Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

55:10122 Burch, Thomas K.; Selvanathan, K. E. Orphanhood in Canada, 1985: a comparison of empirical and analytic estimates. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 87-2, Dec 1987. 23 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada; University of Western Ontario, Centre for Canadian Population Studies: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is twofold: 1) to make analytic estimates of the prevalence of orphanhood in Canada in 1985; 2) to compare these estimates with the empirical estimates provided by the 1985 General Social Survey....[The authors] comment on some methodological implications of the analysis, and on the changing social significance of parental survival or non-survival in contemporary society."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10123 Caldwell, John; Gajanayake, Indra; Caldwell, Pat; Peiris, Indrani. Sensitization to illness and the risk of death: an explanation for Sri Lanka's approach to good health for all. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1989. 365-79 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Sri Lanka's success in achieving high levels of life expectancy is investigated using both demographic and anthropological methods to study some 11,000 individuals in the southwestern region of the country. The authors note that per capita income in Sri Lanka is relatively low and that the provision of health services is comparable to that of other countries at the same level of development. Results of the investigation showed that the major geographical differentials in mortality were between rich and poor areas of the capital city, Colombo, and not between rural and urban areas. Lower mortality was associated with greater sensitivity to illness and the risk of dying combined with the availability of modern medicine.
Correspondence: J. Caldwell, Department of Demography, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10124 Chan, Linda S.; Portnoy, Bernard. Maternal and child mortality along the U.S.-Mexico border. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 42-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the maternal mortality and the age-specific mortality rates for the under 25 year olds in six border regions on the U.S. side of the U.S.-Mexico border and compares them with those of adjoining regions in Mexico. On the U.S. side of the border, the improvement in the general mortality status of maternal and child health from 1970 to 1980 was equal to or better than that of the nation as a whole. Despite this improvement, in 1980 five of the six border regions showed higher mortality rates due to external causes for the 1-4 age-group. On the Mexican side, maternal and child mortality was lower in the border region than in other parts of Mexico but much higher than in the United States. The 1-4 year olds in Mexico had the highest mortality rates among the three age-groups over 1 year of age."
Correspondence: L. S. Chan, Room 12900, General Hospital, LAC-USC Medical Center, 1200 North State Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10125 Cohen, Joel E. Estimating the effects of successful malarial control programmes on mortality. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 25, 1988. 6-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper proposes a new, empirically based model to measure the expected effects of successful malaria control programmes on human mortality levels and structure....The model produces a range of estimated death rates. The range depends on uncertainty about the effective success of control measures. A numerical example, based on the data of the Garki project in northern Nigeria, is discussed. Some alternatives to the model are mentioned. Some strengths and weaknesses...are described and evaluated. And some recommendations are offered for the collection and analysis of data in the intersection of malarial epidemiology and demography."
Correspondence: J. E. Cohen, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10126 Costa Rica. Ministerio de Salud. Departamento de Estadistica. Seccion Otros Programas Prioritarios (San Jose, Costa Rica). Some characteristics: mortality, 1985. [Algunas caracteristicas: mortalidad 1985.] Mar 1987. [17] pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Preliminary data are presented for Costa Rica showing general and infant mortality for the country as a whole and for each province and town; fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality, and infant mortality by age; general and infant mortality by cause; mortality by age and sex; and changes in general, maternal, infant, and neonatal mortalilty between 1980 and 1985.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Salud, Apartado 10123, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10127 Damiani, Paul. A law of general mortality, including accidents: an analytical expression and changes over time. [Loi de mortalite generale, accidents inclus: expression analytique et variations dans le temps.] Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Vol. 129, No. 3, 1988. 170-80 pp. Nancy, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"We tried to find a law of general mortality, including accidents, giving probability of death, according to sex and age. For this purpose, we used the same method as for searching a law of mortality by disease, where we defined a new scale of time based on variations of weight according to age. The law we found has an additional expression according to the mortality by accident. Then, we studied variations of this law according to time." The concepts are illustrated using data for France.
Correspondence: P. Damiani, INSEE, 18 Boulevard A.-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10128 Greene, Margaret E. Intercensal change and the indirect estimation of mortality: the case of Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1987. 569-85 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"In a country such as Pakistan, where there is no vital registration system, estimating mortality levels and trends can be difficult. One way we can learn about mortality is to use indirect estimation techniques on census age distributions. This paper applies some of these techniques and evaluates the quality of the census data in the process." Problems of relative coverage in the 1972 and 1981 censuses and changes in age-reporting preferences are discussed. Comments by Mohammad Afzal are included (pp. 583-5).
Correspondence: M. E. Greene, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10129 Katsuno, Masato. Mortality estimation using proportional mortality indicators for developing countries. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, May 1988. 43-57 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author extends a technique for the indirect estimation of mortality originally developed by Courbage and Fargues. The technique is applied to national data from 35 developing countries for the year 1975. "Nine families of model life tables constructed by Coale and Demeny and the United Nations were applied to each of the object populations, and the level of mortality corresponding to the value of PMI (proportional mortality indicator: percentage of deaths at the ages 50 years and over) obtained from death registration data, was determined for each family." The author notes that the technique does not require assumptions regarding features of the population in question and is applicable to a non-stable population or an open population without any adjustment.
Correspondence: M. Katsuno, Department of Public Health Demography, Institute of Public Health, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10130 Litwak, Eugene; Messeri, Peter; Wolfe, Samuel; Gorman, Sheila; Silverstein, Merril; Guilarte, Miguel. Organizational theory, social supports, and mortality rates: a theoretical convergence. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 1, Feb 1989. 49-66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Theorists and researchers have explicitly or implicitly made use of primary groups to explain a wide range of social behaviors, such as work productivity, mass media communication, combat morale, job search, services to elderly, and mortality rates. Typically, they have not systematically distinguished primary group from formal organization effects. Consequently, it is not known what primary groups uniquely contribute to social behavior. An expanded organizational contingency theory of group structure is advanced which fills in this gap and shows that primary group theory and organizational contingency theory share a common framework. To demonstrate the power of this formulation, [U.S.] national data on mortality are analyzed to predict which causes of death can and which cannot be reduced by primary groups."
Correspondence: E. Litwak, School of Public Health, Columbia University, 600 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10131 Manton, Kenneth G.; Woodbury, Max A.; Stallard, Eric. Models of the interaction of mortality and the evolution of risk factor distribution: a general stochastic process formulation. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, Jan-Feb 1988. 239-56 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Generally analyses of longitudinal studies of chronic disease risks do not directly model the change with time of risk factor values and the interactions of those changes with risk levels. Failure to account for such process characteristics can lead to incorrect inferences about the specific effects of risk factors on mortality, the inability to accurately forecast the future risk of the cohort, and inaccurate statements about the effects of specific risk factor interventions on mortality. We present a model which does describe such a process and show how it can be estimated from longitudinal studies. We also illustrate the effects of certain risk factor process features on the evolution of disease risk data from males in the Framingham, Massachusetts [United States] study."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10132 Norberg, Ragnar. Actuarial analysis of dependent lives. Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics Working Paper, No. 74, Nov 1988. 17 pp. University of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"The present paper discusses how actuarial analyses of multi-life statuses are affected if we drop the traditional hypothesis of independent component life lengths. Some notions of dependence, well known from reliability theory, are presented, and conditions for positive dependence are found in a Markov model as well as in a heterogeneity model for the bivariate case."
