Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

55:10583 de Beer, J.; Noordam, R. Effect of external migration on the environment and on aging. [Effect van buitenlandse migratie op ontgroening en vergrijzing.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 9, Sep 1988. 16-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of immigration since 1960 on the population of the Netherlands is explored. The author concludes that the total population as at January 1, 1988, would have been 14.1 million without immigration, instead of an actual 14.7 million. Immigration has also had the effect of making the population slightly younger than would otherwise have been the case.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10584 Ebanks, G. Edward. The aging of the population of Montserrat: causes and consequences. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 88-2, Apr 1988. 30 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The population of Montserrat is aging. Even though Montserrat is a developing country its age distribution is in many ways similar to that found in developed societies....The aging of the population is being influenced by the relatively low and declining fertility. In the past and currently as well migration especially emigration has been a major factor in the aging of the population of Montserrat....The paper examines the period 1960-85 and is based on Census figures for 1960, 1970, and 1980, as well as vital registration and estimates."
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 452).
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10585 Girard, Alain. The French population ages. [La population francaise vieillit.] Etudes, Vol. 365, No. 3, Sep 1986. 199-211 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author notes that the population of France is aging and will continue to do so for several decades into the future. He points out that this process of demographic aging requires changes to the current policy concerning retirement as well as the development of specific policies concerned with aging.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10586 Howe, Anna; Sharwood, Penny. The old old--or the new old? Part 1--demographic trends and profile of the population aged 80 years and over. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 5, No. 1, May 1988. 82-99 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper gives an account of the demographic trends that are bringing about changes in the population aged 80 years and older in Australia. The old old population of the future will differ in size and structure from earlier cohorts reaching advanced age: an examination is made of the contribution of the effects of past birth rates; recent changes in mortality at older ages; the impact of immigration especially on the cultural diversity of the old old; and changes in sex ratios and marriage patterns that result in changes in social circumstances. The indications are that a much more dynamic view of the old old is required. The present report is the first in a three-part study which will cover social and health trends and discuss the implications of the newly emergent old old population for social policy." Data are from Australian life tables for different birth cohorts for the period 1900-1986.
Correspondence: A. Howe, Aged Care Research Group, Lincoln School of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, 206 Drummond Street, Carlton VIC 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10587 Kargl, Ingrid. Old age in Japan: long-term statistics. Beitrage zur Japanologie, Vol. 24, ISBN 3-900362-06-8. 1987. xiv, 394 pp. Universitat Wien, Institut fur Japanologie: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
This is the first of several planned publications from a project being conducted at the University of Vienna on demographic aging in Japan. The purpose of the series is to compile available statistics on old age in Japan from various official and other sources. The data are presented separately for population, including birth and death rates, causes of death, suicide, life expectancy, and age distribution; the family, including marital status, household size and structure, the aged in households, and heads of households; work, employment, and income; and social security and health.
Correspondence: Institut fur Japanologie, Universitat Wien, Universitatsstrasse 7/4, A-1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10588 Kong, Sae-Kwon; Kim, Eun-Joo. Analysis of areal features of population structure. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1988. 3-33 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the structure of the population of the Republic of Korea for use as an indicator for national development planning. Consideration is given to variations in rural and urban populations, the child-woman ratio, indexes of related differences and dissimilarity in age structure, and sex and geographical differences in age patterns of marriage.
Correspondence: S.-K. Kong, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10589 Martin, Linda G. The aging of Asia. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 4, Jul 1988. S99-S113 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article reviews some of the demographic characteristics of population aging and the elderly populations in 14 Asian countries: health and life expectancy; sex ratio, marital status, and living arrangements; and rural versus urban residence, labor force participation, retirement, and income. It also focuses on current programs for the elderly populations in Asia and discusses three general issues of importance in the development of aging policies: (a) to what extent should the West be used as a model; (b) what should be the role of the family versus the government in caring for elderly people who cannot care for themselves; and (c) should eligibility for programs be based on age or need?"
