Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

55:10711 Demeny, Paul. Social science and population policy. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 451-79, 535, 537 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article presents arguments that call for a rethinking and redesign of institutional arrangements that now relegate policy-oriented social science work related to population issues in the developing world to the performance of technical functions servicing existing population programs. To the extent that programs do need such technical services, they can, and obviously will and should, continue to purchase them along with other program inputs. But monitoring and analyzing the process that more than doubled the world population since mid-century, assessing and understanding its causes and consequences, and not the least, observing and evaluating actual and potential policy approaches aimed at influencing demographic change, call for systematic, rigorous, and independent social science research efforts that cannot be conducted as activities ancillary to existing population programs."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 457).
Correspondence: P. Demeny, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10712 Gubry, Patrick. Cameroon: from a qualified pronatalist policy to a moderate anti-natalist policy? [Cameroun: d'un natalisme nuance vers un anti-natalisme modere?] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1988. 185-98 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines trends in Cameroon's population policy, with a focus on the changes that have occurred since 1980. He analyzes existing legislation, development plans, government actions, and statements on population issues, and concludes that the country has shifted from a pronatalist to a generally antinatalist position currently unsupported by specific programs. The need for family planning information is also stressed.
Correspondence: P. Gubry, ORSTOM, S.D.U., CEPED, 15 Rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10713 Hohn, Charlotte. The contribution of demography to policy deliberations: attainment of the venia legendi presented to Technical Area 19, "Household and Food Sciences", of Justus-Liebig University at Giessen. [Der Beitrag der Bevolkerungswissenschaft zur Politikberatung: zur Erlangung der venia legendi eingereicht beim Fachbereich 19, "Haushalts- und Ernahrungswissenschaften" der Justus-Liebig-Universitat zu Giessen.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 15, 1988. 98 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The contribution that demography can make to policy deliberations is examined, with a geographic emphasis on the Federal Republic of Germany. Separate chapters deal with the contribution of population projections, fertility statistics, household and family statistics, marriage and divorce statistics, international comparisons, and demographic theories.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10714 Horlacher, David E. Research requirements for integrating population into development planning. Population Research Leads, No. 30, 1988. 14 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The research requirements for the integration of population factors into the development planning process are outlined. The author examines institutional arrangements, the need for additional research on the relationship between population and development, research designed to assess the effectiveness of population policies and programs, and the question of setting priorities. The geographical focus is on Asia and Oceania.
Correspondence: Population Information Section, Population Division, ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10715 Monigl, Istvan. Population and population policy in Hungary--the challenge and risk of the twenty-first century. [Nepesedes es nepesedespolitika Magyarorszagon--a XXI. szazad kihivasa es kockazata.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1987. 369-96 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author outlines the scope and goals of Hungarian population policy, beginning with a survey of demographic research since World War II and following with a discussion of the historical development of Hungarian population policy. Particular attention is given to the relationship between Hungarian "national consciousness" and population growth. Prospects for an effective population policy are briefly reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10716 Qu, Haibo. A review of population theoretical research since the founding of the People's Republic of China. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1988. 21-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This is an overview of population theory and policy in the People's Republic of China from 1949 to 1987. Social, cultural, economic, and political factors are discussed as they have affected the outcome of the government's family planning policy. The effectiveness of theoretical population research is discussed.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 2, 1987.
Correspondence: H. Qu, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10717 Rimashevskaia, N.; Milovidov, A. On improving state assistance to families with children. Problems of Economics, Vol. 31, No. 7, Nov 1988. 72-81 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The family allowance system in the Soviet Union is reviewed. The focus is on how such allowances improve the material situation of families with children and how they work to equalize incomes of families with and without children. The relationship between such family allowances and fertility is also considered.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Planovoe Khozyaistvo (Moscow, USSR), No. 1, 1988, pp. 82-5.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10718 Sala-Diakanda, Mpembele. From Bucharest to Mexico: evolution of African positions concerning population. [De Bucharest a Mexico: evolution des positions africaines en matiere de population.] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1988. 173-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Changes in the official positions adopted by African governments with regard to population growth are examined. It is observed, in particular through analysis of the perception of the effects of the growth rate on development, that a greater desire to control population growth is slowly appearing; this is a new attitude in Africa." Data are primarily from U.N. surveys of government positions.
Correspondence: M. Sala-Diakanda, IFORD, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