Correspondence: Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10133 Ohba, Tamotsu. An evaluation of the methods of estimating death probability in the case of a specific cause of death eliminated. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 187, Jul 1988. 46-51 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author evaluates methods of estimating the probability of dying with the elimination of specific causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10134 Olshansky, S. Jay. On forecasting mortality. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1988. 482-530 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Methods of estimating mortality in the United States are evaluated. "Official forecasts of mortality made by the U.S. Office of the Actuary throughout this century have consistently underestimated observed mortality declines. This is due, in part, to their reliance on the static extrapolation of past trends, an atheoretical statistical method that pays scant attention to the behavioral, medical, and social factors contributing to mortality change. A 'multiple cause-delay model' more realistically portrays the effects on mortality of the presence of more favorable risk factors at the population level. Such revised assumptions produced large increases in forecasts of the size of the elderly population, and have a dramatic impact on related estimates of population morbidity, disability, and health care costs."
Correspondence: S. J. Olshansky, Energy and Environmental Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 362, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10135 Rogot, Eugene; Sorlie, Paul D.; Johnson, Norman J.; Glover, Claudia S.; Treasure, David W. First data book. A mortality study of one million persons by demographic, social, and economic factors: 1979-81 follow-up. U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Pub. Order No. NIH 88-2896. LC 88-601855. Mar 1988. vii, 307 pp. U.S. National Institutes of Health [NIH]: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
This is a report from the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study, a long-term prospective study designed to investigate the socioeconomic, demographic, and occupational differentials in mortality within the United States. "This report presents standardized mortality ratios [SMR's] for selected characteristics based on matching individual records from Census Bureau samples for 967,368 persons to the National Death Index (NDI) for the years 1979, 1980 and 1981. SMR's are shown in a series of tables...in which each characteristic of interest is studied by age, sex and race for the leading causes of death. The statistics are designed to serve as basic reference material for health scientists, demographers, social scientists and others who may wish to study mortality relationships by social and economic characteristics."
Correspondence: E. Rogot, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Federal Building Room 2C-08, 7550 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10136 Shlomowitz, Ralph. Epidemiology and the Pacific labor trade. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 19, No. 4, Spring 1989. 585-610 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The mortality associated with the Pacific labor trade and the transfer of diseases is examined. "This article has presented time-series data from 1879 to 1953 on the death rates of the Pacific island migrants who were involved in the Pacific labor trade, and examined the disease-specific death rates of bacillary dysentery, influenza-pneumonia, and tuberculosis, new diseases to which Pacific islanders lacked immunity." The geographical focus is on Queensland, Australia; Fiji; Papua New Guinea; New Hebrides; and the Solomon Islands.
Correspondence: R. Shlomowitz, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

55:10137 Swanson, David A. A state-based regression model for estimating substate life expectancy. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 161-70 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Life expectancy is an important indicator of the level of mortality in a population. However, the conventional way of calculating life expectancy--constructing a life table--has rigorous data requirements. As a consequence, life expectancy data are not usually available for substate areas. In this article, a regression model for estimating life expectancy is constructed, using [U.S.] state-level data, and is tested against two sets of 1980 life expectancy data: (1) a nationwide sample of metropolitan areas and (2) selected cities, their suburbs, and rural counties in Ohio. An additional test shows the sensitivity of the model's accuracy to errors in one of its input data elements. The results suggest that the model should be given serious consideration for generating life expectancy estimates for substate areas."
Correspondence: D. A. Swanson, Department of Sociology, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10138 Tabeau, Ewa. Analysis of changes in mortality in Poland. [Analiza zmian w procesie umieralnosci ludnosci Polski.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 5, May 1988. 12-4 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Mortality rates for both sexes for 5- and 10-year age intervals are analyzed for the years 1960-1983 for various localities of Poland. The author notes a decline in mortality since 1966, and provides new estimates of that trend. Some problems concerning the data are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10139 Vallin, Jacques. Mortality in Europe from 1720 to 1914: long term trends and changes in mortality characteristics by age and sex. [La mortalite en Europe de 1720 a 1914: tendances a long terme et changements de structure par age et par sexe.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 18, Jun 1988. 38 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in mortality in Europe from 1722 to 1914 are analyzed, based on vital statistics data for the five Scandinavian countries and on data reconstructed for France by Louis Henry and for England by E. A. Wrigley and R. S. Schofield. Significant differences among countries are noted. The problems posed by the scarcity of relevant data are also discussed.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

55:10140 Kartoglu, H. Umit. Neonatal tetanus mortality: using the survey technique as a different approach to the selection of a survey region for Turkey. [Neonatal tetanos mortalite hizi; alan arastirma teknigi ve Turkiye icin bolge secimine degisik bir yaklasim.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 10, 1988. 63-72 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in neonatal mortality and morbidity from tetanus are examined for Turkey, with a focus on the type of field surveys used to determine the prevalence of the disease. Recommendations for survey sites in Turkey are also offered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10141 Powell-Griner, Eve. Perinatal mortality in the United States: 1981-85. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 37, No. 10, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1120. Feb 7, 1989. 12 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Recent trends in perinatal mortality in the United States are reviewed. Consideration is given to differences by race, sex, and geographical area. It is noted that the perinatal mortality rate continued to decline steadily, reaching a new low of 10.7 per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths in 1985.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10142 Sakai, Hiromichi. On fetal deaths in the year 1966 "Hinoe-Uma" Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 186, Apr 1988. 58-63 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Fetal deaths in Japan for the year 1966 are analyzed. The author attempts to establish the extent to which the data are affected by the East Asian superstition that 1966 was an inauspicious year to have a baby.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

55:10143 Aksit, Belma; Aksit, Bahattin. Sociocultural determinants of infant and child mortality in Turkey. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1989. 571-82 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant and child mortality....The present review of research in Turkey has indicated that urban/rural and regional differentials in infant mortality have been clearly established as by-products of fertility, contraception, and health surveys covering nationally representative samples. However, there are only a few multivariate explanatory models of infant/child mortality in Turkey to isolate and measure the effects of mother's education in relation to other variables. Nevertheless, existing studies in Turkey seem to suggest that mother's and father's education might link socio-economic, psychocultural, and biomedical variables with each other at community, household, and individual levels, providing clues for the formation of future research designs and policy decisions."
Correspondence: B. Aksit, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10144 Bailey, Mohamed. Factors affecting infant and child mortality in rural Sierra Leone. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 34, No. 4, Aug 1988. 165-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The determinants of infant and child mortality in Sierra Leone are examined using data from a sample of currently married rural women aged 15-49 years during a fertility and family planning survey. The analysis considers background (mother's tribe, religion, and current place of residence), demographic (mother's age, age at marriage, number of children ever born, and duration of breast feeding), and socio-economic (maternal and paternal education and occupation, and household income) variables. A multivariate analysis...is carried out to obtain the net effect of each factor on mortality. The results indicate that maternal education and occupation, duration of breast feeding, number of children ever born, current place of residence, and household income affect mortality significantly."