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10590 McGill, Dan M. Economic and financial implications of the aging phenomenon. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 132, No. 2, 1988. 154-71 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The consequences of demographic aging in the United States are discussed in the context of two basic questions: "(1) will the aged population, however defined, have sufficient financial claims against the economy's future output of goods and services to satisfy their basic needs and even enjoy a standard of living comparable to that of other segments of the population? and (2) will there be a sufficient quantity of goods and services to satisfy the material needs of the entire population?"
Correspondence: D. M. McGill, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10591 Murthy, G. B. Venkatesha. The Soligas of B. R. Hills: a demographic study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 1, Sep 1987. 54-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The demographic characteristics of the Soligas tribe in the B. R. Hills region of Karnataka, India, are discussed. Data are from the Indian census and interviews of 522 married women conducted in the region in 1981. Consideration is given to sex ratio, age distribution, mortality, family planning practices, and fertility.
Correspondence: G. B. V. Murthy, Population Centre, 2nd Cross, Mulleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10592 Ogawa, Naohiro. Aging in China: demographic alternatives. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 1988. 21-64 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In this article, China's future prospects have been discussed with regard to the aging of its population, by drawing heavily upon a new set of population projections prepared on the basis of the 1982 Population Census data. Unlike a variety of population projections for China currently available, our projections have placed heavy emphasis on the impact of improved mortality on China's aging process, by incorporating three alternative mortality assumptions. In our projections, all the alternative cases point to the acceleration of China's population aging, particularly after the year 2000....From a policy point of view, these age compositional shifts will call for a change of priorities and a reallocation of resources to accommodate the rapidly growing proportion of elderly people and the steady decrease of young people in the population."
Correspondence: N. Ogawa, Population Research Institute, Nihon University, 8-24 Kudan-Minami 4-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10593 Qiao, Xiaochun. Population aging model and its explanation. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1988. 10-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The impact of changes in birth and death rates on demographic aging is examined using a detailed mathematical model. The geographic scope is worldwide, with population aging coefficients also presented for Japan.
Correspondence: X. Qiao, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10594 Rogers, Andrei; Woodward, Jennifer. The sources of regional elderly population growth: migration and aging-in-place. Professional Geographer, Vol. 40, No. 4, Nov 1988. 450-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A region's elderly population has two sources of growth: net migration and the net aging-in-place of its resident population. This paper outlines a method for identifying the projected relative contribution of these two sources of elderly population growth over time, and illustrates it with data for the states of Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, and New York. The sources of elderly population growth differ between regions and over time."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

55:10595 Thane, Pat. The growing burden of an ageing population? Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 7, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 373-87 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author asserts that the problems posed by demographic aging in developed countries have been overstated, noting instead that "the transition to an older population will be gradual enough to allow time to plan. The importance of the shift in the so-called 'dependency ratio' is exaggerated because 'dependency' is unsatisfactorily defined. Nor is there clear evidence that as more people live to be older health and social service costs will rise accordingly: people are remaining fit to later ages and there is strong evidence that they can continue to make a positive contribution to the economy as workers and as consumers until relatively late ages. Social services can also be redesigned to maximize the independence of the elderly while minimizing costs."
Correspondence: P. Thane, Social Administration, Goldsmiths' College, University of London, Lewisham Way, New Cross SE14 6NW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:10596 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: dynamics of the population. [America Latina: dinamica de poblacion.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 42, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.67. Jul 1988. 257 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
Data from official national sources are presented separately by country on changes in the age distribution of the population of Latin America. The data concern population by age-group and sex for five-year intervals from 1950 to 2025, changes for each five-year interval, and indices of population growth by sex for the period 1950-2025.
Correspondence: CELADE, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

55:10597 Duchene, Josianne; Wunsch, Guillaume. Population aging and the limits to human life. Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 146, ISBN 2-87085-163-4. Aug 1988. 13 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
"After a brief overview of the demographic and actuarial literature concerning mortality 'laws' and limit life tables, we will present some results from the biological literature on aging and senescence. These results will then be used to construct a hypothetical limit life table conforming to present biological knowledge. Various demographic consequences on future population aging will then be derived in the final section of this paper, taking Japan as an example of a low-mortality country."
Correspondence: Departement de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10598 Kannisto, Vaino. On the survival of centenarians and the span of life. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 389-406 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study is to examine the level and pattern of centenarian survival in to-day's low-mortality populations and to see what light it can shed on the question of the human life span. The study is based on official statistics from 17 countries in which deaths are tabulated by single years of age, combined in many cases with information on the year of birth."
