S. Mutlu, Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 566, Irbid, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:20090 Novak, Helio. The cities of Brazil in the future. [As cidades no Brasil do futuro.] Revista de Administracao Municipal, Vol. 35, No. 186, Jan-Mar 1988. 6-20 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Projected future trends in urbanization in Brazil are reviewed. The author notes that by the year 2000, Brazil will have a total population of 180 million, of whom 75 percent will live in urban areas. The relative percentage of the urban population who will live in the two major metropolitan areas is also outlined.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20091 Ouedraogo, Marie-Michele. Major priorities for urban policies when confronting rapid growth: the case of Burkina Faso. [Premieres priorites des politiques urbaines confrontees a une croissance rapide: le cas du Burkina Faso.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 4.2.17-30 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The rapid growth of the urban population creates specific problems of equipment, housing, health and employment....Having underlined the problems of growth [in] various towns of Burkina Faso, this work will analyse the case of Ouagadougou by describing the various schemes that are being launched with a view to solving the problem."
Correspondence: M.-M. Ouedraogo, B.P. 7021, Universite de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20092 Shrestha, H. B. A Markov chain approach to urban area distribution with implications of urbanization in Nepal. Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 9, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 15-20 pp. Kathmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
A Markov chain model is used to analyze urban area size distribution in Nepal.
Correspondence: H. B. Shrestha, Department of Statistics, Tribhuvan University, POB 3757, Tripureswar, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20093 Wubneh, Mulatu. A multivariate analysis of socio-economic characteristics of urban areas in Ethiopia. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 4, Nov 1987. 425-33 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"The study analyzes the socioeconomic characteristics of urban areas of Ethiopia by developing a composite index. The social and economic attributes of the urban centers are examined by using a principal component analysis coupled with a linear combination of the factors. The analysis reveals that there exists a significant difference among the urban areas, for example, middle-sized cities have begun to play a major role in stimulating rural economies; large cities are facing problems of increasing demand for more services. The significance of multivariate analysis in analyzing the dynamics of urban areas are emphasized in the study."
Correspondence: M. Wubneh, Department of Geography and Planning, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20094 Zhelezko, S. N. The population of large cities. [Naselenie krupnogo goroda.] 1986. 190 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This study is concerned with the demography of large cities in the USSR. Topics covered include the peculiarities of reproduction in large cities, the formation of the labor force, and issues of social development. Special attention is given to indicators of population quality.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

55:20095 Carlyle, William J. Farm population in the Canadian parkland. Geographical Review, Vol. 79, No. 1, Jan 1989. 13-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Explanations are provided for the geographical patterns of relative farm-population densities in the parkland zone of the Canadian prairies between 1941 and 1976. Density patterns and rates of population loss are analyzed by township. The best explanatory factor is cultural attitudes associated with ethnic groups. Type and intensity of agriculture, availability of off-farm work, and soil productivity are contributing influences."
Correspondence: W. J. Carlyle, Department of Geography, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20096 Tarver, James D.; Miller, H. Max. The rural population of Africa. Rural Africana, No. 27, Winter 1987. 47-60 pp. East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper examines national, regional, and continental trends in Africa's rural population from 1950 to 1980, likely changes between now and 2025, and some related policy issues and implications. The rural population of the continent is projected to increase from 190 million in 1950 to 685 million in 2025, a gain of 260 percent. Meanwhile, the urban population is estimated to increase from 33 million to 958 million, a relative gain of more than 2,800 percent. By 2025 urban inhabitants will outnumber rural, but the latter will still comprise more than 40 percent of the projected total population."
Correspondence: J. D. Tarver, Department of Sociology, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, D.C. 20064. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

Copyright © 1989-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.