55:10719 Hardee-Cleaveland, Karen; Banister, Judith. Fertility policy and implementation in China, 1986-88. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1988. 245-86, 378-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"At present China maintains its ambitious goal of not exceeding a population of around 1.2 billion by the year 2000. Given the huge number of women entering the peak childbearing ages during the next decade, the attainment of this target requires renewed efforts in family planning. After a period of relaxation in the family planning program, since 1986 the national and provincial governments have been tightening up on family planning in order to achieve China's goal. Despite changes in leadership and degree of heavyhandedness in enforcement of the one-child policy between the early 1980s and 1988, throughout this period the basic elements of China's family planning program have not changed. These elements include: a stated official policy on voluntarism, mandatory family planning and contraceptive methods, national limits on the number of children per couple, and the use of one-child pledges and family planning contracts in policy implementation."
Correspondence: J. Banister, China Branch, Center for International Research, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10720 Oussedik, Fatma. The economic crisis and population policy: the Algerian strategy for dealing with family planning. [Crise economique et politique de population: approche de la strategie algerienne de limitation des naissances.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.4.33-47 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The development of government policy concerning family planning in Algeria is described. The author argues that the country's economic position has been the primary motivation for the development of population policy. It is concluded that despite changes in government policy, the measures that were designed to influence fertility have not been effective, because of a failure to analyze the actual conditions experienced by the target population.
Correspondence: F. Oussedik, Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur, C.R.E.A.D., Ben Aknoun, C.P. 16030, Algiers, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10721 Rosoff, Jeannie I. The politics of birth control. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 312-20, 297 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in U.S. government support of voluntary family planning programs both within the United States and abroad are reviewed. The author notes that "beginning with the Johnson administration, the executive branch of government has tended to favor block-grant funding of family planning services, while Congress has insisted on categorical funding. Conflict has also existed over financial eligibility for government-supported services, over whether teenagers and unmarried women should be served in publicly supported clinics and over which services should be included in the definition of family planning....While future government support for family planning programs does not seem seriously threatened, funding has not grown in 15 years....[and] the political reality is that conflict can be expected to continue."
Correspondence: J. I. Rosoff, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

55:10722 Authur, W. Brian; Espenshade, Thomas J. Immigration policy and immigrants' ages. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1988. 315-26, 379-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The age distribution of immigrants at admission is a crucial determinant of a country's population size and age composition. If fertility persists at some level below replacement, a constant flow of permanent immigrants will produce a stationary population, perhaps even a sizable one, over a period of several hundred years. Because remaining years of life expectancy and number of daughters remaining to be born to women decrease over the course of childbearing years, increasing immigrants' ages at admission will typically reduce the size of the ultimate stable population. To the degree that it is deemed desirable to use immigration to increase or decrease population size, policymakers could take fuller account of immigrants' ages by incorporating age as an explicit criterion for entry." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: W. B. Arthur, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10723 Chiswick, Barry R. Illegal immigration and immigration control. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 2, No. 3, Summer 1988. 101-15 pp. Stanford, California. In Eng.
The impact of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) passed in the United States in 1986 is examined. An economic analysis of the effects of illegal aliens on the labor market is first presented, with consideration given to the determinants of illegal migration and its impact on the economy. The major provisions of the IRCA and its probable consequences are then discussed. The author concludes that because the IRCA does not address economic realities it is not likely to accomplish its objectives.
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, Department of Economics and Survey Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, POB 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10724 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Bean, Frank D.; Goodis, Tracy A.; White, Michael J. Immigration policy in the United States: future prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-2, Oct 1988. 40 pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors assess the implications and consequences of the 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) and delineate five factors that could influence the act's effectiveness. These factors are "(1) domestic economic expansion and tightening U.S. labor markets, (2) projected rapid growth in service occupations, (3) the declining size of labor market entry cohorts among U.S. youth, (4) mounting labor pressures in the Caribbean Basin, and (5) enforcement and compliance issues."
Correspondence: Urban Institute, Library/Information Clearinghouse, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10725 Gibney, Mark. Open borders? Closed societies? The ethical and political issues. Contributions in Political Science, No. 226, ISBN 0-313-25578-4. LC 88-15484. 1988. xvi, 199 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors discussing the basis for an ethical or moral admission policy for immigration to Western developed countries. The book is in two parts. The first focuses on immigration questions in general; the second is concerned with the admission of refugees. These issues are discussed primarily in the context of the situation in the United States following the 1986 passage of the Simpson-Rodino bill on immigration. In particular, the contributors challenge the assumptions that sovereignity gives a nation absolute control over its borders and that aliens should only be admitted when it serves the national interest of the receiving country.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10726 Koike, Kazuo. Immigration policy: a selective approach. Economic Eye, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1988. 23-9 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Recommendations are offered concerning Japanese policy on the immigration of foreign workers. The author notes that even those countries that used to welcome such immigrants now restrict their entry. The need for a selective policy that would aid internationalization in Japan and strengthen controls on illegal immigrants by requiring employers to secure permits before hiring foreigners is stressed.
This is adapted from the Japanese article in Voice, May 1988.
Location: New York Public Library.

55:10727 Kowerski, Mieczyslaw. Causes of out-migration from rural areas of Zamosc voivodship. [Przyczyny odplywu ludnosci ze wsi Zamojskiej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/91, 1988. 83-108 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Policies that might limit out-migration from rural areas of Zamosc voivodship in Poland are discussed. The measures considered are concerned with the development of employment opportunities outside agriculture, the social infrastructure, and the development of new urban centers in the province.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10728 Kwok, R. Yin-Wang. Recent urban policy and development in China: a reversal of "anti-urbanism" Town Planning Review, Vol. 58, No. 4, Oct 1987. 383-99 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10729 Martin, Philip L.; Taylor, J. Edward. Harvest of confusion: SAWs, RAWs, and farmworkers. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-4, Dec 1988. 36 pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper explains the evolution and nature of California's labor-intensive agriculture, which has become most dependent on alien workers; the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated over 1.2 million applicants; and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to do farm work after 1990. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs contribute to the harvest of confusion on farm labor."
Correspondence: Urban Institute, Library/Information Clearinghouse, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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