Correspondence: V. Kannisto, Campo Grande 1-6-D, 1700 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10599 Rex-Kiss, Bela. Studies on the sex ratio of new-borns. [Vizsgalatok az ujszulottek nemi aranyanak alakulasarol.] ISBN 963-241-457-8. LC 87-138601. 1986. 124 pp. Medicina Konyvkiado: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
The sex ratio at birth in Hungary is analyzed. Consideration is given to sex ratio following conception and in utero; changes in the sex ratio at birth from 1946 to 1982; and the relationships among the total number of births, illegitimacy, birth order, parental age, pregnancy duration, blood-type groups, and the sex ratio. Sex differentials in perinatal and infant mortality are also considered.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:10600 Sakai, Hiromichi. A geographical analysis of sex ratios of births in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 184, Oct 1987. 78-83 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data are presented on the sex ratio in Japan. Data are included on differences in the sex ratio at birth over time and on geographical differences in the sex ratio at various ages from 30-34 to 55-59.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10601 World Health Organization [WHO]. Task Force on Oral Contraceptives. Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Geneva, Switzerland). Effects of hormonal contraceptives on breast milk composition and infant growth. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1988. 361-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data from Hungary and Thailand are used to study "breast milk volume and composition and infant growth...at three- and four-week intervals, up to six months, in a multicenter randomized double-blind trial comparing a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (OC) with a progestogen-only OC." Results were compared with those from two groups, one using nonhormonal methods and the other using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). "Combined OCs caused a significant decrease in milk output and total energy content as well as widespread changes in milk constituents....No hormonal contraceptive was associated with any significant difference in infant weight or fat fold, nor in the rate of discontinuation for failure to gain weight. This study reiterates the need to avoid combined OCs during the first few weeks or months of lactation."
Correspondence: WHO Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

55:10602 Blackley, Paul R. Explaining relative incomes of low-income families in U.S. cities. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 4, Dec 1988. 835-52 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This article examines the causes of family income inequality using economic, demographic, and political variations in the system of cities in the United States. An interurban analysis assesses the relative positions of lower income families by comparing income levels at the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles with the median family income for each urban area. The initial estimation is conducted separately for blacks and whites and is followed by an attempt to explain black-white percentile differentials." It is found that "urban development is no longer closing the gap between low- and middle-income families [and that] differences in distributions of family characteristics (e.g., education, marital status, and labor force participation) outweigh city size and labor demand factors in explaining relative income differentials. Results vary significantly for black and white samples."
Correspondence: P. R. Blackley, Department of Economics, LeMoyne College, Syracuse, NY 13214. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10603 Buhmann, Brigitte; Rainwater, Lee; Schmaus, Guenther; Smeeding, Timothy M. Equivalence scales, well-being, inequality, and poverty: sensitivity estimates across ten countries using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) database. Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jun 1988. 115-42 pp. New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to review the available equivalence scales and to test the sensitivity of various income inequality and poverty measures to choice of equivalence scale using the LIS database." The LIS database is an international project involving sophisticated microdata sets that contain comprehensive measures of income and economic well-being for 10 industrialized countries, including Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results indicate that caution is required in making cross-national comparisons of poverty or inequality.
Two diskettes in IWTAB-README are included as a supplement. The diskettes contain LIS documentation and parameters for income variables and income distributions for households weighted by number of persons. They require an IBM-PC compatible computer running DOS 2.0 or higher.
Correspondence: B. Buhmann, Luxembourg Income Study, Center for Population, Poverty and Policy Studies, Walferdange, Luxembourg. Location: New York Public Library.

55:10604 Falaris, Evangelos M. Migration and wages of young men. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 23, No. 4, Autumn 1988. 514-34 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
A two-period nested logit migration model with selectivity is specified. The model is then applied to a sample of young U.S. male workers from nine different census divisions to study the choices they faced in the first two years after completing full-time schooling. "We find evidence of the existence of unobserved similarities in the divisions within each census region. We find that locational choices in one period affect locational choices of individuals in subsequent periods. We test for selectivity in division-specific wage equations and find little evidence of selectivity in the wage equations of most divisions and evidence of negative selection in the wage equations of two divisions."