Correspondence: M. Bailey, 2422 Grant Street No. B, Berkeley, CA 94703. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10145 Casterline, John B.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Ismail, Abdel F. E. Household income and child survival in Egypt. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 15-35 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article uses household-level economic and fertility survey data to examine the relationship between household income and child survival in Egypt. Income has little effect on infant mortality but is inversely related to mortality in early childhood. The relationship persists with other associated socioeconomic variables controlled. The mechanisms underlying the income effects are not evident from this analysis: income differentials in sources of household drinking water, type of toilet facilities, and maternal demographic characteristics do not explain the net impact of income on child mortality. The absence of effects on child survival of the size of the place of residence and the relatively weak effects of maternal schooling are also notable."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 451).
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10146 Chahnazarian, Anouch. Factors associated with survey omission of dead children: evidence from a reinterview survey in Zaire. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 1.1.47-65 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The accuracy of child mortality estimates made from demographic surveys is assessed, with a focus on the impact of omission of births and deaths of dead children and of lack of information on age of death. "The first objective is to examine whether the usual patterns of omission in demographic surveys are found in the Zaire data sets....The second objective...is to examine what practical factors operated in the field during data collection, resulting in response errors. Finally, the third objective is to formulate some suggestions for improving data collection methods, more specifically to ensure a good reporting quality." Data are from two rounds of a 1984 child mortality survey in Zaire.
Correspondence: A. Chahnazarian, Department of Population Dynamics, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10147 Cleland, John G.; van Ginneken, Jerome K. Maternal education and child survival in developing countries: the search for pathways of influence. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 12, 1988. 1,357-68 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"During the past two decades a considerable amount of information has become available from developing countries showing that maternal education has a strong impact on infant and child mortality. On average each one-year increment in mother's education corresponds with a 7-9% decline in under-5s' mortality. Education exercises a stronger influence in early and later childhood than in infancy. The central theme of this paper is to assess the various mechanisms or intervening factors which could explain how mother's education influences the health and survivorship of her children." The authors conclude that economic advantages associated with education account for about one half of the effect. The other half is probably related to the use of preventive and curative health services.
Correspondence: J. K. van Ginneken, Netherlands Institute of Preventive Health Care TNO, P.O. Box 124, 2300 AC Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10148 Clemens, John D.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Chakraborty, J.; Chowdhury, Shahriar; Rao, Malla R.; Ali, Mohammed; Zimicki, Susan; Wojtyniak, Bogdan. Measles vaccination and childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 6, Dec 1988. 1,330-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"To ascertain whether measles vaccination was associated with reduced mortality rates in rural Bangladeshi children, the authors conducted a case-control study in four contiguous areas, two of which had participated in an intensive measles vaccination program which began in the spring of 1982. Cases were 536 children who had died in the four-area region at the age of 10-60 months between April 1982 and December 1984....Measles vaccination was associated with a 36%...proportionate reduction in the overall rate of death and a 57%...reduction in the rate of deaths directly attributed to measles or ascribed to diarrhea, respiratory illness, or malnutrition....Moreover, children vaccinated in 1982 exhibited a sustained reduction in the rate of death in 1983 and 1984. The authors concluded that measles vaccination was associated with a pronounced and sustained reduction in the rate of death among children in this study."
Correspondence: J. D. Clemens, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:10149 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Kleinman, Joel C. Trends and current status in childhood mortality: United States, 1900-85. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 3: Analytical and Epidemiological Studies, No. 26, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1410. ISBN 0-8406-0428-9. LC 88-600298. Jan 1989. v, 44 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Mortality statistics for [U.S.] children 1-19 years of age by race, sex, and cause of death are analyzed focusing on differences in external and natural causes. General trends from 1900-68 as well as trends in leading causes of death for 1968-85 are examined. Geographic variation by cause of death and cross-national comparisons are also presented."
Correspondence: NCHS, Federal Center Building, Room 1-57, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10150 Friede, Andrew; Baldwin, Wendy; Rhodes, Philip H.; Buehler, James W.; Strauss, Lilo T. Older maternal age and infant mortality in the United States. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 72, No. 2, Aug 1988. 152-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data from the National Infant Mortality Surveillance project are used to examine the effect of older maternal age on infant mortality for the 1980 U.S. birth cohort. The data concern 1,579,854 births and 14,591 deaths of singletons whose mothers were 25 to 49 years of age. The results indicate that risk of infant mortality was nearly equal for infants born to mothers 25-29 and 30-34 years of age; infants born to mothers aged 35-39 were at slightly higher risk (18 percent); and those born to mothers aged 40-49 were at much higher risk (69 percent). The authors conclude that it is relatively safe for women to postpone childbearing into their middle, and perhaps late, thirties.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10151 Garssen, M. J. Estimating infant mortality from longitudinal data collected in Yaounde, Cameroon: an illustrative analysis. In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F. H. A. G. Zwart, edited by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen. 1988. 45-62 pp. Geo Pers: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
Problems concerning the study of infant mortality in Cameroon, and the demographic and socioeconomic factors affecting it, are considered. The practical aspects of longitudinal survey research are discussed, as are implications for methodological problem solving. These issues are illustrated using data from a survey conducted in Yaounde between 1978 and 1981.
Correspondence: M. J. Garssen, Ministry of Health, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10152 Goldberg, Howard I.; M'Bodji, Fara G. Infant and early childhood mortality in the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 471-84 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using data from a 1982-83 survey, infant and early childhood mortality are investigated in a large rural region of Senegal. Because of evidence of under-reporting of early mortality an adjustment factor was applied to the data. Infant mortality was estimated to be about 113 deaths per 1,000 live births. Childhood mortality was very high relative to infant mortality. Some noteworthy differentials in mortality between geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups were recorded. It was estimated that diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases accounted for about one-half of reported deaths. Tetanus was an important cause of death during infancy. Measles and malaria were important causes only after the first birthday."
Correspondence: H. I. Goldberg, Program Evaluation Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10153 Gueye, Mouhamadou. Birth weight and body weight: correlates and association with morbidity and mortality in Bobo-Dioulasso. Pub. Order No. DA8804906. 1987. 232 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Variables affecting birth and body weight, morbidity, and mortality during the first two years of life in Burkina Faso are examined. Consideration is given to the impact of birth order, malaria, measles, quality of water, and prenatal care. Multivariate regression analysis and biometric analysis of mortality are used. Findings indicate that "birth weight is related to mortality up to the sixteenth month of life, but the relationship disappears once weight-for-age is considered. This last variable is even useful for middle term prognosis. Finally, an ancillary finding is that medical services have a dramatic effect on mortality."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(2).

55:10154 Hojman, David E. Neoliberal economic policies and infant and child mortality: simulation analysis of a Chilean paradox. World Development, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan 1989. 93-108 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paradox of deteriorating living standards for the poorest coexisting with declining infant and child mortality rates during the 1970s [in Chile] is explained by a simultaneous model where these rates and the birth rate are endogenous. Partial- and general-equilibrium results conflict; some apparently satisfactory policy tools have counterproductive impacts; action on small groups of selected policy variables is more effective than overall economic and social welfare expansion; and policy effects differ according to social class. The role of midwife visits, average real earnings, and cheap energy for poor urban households are emphasized. Perversely, high unemployment also contributed to the actual mortality decline during the period."