Correspondence: E. M. Falaris, Department of Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:10605 Fonseca, Lois; Tayman, Jeff. Postcensal estimates of household income distributions. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 149-59 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article develops and evaluates a method for deriving postcensal estimates of household income distributions for [U.S.] counties. A modified lognormal probability curve is used as a model of income distribution. The function is closely related to the classical lognormal model, but it contains a nonlinear component in its derivation. Simulated postcensal estimates of household income distributions are compared with 1980 census data for the counties in California. The results indicate that the modified lognormal curve approximates observed income distributions well and produces reliable postcensal estimates for areas with a wide variety of median income levels and numbers of households."
Correspondence: L. Fonseca, Research and Information Systems, San Diego Association of Governments, 1200 Third Avenue, San Diego, CA 92101. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10606 Grindstaff, Carl F. Adolescent marriage and childbearing: the long term economic outcome, Canada in the 1980's. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 87-13, Dec 1987. 25 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada; University of Western Ontario, Centre for Canadian Population Studies: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term economic outcomes (education, labour force participation, occupation and income) associated with female adolescent marriage and childbearing. The 1981 Canadian Census is the data source for all women in Canada at 30 years of age, controlling for age at marriage and age at first birth. The data suggest that women at age 30 in Canada are in the best economic circumstances when they remain single or when they marry at age 20 or older and either remain childless or begin their childbearing at age 25 or older. Implications for these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10607 Grindstaff, Carl F.; Trovato, Frank. Junior partners: women's contribution to family income in Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 87-4, Feb 1987. 40 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada; University of Western Ontario, Centre for Canadian Population Studies: London, Canada. In Eng.
Using data from the 1981 Canadian census the authors examine "the degree of financial contribution of married women to their overall family income." Findings indicate that "married women are generally junior economic partners within the family. The extent of junior partnerships, however, is conditioned by women's human capital resources."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10608 Martin, Linda G.; Ogawa, Naohiro. The effect of cohort size on relative wages in Japan. In: Economics of changing age distributions in developed countries, edited by Ronald D. Lee, W. Brian Arthur, and Gerry Rodgers. International Studies in Demography, 1988. 59-75 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we focus on one feature of Japanese labour markets, the seniority wage system, and investigate how it had changed in the last twenty years as the population has aged. In the first section we describe some of the institutional characteristics of Japanese employment and wage structure. In the second section we review the pattern of change of the past three decades in the age composition of the productive-age population and of employed persons. The third section examines the effect of age structure change on relative wages at both national and industry levels. The final section summarizes major findings."
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10609 McQuillan, Kevin. Family characteristics and personal attributes as determinants of family income. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 88-7, Jun 1988. 13, [8] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"Data from the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances [are] used...to assess the significance of both personal and family characteristics as determinants of family income in Canada." Families analyzed include a husband-wife unit with or without never-married children, and a lone parent with one or more never-married children living together in the same dwelling. Consideration is given to the disadvantaged status of lone-parent families (specifically, female lone-parent families), educational levels, family size, family relationships, child care, and labor force participation.
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10610 Messinger, Hans; Fedyk, Frank; Zeesman, Allen. The size and distribution of the poverty gap in Canada: a micro analysis of variations among demographic groups. Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 34, No. 3, Sep 1988. 275-88 pp. New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
An attempt is made to provide a micro-level analysis of the size and distribution of the poverty gap in Canada so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different demographic groups. The results suggest that "there are virtually no poor elderly couples and although there are a large number of poor single elderly, their income shortfalls are relatively small and are highly concentrated near the poverty line; the poverty rate among families with children is quite low but their incomes on average fall well below the poverty line and are widely dispersed; and single parents fare badly on all measures."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10611 Murphy, Kevin; Plant, Mark; Welch, Finis. Cohort size and earnings in the USA. In: Economics of changing age distributions in developed countries, edited by Ronald D. Lee, W. Brian Arthur, and Gerry Rodgers. International Studies in Demography, 1988. 39-58 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors develop an empirical framework showing the effects of cohort size and age composition on wage earnings in the United States. Data are from the March Current Population Survey for the period 1968-1983 and concern white male civilians aged 14-65 years who were in the labor force and not in education. "We describe the underlying data and present summaries showing patterns of change, both in earnings and in the age of the work-force. We then outline the methods used for estimation. Results including simulations of life cycles of effects follow. The main conclusion supports [the] conjecture that cohort size effects on full career earnings are not particularly large and are considerably smaller than effects for new entrants."
Correspondence: K. Murphy, University of Chicago, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10612 Paul, Satya. Household composition and the measurement of disparity in levels of living. Indian Economic Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 83-106 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The importance of household composition in the analysis of inequalities in income distribution based on household survey data is illustrated using data for rural Punjab, India, from the 25th round of the National Sample Survey. The study also reveals that distribution of household consumption expenditure, if not adjusted for household size and composition effects, gives biased measures of the extent of true inequality.
Correspondence: S. Paul, Department of Economics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10613 Soroka, Lewis A. Male/female income distributions, city size and urban characteristics: Canada, 1970-1980. Urban Studies, Vol. 24, No. 5, Oct 1987. 417-26 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
The separate effects of city size on male and female income distributions are analyzed using Canadian data for the period 1970-1980. The results indicate that "cities with greater male income equality do not necessarily exhibit greater female equality. Further, the variables which contribute to equality for males are different from those for females."
Correspondence: L. A. Soroka, Division of Social Sciences, Brock University, Merrittville Highway, St. Catherines, Ontario L2S 3A1, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

55:10614 Torrey, Barbara B. Assets of the aged: clues and issues. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 489-97, 536-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The 1985 median household wealth of the aged in the United States was an estimated 63,689 [dollars]. Although this is a considerable amount of wealth, we know very little about what the aged do with their wealth. This note reviews the available data on the source and size of wealth among the aged; it summarizes the evidence on the savings behavior of the aged; and it explores their home-selling behavior. It then presents some international comparisons of wealth behavior of the aged in both developed and developing countries and concludes with possible public policy implications and the broader questions that the data raise."
Correspondence: B. B. Torrey, Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10615 Zopf, Paul E. American women in poverty. Contributions in Women's Studies, No. 100, ISBN 0-313-25980-1. LC 88-21348. 1989. xviii, 211 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The trend toward the feminization of poverty in the United States is discussed. Using a combination of demographic and sociological analyses, the author presents "statistical documentation and comparative data on population groups, geographic areas, and specific factors associated with female poverty in the United States." The author first examines how poverty is officially defined and measured. "He analyzes the characteristics of women family heads and individuals who are classified as poor, comparing the poverty situations of women and men and presenting variations by age, race, ethnicity, farm and nonfarm residence, and urban and nonurban residence." The geographic distribution of poverty and the factors affecting it are also analyzed, including "the presence or absence of dependent children, levels of education, employment status, work experience, work disability, retirement, and homemaking." The book concludes with practical suggestions for change.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

55:10616 De Vos, Susan; Holden, Karen C. On measuring living arrangements of older individuals in comparative studies. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-9, [1988]. 19, [6] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"A significant body of literature in gerontology has debated the relative importance of culture and socioeconomic factors in explaining cross-national differences in the living arrangements of the elderly population....This literature has not adopted a standard method of measuring living arrangements. This note compares the measures that have been adopted and, using data from countries in Latin America, Asia, Northwest Europe, and North America, discusses how different contrasts emerge when different measures are used. We recommend the use of a classification scheme that recognizes major life-course factors while using few categories."
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10617 Denton, Nancy A.; Massey, Douglas S. Residential segregation of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians by socioeconomic status and generation. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 4, Dec 1988. 797-817 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The effect of socioeconomic status on the segregation of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 60 U.S. metropolitan areas is examined, and an index of dissimilarity is computed to determine the level of segregation of each group from non-Hispanic whites within categories of education, income, and occupation. The index is also computed separately for immigrants and natives among Hispanics and Asians. The results show that blacks are highly segregated from non-Hispanic whites at all socioeconomic levels. Hispanic and Asian segregation not only is lower at all socioeconomic levels but declines markedly from low to high socioeconomic status. For Asians and Hispanics, segregation falls from the immigrant to the native generation. The results indicate that barriers to integration persist for blacks in U.S. society, but that processes of integration and assimilation continue for Hispanics and Asians."