Correspondence: D. E. Hojman, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10155 Humphrey, Charlotte; Elford, Jonathan. Social class differences in infant mortality: the problem of competing hypotheses. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 497-504 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The debate concerning the cause of differentials in infant mortality by social class is reviewed. "The longstanding debate continues between those who favour explanations based on natural or social selection and those who stress the influence of environmental circumstances. These explanations are often presented as competing hypotheses between which it is necessary to make an absolute choice." The authors then examine critically an article by Harold Harmsworth, and argue that "such an approach may lead to erroneous conclusions, and may divert attention away from the primary task of understanding how to bring about further improvements in the survival of infants in the manual social classes." The geographical focus is on the United Kingdom.
For the article by Harmsworth, published in 1984, see 50:20172.
Correspondence: C. Humphrey, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and General Practice, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10156 Kock, Christian; Kytir, Josef; Munz, Rainer. The risk of infant mortality: a plea for reform in the politics of health. [Risiko "Sauglingstod": Pladoyer fur eine gesundheitspolitische Reform.] Schriften des Instituts fur Demographie der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vol. 8, ISBN 3-7005-4612-2. 1988. 184 pp. Franz Deuticke: Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a study on the mortality of the newly born in Austria are presented. It is based on data for all live and stillbirths occurring in 1984 and 1985, a total of 177,000 live births and 2,800 stillbirths or first-year mortalities. Consideration is given to the history of trends in infant mortality in Austria, risk factors affecting infant mortality and the major groups at risk, Austrian maternal and child health policies, and the situation in Sweden and the Netherlands. Proposals for reform are also offered.
Correspondence: Institut fur Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstrasse 2b, A-1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10157 Kuropka, Ireneusz. Presentation of methods applied in the projection of infant mortality. [Prezentacja metod w zastosowaniu do prognozowania umieralnosci niemowlat.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 4, Apr 1988. 15-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The author describes a variety of analytical equations which attempt to determine the major factors influencing infant mortality in Poland during the period 1960-1980. The models' values for forecasting future trends in infant mortality are then discussed.
Correspondence: I. Kuropka, Akademia Ekonomiczna we Wroclawiu, 53-345 Wroclaw, Komandorska 118/120, Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10158 LaVeist, Thomas A. Linking residential segregation to the infant-mortality race disparity in U.S. cities. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 2, Jan 1989. 90-4 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This paper presents a model of social factors affecting infant mortality [in the United States] and presents evidence that differences in the socio-environmental conditions in which black and white Americans live are in large part responsible for the two-to-one ratio in infant mortality." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: T. A. LaVeist, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10159 Lindskog, U.; Lindskog, P.; Carstensen, J.; Larsson, Y.; Gebre-Medhin, M. Childhood mortality in relation to nutritional status and water supply: a prospective study from rural Malawi. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 77, No. 2, Mar 1988. 260-8 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The impact on childhood mortality of the introduction of a safe water supply in Malawi is examined. The data concern 1,178 children under five years of age studied over three rainy and three dry seasons, and covered nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality. 137 children died during the course of the study, and the probability of a child dying before age five was 270 in 1,000. "Mortality among children living in households using the new, piped-water supply tended to be lower than mortality for those using traditional water sources, although the difference was not statistically [significant]."
Correspondence: U. Lindskog, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital, S-581, 85 Linkoping, Sweden. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10160 Mackenzie, Fiona. Child health and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. An annotated bibliography from the 1975-86 literature. [Sante et mortalite infantiles en Afrique subsaharienne. Bibliographie annotee de la documentation de 1975 a 1986.] IDRC Bibliography Series, No. 259e,f, ISBN 0-88936-499-0. 1987. x, 223 pp. International Development Research Centre [IDRC]: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"The main objective of this bibliography is to draw together recent literature on the subject of infant and child health and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, from both social science and health science disciplines, with a view to facilitating multidisciplinary research in this field....In addition, it identifies gaps that need to be filled before practice and policy are more firmly grounded in theoretical perspectives congruent with specific African environments....In terms of organization, entries are listed alphabetically by author and numbered accordingly. All documents are indexed by subject, in many cases under several headings. There are also geographic and author indexes." The abstracts are presented in English or French.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10161 Mukherji, Dipak. Effect of family planning, economy and education on infant mortality. Man in India, Vol. 68, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1988. 252-7 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"There is an assumption that family planning leads to less infant mortality, and [that a] lower rate of infant mortality will lead toward the evolution of small family. The present paper, based on the data collected from 472 eligible couples from a suburban area of West Bengal, does not reveal any such strong relation between family planning and infant mortality. The data have also been examined in the perspective of familial economic status and formal educational standard of the mothers concerned."
Correspondence: D. Mukherji, Department of Anthropology, Narasinha Dutt College, Howrah 711 101, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10162 Potter, Joseph E. Birth spacing and child survival: a cautionary note regarding the evidence from the WFS. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 443-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper results recently published in [Population Studies] concerning the influence of birth-spacing on child survival are reviewed, and two reasons are suggested why the statistical associations observed in the data collected in the World Fertility Survey may be, at least in part, spurious. Where reporting is poor, it is argued that errors may often be responsible for a substantial portion of the association between interval length and mortality, and also for the apparent influence of the death of one child on the survival prospects of a younger sibling. Where the reported dates of birth and death are reliable but contraceptive prevalence is high, there is the problem that contraceptive practice is apt to be closely associated with other behaviour likely to have a direct effect on mortality."
Correspondence: J. E. Potter, Department of Population Sciences, Harvard University, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10163 Puffer, Ruth R.; Serrano, Carlos V. Patterns of birthweights. PAHO Scientific Publication, No. 504, ISBN 92-75-11504-4. 1987. xiii, 109 pp. Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]: Washington, D.C.; World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office, Pan American Sanitary Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this document is not only to present the markedly different patterns of distributions of birthweights and their relationship to infant mortality, but also to stress the importance of promoting favorable birthweights by improvements of the health and nutrition of mothers, families, communities, and, therefore, countries. Several examples of experiences in specific countries illustrate the success that multiple interventions have had in achieving favorable patterns of birthweights and rapid reductions of infant mortality." Data are from a variety of WHO and U.N. surveys and reports, as well as other official sources, and primarily concern 15 countries in 4 regions of the world.
Correspondence: PAHO, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

55:10164 Rashad, Hoda. Measuring the demographic impact of oral rehydration therapy: learning from Egyptian experience. Population Council Regional Papers: West Asia and North Africa, Sep 1988. 57 pp. Population Council: Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
The demographic impact of an oral rehydration therapy intervention program is evaluated using an example from Egypt. The data are from vital statistics sources and two double-round surveys conducted between 1984 and 1986 by the National Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Project concerning some 10,000 children. The results indicate a strong decline in infant and childhood mortality, including diarrhea-associated mortality; however problems with the data do not allow a specific allocation of the causes of this decline.