Correspondence: N. A. Denton, Population Research Center, University of Chicago, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10618 Herting, Jerald R. The effect of differential fertility on group occupational mobility. Pub. Order No. DA8802249. 1987. 276 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation incorporates the effects of differential fertility by occupation on social mobility. [It] addresses how this demographic factor may influence a sub-population's overall upward or downward movement in the stratification system and how ignoring this factor may influence analyses based upon the father to son mobility table. Using data from the [U.S.] 1973 Occupational Change in a Generation and from the National Longitudinal Surveys I examine the mobility experience of fathers and sons for three cohorts of blacks and three cohorts of whites....Simulations using the mathematical model shows...that for blacks as a whole differential fertility weakens the positive effect of recent changes in social mobility for individual blacks. The technique to adjust for the marginals in an intergenerational mobility table provides further support for the impact of differential fertility on the social mobility of blacks. The log-linear model, however, suggests only slight effects of the dimension representing differential fertility."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(12).

55:10619 Hwang, Sean-Shong; Murdock, Steve H. Population size and residential segregation: an empirical evaluation of two perspectives. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 4, Dec 1988. 818-34 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"We identify two alternative theoretical explanations of population size and evaluate their empirical utility by examining the relationships between population size and [racial/ethnic] residential segregation [in the United States]. In so doing, the purpose is to examine alternative interpretations of the effects of population size rather than attempting to explicate factors affecting residential segregation. Residential segregation is thus used only as an exemplar for the analysis of the theoretical utility of population size." Data are for 146 places in Texas having a total population of 10,000 or more.
Correspondence: S.-S. Hwang, Department of Sociology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10620 Koptas, Grazyna. Education of women and changes in the family model in Poland. [Edukacja kobiet a przemiany modelu rodziny w Polsce.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 5, May 1988. 4-6 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Trends in women's education in Poland for the period 1960-1986 are reviewed, with a focus on the status of women and the allocation of women's time. The author concludes that the rapid changes in women's educational status that have occurred are not matched by equally rapid changes in family behavior.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10621 Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A. Residential segregation of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in selected U.S. metropolitan areas. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 2, Jan 1989. 73-83 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This article compares patterns of residential segregation for Mexicans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans in selected U.S. metropolitan areas in 1980." Data are from the 1980 U.S. census and other published sources. "Multivariate analysis confirms that patterns for Cubans and Mexicans are not significantly different from one another, but that the high level of Puerto Rican segregation from [white] Anglos is exceptional."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, Population Research Center, University of Chicago, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10622 Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A. The dimensions of residential segregation. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 2, Dec 1988. 281-315 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper conceives of residential segregation as a multidimensional phenomenon varying along five distinct axes of measurement: evenness, exposure, concentration, centralization, and clustering. Twenty indices of segregation are surveyed and related conceptually to one of the five dimensions. Using data from a large set of [United States] metropolitan areas, the indices are intercorrelated and factor analyzed. Orthogonal and oblique rotations produce pattern matrices consistent with the postulated dimensional structure. Based on the factor analyses and other information, one index was chosen to represent each of the five dimensions, and these selections were confirmed with a principal components analysis. The paper recommends adopting these indices as standard indicators in future studies of segregation."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, Population Research Center, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10623 Stapleton, David C.; Young, Douglas J. Educational attainment and cohort size. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 6, No. 3, Jul 1988. 330-61 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"We argue that the postwar baby boom [in the United States] caused substantial fluctuations in both the economic rewards to education and educational attainment over the last 3 decades. If substitutability between young and old workers diminishes with education, the present value of lifetime earnings for a boom cohort is depressed more for highly educated workers, reducing incentives for educational attainment. The opposite is true for pre- and postboom cohorts. The diminishing substitutability hypothesis explains the declines in both the returns to college and college completion rates in the 1970s and predicts a substantial increase in educational attainment for postboomers."
Correspondence: D. C. Stapleton, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

55:10624 Goldscheider, Calvin; Goldstein, Sidney. The Jewish community of Rhode Island: a social and demographic study, 1987. May 1988. [ii], 35 pp. Jewish Federation of Rhode Island: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
This is a summary report of a 1987 survey of the Rhode Island Jewish community. The report covers such aspects as population size, spatial distribution, aging, immigrant origins, migration, families and households, educational status, marriage and assimilation, religion, and services provided by and for the community.
Correspondence: Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10625 Guillon, Michelle. French by naturalization: a documentary file. [Les Francais par acquisition: dossier documentaire.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1988. 125-45 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
A demographic analysis of the population acquiring nationality in France by naturalization or other means is presented. Data are from French censuses, including the 1982 census. Factors considered include trends since 1928 in the size of this population and its characteristics, including nationality of origin, age and sex distribution, residence, and socio-professional status.
Correspondence: M. Guillon, Institut de Geographie, Universite de Paris I, 191 Rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10626 Kalibova, Kveta; Pavlik, Zdenek. Demographic characteristics of the Romany population in Czechoslovakia. [Cechy demograficzne ludnosci Cyganskiej w Czechoslowacji.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/93, 1988. 37-55 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors describe the characteristics of the Romany population in Czechoslovakia, using data from National Committee records and the 1980 census. Information is included for the Romany and Czechoslovak populations on population size, age and sex distribution, fertility, mortality, life expectancy, infant mortality, and educational status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10627 Raigoza, Jaime. U.S. Hispanics: a demographic and issue profile. Population and Environment, Vol. 10, No. 2, Winter 1988. 95-106 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper highlights sociodemographic characteristics of Hispanics and extrapolates issues attendant to this large and growing segment of American society. Educational, political, and economic issues are considered."
Correspondence: J. Raigoza, Department of Sociology, California State University, Chico, CA 95929-0445. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10628 Ubelaker, Douglas H. North American Indian population size, A.D. 1500 to 1985. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 77, No. 3, Nov 1988. 289-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Production of the Smithsonian's Handbook of North American Indians has enabled new tribe-by-tribe estimates of North American Indian population size. Collectively these data suggest that population numbered about 1,894,350 at about A.D. 1500. Epidemics and other factors reduced this number to only 530,000 by 1900. Modern data suggest that by 1985 population size has increased to over 2.5 million."
Correspondence: D. H. Ubelaker, Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10629 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1986 and 1987. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 434, Dec 1988. v, 89 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States based on the March 1986 and 1987 Current Population Surveys (CPS). The estimates of Hispanics were developed using a revised procedure which includes an allowance for net undocumented immigration and an increase in the estimate of emigration by legal residents....The report contains information about the total Hispanic population, as well as its subgroups--Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and other Spanish origin. Comparable data for the total United States and the non-Hispanic population also are included. The social and economic characteristics presented include age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, school enrollment, fertility, voting and registration, employment status, family composition and size, income, and poverty status."
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10630 Valdivieso, Rafael; Davis, Cary. U.S. Hispanics: challenging issues for the 1990s. Population Trends and Public Policy, No. 17, Dec 1988. 16 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States. Emphasis is placed on the group's disadvantaged socioeconomic and political position and on the need to improve education and job skills. Information is provided on the size of the Hispanic population, age distribution, discrimination, spatial distribution, educational and occupational status, poverty, language, and political participation. Future trends that will affect the U.S. Latino population are outlined.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, P.O. Box 96152, Washington, D.C. 20090-6152. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10631 van der Erf, R. F.; Tas, R. F. J. Aliens in the Netherlands on January 1 1988. [Niet-Nederlanders op 1 januari 1988.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 12, Dec 1988. 12-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The alien population in the Netherlands as at January 1, 1988, is analyzed using data from official sources. Excluded from the analysis are Dutch citizens born in Suriname, the Netherlands Antilles, or Aruba and aliens who have obtained Dutch nationality. The largest two categories are shown to be Turks and Moroccans.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10632 Wakabayashi, Keiko. Preface to the population problems of minority groups in China. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 186, Apr 1988. 35-57 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
This paper is an introduction to the study of China's minority populations, which total some 62 million persons, or 6.7 percent of the total population according to the 1982 census. The author discusses the government's preferential policies toward minorities and their impact on the development and growth of minority populations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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