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10165 Sathar, Zeba A. Sex differentials in mortality: a corollary of son preference? Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1987. 555-68 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author contends that sex differentials in childhood mortality in Pakistan are a likely outcome of son preference behavior by parents. Consideration is given to the historical improvement in the female disadvantage in mortality, the neglect of female children, gender and class factors, and son preference and high fertility. Data are from the 1981 Pakistan census and other official surveys. Comments by Naheed Aziz are included (pp. 566-8).
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10166 Schuler, Dezso. Recent trends and issues concerning infant mortality. [A csecsemohalalozas alakulasa es problemai az utobbi evekben.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1987. 397-408 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Based on data collected from 1977 to 1987, the author reviews current trends in infant mortality in Hungary. The many factors associated with infant mortality are analyzed, and it is found that mother's educational level and marital status are the two most significant. The study also attempts to account for the regional differences in infant mortality. Measures needed to improve infant mortality in Hungary are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10167 Stockwell, Edward G.; Wicks, Jerry W.; Swanson, David A. Socioeconomic correlates of infant mortality: Ohio, 1980. Sep 1986. ix, 120 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This study was designed primarily to examine the relationship between infant mortality and socioeconomic status in several metropolitan centers of Ohio for the period 1979-81. The specific aims of the analysis were to measure and describe the nature and magnitude of the association between infant mortality (total, neonatal and postneonatal) and the aggregate family income status of urban residential areas, for both white and nonwhite segments of the population by sex, and to assess the role played by particular causes of death in contributing to any observed economic differentials....In spite of some very substantial declines in the overall level of infant mortality in recent decades, the data generated by this study clearly reveal the existence and persistence of a pronounced inverse association between the aggregate economic status of an area and the probability that a new born infant will not survive the first year of life."
Correspondence: National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10168 Ulusoy, Mahir. Regression analysis for infant mortality in Turkey. [Turkiye'de cocuk olumlerini etkileyen faktorlerin regresyon analizi ile irdelenmesi.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 10, 1988. 5-20 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
Factors affecting infant mortality in Turkey are examined using regression analysis. The author concludes that maternal educational status, birth intervals, and consanguinity all have an impact on infant mortality levels.
Correspondence: M. Ulusoy, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu, Hacettepe Universitesi, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10169 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Proceedings of the International Collaborative Effort on Perinatal and Infant Mortality, Volume II. Papers presented at the American Public Health Association, 1985, Washington, D.C., sponsored by the National Center for Health Statistics. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 88-1252-1. Oct 1988. xi, [203] pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the second volume of proceedings from an international symposium on perinatal and infant mortality organized by the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) Planning Group. The ICE's purpose is to bring together experts from several developed countries, including the United States, who are concerned with perinatal and infant mortality. The presentations included in this volume are grouped under the general categories of risk factors and outcome assessment, methodology, international comparisons of trends and data, and comparative health care systems. The focus is on developing methodologies, models, and schemata designed to facilitate international comparisons.
For Volume 1, published in 1985, see 51:40158.
Correspondence: Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10170 Woods, R. I.; Watterson, P. A.; Woodward, J. H. The causes of rapid infant mortality decline in England and Wales, 1861-1921. Part I. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 343-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is the first part of a contribution to the debate on the reasons for the rapid decline of infant mortality at the very beginning of the twentieth century in England and Wales. It presents a detailed demographic analysis of the pattern of infant mortality variation over time and through space, by type of environment (especially urban and rural), and by social class. The second part (to be published in the next issue) considers a number of possible causes of infant mortality decline."
Correspondence: R. I. Woods, Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

55:10171 Kesteloot, H.; Yuan, X.-Y.; Joossens, J. V. Changing mortality patterns in men. Acta Cardiologica, Vol. 43, No. 2, 1988. 133-9 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Age-adjusted mortality trends among men aged 35 to 74 in developed countries are analyzed for the last 35 years using WHO data for seven selected countries. "Mortality from all causes has shown the greatest decrease in Japan and the greatest increase in Hungary. From 1970 on cardiovascular mortality demonstrates a downward trend in all countries, except in Sweden where it remains virtually unchanged and Hungary where it rises markedly. Cancer mortality shows an upward trend which levels off during the last 15 years with the exception of Hungary. Changes in dietary and smoking habits and mass treatment of hypertension offer the most plausible explanation for the observed changes."
Correspondence: H. Kesteloot, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10172 Mare, Robert D.; Palloni, Alberto. Couple models for socioeconomic effects on the mortality of older persons. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-7, Mar 1988. 45, [4] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper develops and applies models for the multivariate analysis of survival processes when observations are naturally paired....The models are applied to the assessment of socioeconomic effects on mortality of husbands and wives in the U.S. using [data from] the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Men. Bivariate survival models provide a systematic way of assessing common, cross-spouse, and within-spouse effects of education, occupational status, and other sociodemographic predictors of mortality, as well as bereavement and widowhood effects."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 388).
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

55:10173 Anson, Jon. The parameters of death: a consideration of the quantity of information in a life table using a polynomial representation of the survivorship curve. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 8, Aug 1988. 895-912 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"How much unique information is contained in any life table? The logarithmic survivorship...columns of 360 empirical life tables were fitted by a weighted fifth degree polynomial, and it is shown that six parameters are adequate to reproduce these curves almost flawlessly. However, these parameters are highly intercorrelated, so that a two-dimensional representation would be adequate to express the similarities and differences among life tables. It is thus concluded that a life table contains but two unique pieces of information, these being the level of mortality in the population which it represents, and the relative shape of the underlying mortality curve."
Correspondence: J. Anson, Department of Social Work, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 84 105, Beer Sheba, Israel. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10174 Costa Rica. Ministerio de Planificacion Nacional y Politica Economica (San Jose, Costa Rica); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (San Jose, Costa Rica); Costa Rica. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (San Jose, Costa Rica). Abbreviated life tables by sex: 1950, 1963, 1973, and 1984. Five-year tables, 1950-2025. [Tablas abreviadas de mortalidad por sexo: 1950, 1963, 1973 y 1984. Tablas quinquenales, 1950-2025.] Fasciculo F./C.R., No. 2, Mar 1988. 44 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Abbreviated life tables by sex are presented for Costa Rica for the years 1950, 1963, 1973, and 1984, as well as for five-year periods from 1950 to 2025. An analysis of recent mortality trends in Costa Rica is also included.
Correspondence: Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos, Ministerio de Economia y Comercio, Apartado 10216, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10175 Das Gupta, Prithwis. A note on the consistency of life tables for total populations with those for their subpopulations. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1988. 158-63 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The life table for the total population, when constructed from the overall age-specific mortality rates, becomes inconsistent with the life tables for its between-heterogeneous subpopulations. The consistent life table for the total population can be derived from those for the subpopulations, when the latter are constructed with radixes proportional to the distribution of these subpopulations at birth. As an example, this consistency approach is used to reconstruct the total life table for the United States for 1984....and to compare it with the corresponding life table computed by the conventional method by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics."
Correspondence: P. Das Gupta, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10176 Ishikawa, Akira. Life tables by marital status: 1985. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 185, Jan 1988. 69-78 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Life tables by marital status and sex are presented for Japan for 1985. The marital statuses considered are single, married, widowed, and divorced.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10177 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Life tables by marital status, 1955-1985. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 255, Jun 10, 1988. iii, 85 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Life tables for the population of Japan are presented separately by sex for the unmarried, married, widowed, and divorced for the period 1955-1980.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10178 Jun, Tae Yoon. A study on the construction of regional life tables in Korea: 1970-1980. Studies in Population Problems, Vol. 3, Dec 1986. 82-118 pp. Pusan, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The author constructs regional life tables for the Republic of Korea, to be utilized by development planners. Direct and indirect methods are used to examine trends in marriage, mortality, life expectancy, health, and the effects of urbanization. The quality of vital statistics data is also assessed.
Correspondence: T. Y. Jun, Population Research Center, Department of Applied Statistics, Dong-A University, 1, 3-ga Dongdaeshin, Dong Seo-gu, Pusan 600, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10179 Needleman, Lionel. Fifty years of Canadian Jewish mortality. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1988. 110-22 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study presents abridged life tables for Jews of the City of Montreal [Canada] at approximately ten-year intervals over the period 1920 to 1971." Mortality patterns and differentials by sex for the Jewish population are then discussed.
Correspondence: L. Needleman, Department of Economics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10180 Zhai, Zhenwu. Estimation on indexes of China's life tables: 1953-1964 and 1964-1982. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1988. 40-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author constructs life tables for China for the years 1953-1964 and 1964-1982 using population formulas developed by Preston and Coale. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Z. Zhai, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

55:10181 Klinger, Andras. Socio-occupational mortality differentials in Hungary. [A halandosag tarsadalmi foglalkozasi kulonbsegei Magyarorszagon.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 2-3, 1987. 240-72 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Mortality differentials for Hungary are analyzed by social class and occupation. The focus is on the situation in the 1980s but data from 1900 to 1985 are also used. Consideration is given to mortality differences among agricultural laborers, physical laborers in other sectors, and those involved in intellectual work. Other topics considered include sex factors, age factors, and causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10182 Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; van der Maas, Paul J. Regional differences in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention in the Netherlands: a comparison of four time periods. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 42, No. 4, Dec 1988. 325-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Regional mortality differentials in the Netherlands are explored, with a focus on the time dependency of the relationship between medical care supply and avoidable mortality. "The analysis reported in this paper is an attempt to introduce this time dimension into the study of regional differences in mortality from 'amenable' causes in The Netherlands. A presentation of the association with medical care supply characteristics in the early 1980s will be followed by an analysis of its evolution over time since the early 1950s." Data are from official sources and concern the periods 1950-1954, 1960-1964, 1970-1974, and 1980-1984.
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Erasmus University Rotterdam, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10183 Mazur, Alicja. Socioeconomic determinants of differential mortality in large cities in Poland. [Spoleczno-ekonomiczne czynniki zroznicowania umieralnosci w wielkich miastach w Polsce.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/93, 1988. 57-76 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author investigates the relationship between various socioeconomic factors and mortality (as indicated by cause of death) in large cities in Poland during the period 1982-1984. Selected factors characterizing living conditions are analyzed separately for males and females.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10184 Park, Kyung-Ae. Sex differential mortality: geographic variations in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1988. 130-47 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The author analyzes the nature and extent of geographic variations in sex differentials in mortality in the Republic of Korea. Data are from the 1980 census and 1982 vital statistics. Consideration is given to the impact of environmental and socioeconomic factors. The author postulates that geographic variations in mortality are largely a function of inequalities in living conditions.
Correspondence: K.-A. Park, Chonbuk National University, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10185 Razzaque, Abdur. Sociodemographic differentials in mortality during the 1974-75 famine in a rural area of Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 13-22 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the socio-demographic differentials in mortality during the 1974-75 famine in a rural area of Bangladesh. It is based on household socioeconomic information collected in the 1974 census and registration data on births, deaths and migrations for the period 1974-79 from the Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Ownership of selected household items was considered in the analysis as an indicator of household socioeconomic status." It is found that mortality increased during the famine and post-famine periods for all socioeconomic and age groups.
Correspondence: A. Razzaque, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10186 Rosengren, Annika; Wedel, Hans; Wilhelmsen, Lars. Marital status and mortality in middle-aged Swedish men. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 129, No. 1, Jan 1989. 54-64 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The relationships among marital status, alcohol abuse, economic problems, and mortality are examined using data collected on some 10,000 middle-aged men in Goteborg, Sweden, during the period 1970-1973. "After adjustment for other risk factors, including registration for alcohol problems, smoking, and occupational class, the association between marital status and total mortality was still highly significant. Among nonparticipants in the trial, 13% of married men were registered for alcohol problems, compared with 41% of divorced men. Nonparticipants had higher all-cause mortality, 18% for married men and 33% for divorced men."
Correspondence: A. Rosengren, Section of Preventive Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Ostra Hospital, Goteborg University, S-416 85 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:10187 Shaper, A. G.; Wannamethee, Goya; Walker, Mary. Alcohol and mortality in British men: explaining the U-shaped curve. Lancet, No. 8623, Dec 3, 1988. 1,267-73 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"In a prospective study of 7,735 middle-aged British men, 504 of whom died in a follow-up period of 7.5 years, there was a U-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and total mortality and an inverse relationship with cardiovascular mortality, even after adjustment for age, cigarette smoking, and social class....The alcohol-mortality relationships (total and cardiovascular) were present only in men with cardiovascular or cardiovascular-related doctor-diagnosed illnesses at initial examination. The data suggest that the observed alcohol-mortality relationships are produced by pre-existing disease and by the movement of men with such disease into non-drinking or occasional-drinking categories. The concept of a 'protective' effect of drinking on mortality, ignoring the dynamic relationship between ill-health and drinking behaviour, is likely to be ill founded."
Correspondence: A. G. Shaper, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and General Practice, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:10188 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). Sex differentials in life expectancy and mortality in developed countries: an analysis by age groups and causes of death from recent and historical data. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 25, 1988. 65-107 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Sex differentials in life expectancy and mortality are examined. "The first half of the paper presents estimates for the early 1980s of the size of sex differentials in life expectancy in developed countries, and the contributions of age groups and causes of death to those differentials. Most of the developed countries are included in the analysis....The second half of the paper examines trends in sex differentials in life expectancy since the late nineteenth or early twentieth centuries, in the context of the transition from high to low mortality. The contributions of age groups and causes of death to changes in the sex differentials between around 1900 and the 1980s are estimated for selected countries."
Correspondence: U.N. Secretariat, Population Division, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10189 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). Sex differentials in survivorship in the developing world: levels, regional patterns and demographic determinants. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 25, 1988. 51-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study analyses patterns of sex differentials in survivorship in less developed countries...and compares the findings to the historical (1850s to present) experience of the more developed world....[Consideration is given to] levels and regional patterns of sex differentials in life expectancy at birth, the role of each sex, age groups responsible for regional patterns, and patterns in the less developed world compared with those of the more developed countries."
Correspondence: U.N. Secretariat, Population Division, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10190 Vallin, Jacques. Life expectancy: women widen the gap. [Duree de vie: les femmes creusent l'ecart.] Population et Societes, No. 229, Nov 1988. 1-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Reasons for the increasing mortality differential between the sexes in favor of women are examined for France using data from official sources.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

55:10191 Al-Roomi, K. A.; Dobson, A. J.; Hall, E.; Heller, R. F.; Magnus, P. Declining mortality from ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Australia. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 129, No. 3, Mar 1989. 503-10 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors examined the patterns of mortality from ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Australia for men and women aged 30-84 years during the period 1950-1986 [using data from official sources] to assess the relative contributions of period and cohort effects on changes in the mortality rates. Death rates for ischemic heart disease increased from 1950 to the late 1960s and then declined....The period effect was dominant so that each successive cohort experienced lower age-specific mortality rates after the late 1960s. Death rates for cerebrovascular disease for both sexes and all age groups have declined since the early 1950s....No cohort effect was demonstrated for either disease. Changes in diet, decreasing prevalence of cigarette smoking, and increasing treatment of hypertension throughout the period and improved coronary care from the late 1960s onward are all consistent with the mortality trends."
Correspondence: A. J. Dobson, Department of Statistics, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales 2308, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:10192 Beneteau, Renee. Trends in suicide. Canadian Social Trends, No. 11, Winter 1988. 22-4 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in suicide in Canada from 1921 to 1986 are reviewed. Differences in suicide by sex, age, and province are discussed, and comparisons are made with rates in other developed countries.
Correspondence: R. Beneteau, Canadian Social Trends, 17th Floor, R. H. Coats Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10193 Fauveau, V.; Koenig, M. A.; Chakraborty, J.; Chowdhury, A. I. Causes of maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh, 1976-85. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 66, No. 5, 1988. 643-51 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors present a detailed analysis of causes of maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh during the period 1976-1985, using data for 387 maternal deaths. "Major causes of maternal death, which were assessed using a combination of record review and field interviews, included postpartum haemorrhage (20%), complications of abortion (18%), eclampsia (12%), violence and injuries (9%), concomitant medical causes (9%), postpartum sepsis (7%), and obstructed labour (6.5%)....If maternal deaths arising from complications of abortion are disregarded, 20% of all maternal deaths occurred during pregnancy, 44% during labour and the two days following delivery, and 36% during the remaining postpartum period."
Correspondence: V. Fauveau, Matlab MCH-FP Project, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10194 Griffin, Patricia M.; Ryan, Caroline A.; Nyaphisi, Makase; Hargrett-Bean, Nancy; Waldman, Ronald J.; Blake, Paul A. Risk factors for fatal diarrhea: a case-control study of African children. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 6, Dec 1988. 1,322-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors identify risk factors for death from diarrhea using data from hospital records in western Lesotho. "We conducted two retrospective case-control studies of children aged 24 months or younger admitted for diarrhea at two hospitals in 1983 and 1984, comparing 44 who died with 89 who survived. Eight factors were significantly associated...with death at one or both hospitals by univariate analysis...." Major factors linked to infant death were diagnosis of a major infection, age under six months, and illness for one week or more prior to admission to the hospital.
Correspondence: P. M. Griffin, Centers for Disease Control, Mail Stop C09, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:10195 Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, R.; Datta, N. Oral rehydration therapy in reducing diarrhoea-related mortality in rural India. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1987. 159-64 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The role of WHO-recommended oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) in reducing diarrhoea-related deaths amongst children below the age of six years was evaluated in a rural community of Haryana, North India....Weekly surveillance for two years by trained field workers showed an overall incidence of 2.06 episodes of diarrhoea per child per year....The results show that the use of WHO-ORS in the community can lead to a substantial reduction in diarrhoea-related mortality amongst children."
Correspondence: V. Kumar, Department of Community Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:10196 Lester, David. Restricting the availability of guns as a strategy for preventing suicide. Biology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1988. 127-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines recent official data from Australia to "suggest that the extent of gun ownership is related to the suicide rate by guns and to the overall suicide rate. The implications for suicide prevention are noted."
Correspondence: D. Lester, Stockton State College, Pomona, NJ 08240. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10197 Levi, F.; Decarli, A.; La Vecchia, C. Trends in cancer mortality in Switzerland, 1951-1984. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1988. 15-25 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Trends in cancer mortality from 1951 to 1984 are analyzed by age, sex, and cancer site using official Swiss data. A substantial rise in lung cancer mortality among males is noted, although a decline is seen among younger cohorts. Mortality from lung cancer among females is 10 times lower than for males but shows signs of an increase. Declines in mortality from cancer of the digestive tract for both sexes were apparent. Overall age-standardized cancer mortality was moderately up for males but consistently down for females. Reasons for these trends are discussed. Comparisons are then made with other developed countries.
Correspondence: F. Levi, Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs, CHUV BH-06, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10198 McLean, A. J.; Heyworth, J. S. The effect of demographic changes on road accident fatality rates: Japan 1970-1980. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1987. 43-8 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
The effect of changes in age distribution on the road accident mortality rate in Japan during the decade from 1970 to 1980 is investigated using WHO data. The authors conclude that while the road accident death rate decreased by more than one half, the overall effect of changes in the age distribution was negligible.
Correspondence: A. J. McLean, NH and MRC Road Accident Research Unit, University of Adelaide, GPO Box 498, Adelaide 5001, Australia. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10199 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Continued progress against cardiovascular diseases. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1989. 16-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article begins a new series of...analyses of regional mortality [in the United States] by age and sex. In this report, the causes of death discussed are the major cardiovascular diseases...." Data from official sources are provided for death rates by age and sex for each state and for nine geographical areas. It is noted that "in conjunction with the national trend of declining mortality rates from heart disease, between 1979-81 and 1985 the age-adjusted death rates among men and women aged 45 and over decreased in virtually every state."
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10200 Nagnur, Dhruva; Nagrodski, Michael. Cardiovascular disease, cancer and life expectancy. Canadian Social Trends, No. 11, Winter 1988. 25-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The impact on life expectancy in Canada of eliminating mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer is examined. The authors note that "the total gains to life expectancy that would result if deaths from these two diseases were deleted is much greater than that for all other diseases combined."
Correspondence: D. Nagnur, Social and Economic Studies Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10201 Park, Hyeoun-Ae. Simulation of a population-based model of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1988. 181-93 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"The main objective of this study is to develop a modelling strategy useful to examine and predict major trends in coronary heart disease. Once we develop a model which can mimic population changes over time, then the models can be extended to provide information on intervention effects by changing the risk factors." The model is illustrated using data for North Karelia, Finland, for the period 1972-1978.
Correspondence: H.-A. Park, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10202 Ravenholt, R. T. Tobacco's impact on twentieth-century U.S. mortality patterns. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1985. 4-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The impact of tobacco on mortality trends in the United States in the twentieth century is reviewed. The author states that "the abuse of addictive substances--tobacco, alcohol, heroin, cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, hypnotics, and hallucinogens--has replaced infectious disease as the foremost preventable cause of death in the United States. This striking fact, however, has been obscured in the nation's vital records and statistics by the general practice of certifying and coding addictive disease deaths as resulting from their numerous anatomic and disease manifestations, while failing to note the underlying addictive practices."
Correspondence: R. T. Ravenholt, World Health Surveys, 4960 Sentinel Drive, Bethesda, MD 20816. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10203 Rochat, Roger W.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Atrash, Hani K.; Jewett, John F. Maternal mortality in the United States: report from the Maternal Mortality Collaborative. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 72, No. 1, Jul 1988. 91-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents findings from the Maternal Mortality Collaborative, established in 1983 to provide voluntary surveillance of maternal deaths in the United States. "The Maternal Mortality Collaborative reported 601 maternal deaths from 19 reporting areas for 1980-1985, representing a maternal mortality ratio of 14.1 per 100,000 live births. Overall, 37% more maternal deaths were reported by the Maternal Mortality Collaborative than by the National Center for Health Statistics for these reporting areas. Older women and women of black and other races continued to have higher mortality than younger women and white women. The five most common causes of death for all reported cases were embolism, nonobstetric injuries, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and obstetric hemorrhage. Compared with national maternal mortality for 1974-1978, ratios were lower for all causes except for indirect causes, anesthesia, and cerebrovascular accidents."
Correspondence: L. M. Koonin, Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10204 Schutz, Harald. Deaths by causes, 1987. [Sterbefalle 1987 nach Todesursachen.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 10, Oct 1988. 733-7 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Information is provided on major causes of death in the Federal Republic of Germany for 1987. The data are analyzed by sex and age group, and some comparisons are made with statistics from earlier years. Topics covered include deaths from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other diseases; accidents and suicide; and infant and maternal mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10205 Stanley, Kenneth; Stjernsward, Jan; Koroltchouk, Valentin. Cancers of the stomach, lung and breast: mortality trends and control strategies. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, 1988. 107-14 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Mortality trends for the three most common tumours--stomach, lung and breast cancer--were evaluated for nine countries. [The authors find that] stomach cancer is decreasing sharply and consistently in the countries studied....Lung cancer is rapidly increasing in most countries, especially in women, and is likely to become the dominant cancer worldwide by the end of this century....Breast-cancer death rates are generally rising, although some recent, but probably short-term, declines have been seen. Effectiveness of the currently available approaches for each of the common cancers is summarized...." Consideration is given to the importance of early detection and prompt treatment; preventive measures, including government tobacco controls; and education programs to increase public awareness.
Correspondence: K. Stanley, Cancer Unit, World Health Organization, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10206 Tominaga, Suketami. Cancer trends in Japan from the viewpoint of epidemiology. Asian Medical Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1986. 35-45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Trends in cancer mortality in Japan from 1935 to 1982 are reviewed. The author notes that cancer has been the leading cause of death since 1981 and that although cancer mortality has increased, age-adjusted cancer mortality has not. It is concluded that the primary cause of the increase is the aging of the population. Differences in mortality by various cancer sites over time and the factors affecting them are analyzed. Some future trends in cancer mortality are also outlined.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10207 Tverdal, Aage; Foss, Olav P.; Leren, Paul; Holme, Ingar; Lund-Larsen, Per G.; Bjartveit, Kjell. Serum triglycerides as an independent risk factor for death from coronary heart disease in middle-aged Norwegian men. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 129, No. 3, Mar 1989. 458-65 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relation between nonfasting serum triglycerides and death from coronary heart disease was studied in 37,546 men aged 35-49 years who were examined during 1972-1977 in four counties in Norway. During an average follow-up period of nine years, 369 deaths from coronary heart disease occurred." The results indicated that "the strength of coronary death prediction of the logarithm of serum triglycerides was hardly greater than might be explained by the fact that triglycerides are an indicator of the usual cholesterol level of the subject."
Correspondence: A. Tverdal, National Health Screening Service, P.O. Box 8155, Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:10208 Uemura, Kazuo; Pisa, Zbynek. Trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in industrialized countries since 1950. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, 1988. 155-78 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article presents an updated analysis of the [global] trends in cardiovascular disease mortality which were studied earlier [by the authors]. In addition to the inclusion of more recent data which were not available at the time of the previous studies, the period has been extended back to 1950." Consideration is given to mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease, heart diseases, and cerebrovascular disease. A comparison of trends among different age and sex groups is also offered.
For the earlier article by the authors, see Population Index, 48:40259.
Correspondence: K. Uemura, Division of Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Situation and Trend Assessment, WHO, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10209 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1978.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, ISBN 2-7332-0115-8. 1988. 607 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978 are analyzed. Attention is paid to problems posed by the difficulty of attributing death to a specific cause, changes in the classification of causes of death over time, and questions of the reliability of the available data. The first part of the study examines the origin and history of French statistics on causes of death. The second part presents a new approach to the reconstruction of statistical sources on causes of death based on the Eighth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which includes a section on allocation of deaths from undetermined causes. The third part offers an etiological approach to mortality analysis. The fourth part considers demographic aspects, including age factors, the impact of changes in causes of death on life expectancy, and differential mortality by sex. The fifth part, by Graziella Caselli and Viviana Egidi, examines geographical differences in mortality by age, including infant mortality. Seven annex volumes presenting the reconstituted data are also available and are published separately.
For the annex volumes, published in 1986 and 1987, see 53:30238.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10210 Warner, Kenneth E. Effects of the antismoking campaign: an update. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 79, No. 2, Feb 1989. 144-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of the antismoking campaign in the United States on smoking behavior and smoking-related mortality is assessed up to 1985. The author concludes that "in 1985 an estimated 56 million Americans were smokers; without the campaign, an estimated 91 million would have been smokers. As a result of campaign-induced decisions not to smoke, between 1964 and 1985 an estimated 789,200 Americans avoided or postponed smoking-related deaths and gained an average of 21 additional years of life expectancy each; collectively this represents more than 16 million person-years of additional life." He also suggests that even greater benefits for health and mortality lie in the future as a result of the campaign.
Correspondence: K. E. Warner, Department of Public Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10211 Williams, Gerald D.; Grant, Bridget F.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Zobeck, Terry S.; Aitken, Sherrie S.; Noble, John. Trends in alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Public Health Reports, Vol. 103, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 592-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Two major trends regarding alcohol use and consequences of alcohol abuse in the United States are showing significant improvement. Continued declines are evident in age-adjusted rates of liver cirrhosis mortality, and per capita alcohol consumption is at its lowest level in 15 years. Two other trends, however, are less clear. After declining in 1982 and continuing through 1984, alcohol-related morbidity...showed a slight increase in 1985. Similarly, after declining every year but one since 1981, alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities showed a significant increase in 1986." Reason for these apparent changes are discussed.
Correspondence: G. D. Williams, Alcohol Epidemiologic Data Systems, CSR Incorporated, Suite 600, 1400 Eye Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10212 World Health Organization [WHO]. MONICA Project (Geneva, Switzerland). Geographical variation in the major risk factors of coronary heart disease in men and women aged 35-64 years. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, 1988. 115-40 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This is an overview of the WHO MONICA project which was "designed to measure the trends in mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and to assess the extent to which they are related to changes in known risk factors in different populations in 27 countries. Risk-factor data are collected from population samples examined in at least two population surveys (one at the beginning of the study and the other at the end). The results of the baseline population surveys are presented." Risk factors considered include smoking, and blood pressure and cholesterol levels for men and women.
Correspondence: MONICA Project, WHO, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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