Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

55:10057 Gleave, M. B. Changing population distribution in Sierra Leone, 1974-85. Geography, Vol. 73, Pt. 4, No. 321, Oct 1988. 351-4 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
Changes in the spatial distribution in Sierra Leone between 1963 and 1985 are analyzed using census data. The focus is on the difference between the periods before and after 1974.
Correspondence: M. B. Gleave, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, Lancashire, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10058 Gosal, R. P. S. Distribution of scheduled caste population in India. Social Science Information/Information sur les Sciences Sociales, Vol. 26, No. 3, Sep 1987. 493-511 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
The spatial distribution of the scheduled caste population of India is described using data primarily from the 1981 census. This population accounts for 15.7 percent of the total population and represents the underprivileged sectors of society. It is noted that the scheduled castes make up 17.4 percent of the rural population and 10.6 percent of the urban population. The causes of variations in the concentration of the scheduled caste population are also analyzed.
Correspondence: R. P. S. Gosal, Department of Geography, Punjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

55:10059 Antoine, Philippe. Demographic indicators and urbanization in Abidjan. [Comportements demographiques et urbanisation a Abidjan.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 227-43, 171-2 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper deals with demographic behaviours with regard to fertility, family and marriage in an urban environment. The analysis mainly bears on the city of Abidjan [Ivory Coast] where four types of dwelling, ranging from residential areas to shanty towns, are reviewed. The relations between the types of dwelling and the demographic behaviours of the inhabitants are studied. While some behaviours appear to be independent of the dwelling type as is the case with the large family network, others like fertility, for instance, show a good correlation between the demographic parameter and the type of dwelling."
Correspondence: P. Antoine, ORSTOM, Boite Postale 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10060 Armand, Myriam. Urban fabric, social fabric: antagonistic strategies of spatial occupation in Abidjan. [Tissu urbain, tissu social: strategies antagonistes d'occupation de l'espace a Abidjan.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 261-74, 173 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The urban area of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, is experiencing population growth that is affecting social status, the economy, and urban spatial distribution. The author discusses the current economic recession in light of governmental intervention in helping the middle class obtain property. The impact on the urban landscape of the creation of new housing developments for low- and middle-income populations is also analyzed.
Correspondence: M. Armand, Bureau des Innovations Pedagogiques et des Technologies Nouvelles, Ministere de l'Education Nationale, 107 Rue de Grenelle, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10061 Axelbank, Jay. The crisis of the cities. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1988. 28-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The world's cities are growing, on average, by 3 per cent a year. It will require greater economic growth and development than anything yet seen in the developing world--together with strong population programmes--to turn the tide of the urban crisis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10062 Bala, Raj. Indian urbanisation 1971-81. Asian Profile, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr 1987. 157-66 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in India from 1971 to 1981 are reviewed based on census data. Over this period India's urban population grew from 109.1 million to 159.7 million, a growth rate of 46.1 percent compared to 38.2 percent for the previous decade. The main cause of this increase was rural-urban migration. The growth of medium-sized towns was particularly noticeable.
Correspondence: R. Bala, H. C. M. Rajasthan State Institute of Public Administration, Jaipur, India. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

55:10063 Chou, Weizhi. A review of the growth and changes in China's urban population in the past thirty years. Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, Spring-Summer 1987. 42-53 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in China over the past 30 years are reviewed. The author analyzes factors contributing to urban growth and those that have restricted further growth.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Jingji Dili Lunwen Xuanji, pp. 76-81.
Correspondence: W. Chou, Department of Geography, Beijing University, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10064 Danta, Darrick R. Hungarian urbanization and socialist ideology. Urban Geography, Vol. 8, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 391-404 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the extent to which urbanization in Hungary has fulfilled socialist planning ideology. In particular, aspects of overall urban systems and regional development, industrialization, housing, and features of the so-called 'socialist cities' are examined. Results indicate that although the urban system has become more balanced in recent years, marked disparities exist in the regional pattern of city growth rates, trends of industrialization, and in the provision of housing. Furthermore, the socialist cities have not met all expectations. Socialism appears to be producing a fundamentally new--though still contradictory--process of urbanization based on the State's concern for efficiency rather than equity."
Correspondence: D. R. Danta, Department of Geography, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10065 Denis, Jacques. Urbanization and development in the Republic of the Philippines. [Urbanisation et developpement en republique des Philippines.] Annales de Geographie, Vol. 95, No. 531, Sep-Oct 1986. 587-616 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Urbanization patterns in the Philippines are analyzed. The country's history of economic development both prior to and following independence is discussed in the context of its effect on urbanization trends. The current government's problems with economic and social development in the face of rapid population growth are also described.
Correspondence: J. Denis, Facultes de Namur, Namur, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10066 Douglass, Mike. The transnationalization of urbanization in Japan. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1988. 425-54 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger; Spa.
"The transnationalization of Japanese capital has accelerated in recent years, bringing with it new patterns of urbanization marked by a reconcentration of population and economic growth in the Tokyo metropolitan region. In Tokyo, intensifying competition for land is being resolved in favour of transnational corporate functions over housing, public services and urban amenities. In lieu of increasing attention to social overhead capital and a substantial reorientation of production and investment toward the domestic economy, new spatial development concepts, such as the Technopolis plan, are unlikely to significantly enhance the capacity of most households to gain improvements in their urban life space."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10067 Escallier, Robert. Urban population growth in Africa: an introduction. [La croissance des populations urbaines en Afrique: quelques elements d'introduction.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 177-82 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
Urbanization trends in Africa are reviewed, with a focus on the unique characteristics of African urbanization. The history of urbanization in Africa is summarized, and differences in urbanization trends among regions are noted.
Correspondence: R. Escallier, Universite de Nice, UER Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Section Geographie et Amenagement, 98 Boulevard Edouard Herriot, 06007 Nice Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10068 Fargues, Philippe. Urbanization and the demographic transition: what interrelations in Africa? [Urbanisation et transition demographique: quelles interrelations en Afrique?] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 183-98, 169-70 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The relations between urban growth and demographic transition in Africa are examined. The city contributes to lower mortality both directly, i.e. through health facilities or regulation of the food distribution network, and indirectly, through better individual health determinants, i.e. income and education. The decrease of fertility observed in North African cities due to a rise in age at first marriage and to contraceptive practices now popular, is beginning to spread in rural areas. In Sub-Saharan Africa reducing effects of delayed marriage and contraception could be cancelled out by the discarding of traditional child-spacing practices. Furthermore, the economic solidarity of the extended family resists in cities, weakening the awareness of the major costs of population growth."
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10069 Harris, Nigel. Economic development and urbanisation. Habitat International, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1988. 5-15 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in developing countries are analyzed, with a focus on the causes of rapid urbanization and particularly on the role of the division of labor. The impact of urbanization on the process of economic development is described. The role of government and of urban planning policies is also considered.
Correspondence: N. Harris, Development Planning Unit, 9 Endsleigh Gardens, London WC1H OED, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10070 Hofmeister, Burkhard. Australia and its urban centres. Urbanization of the Earth/Urbanisierung der Erde, Vol. 6, ISBN 3-443-37008-X. 1988. xii, 254 pp. Gebruder Borntraeger: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This study on urbanization in Australia is one in a series on urbanization around the world. There are three substantive chapters dealing with the historical development of the urban system; characteristics of towns, cities, and metropolitan areas; and the Australian city as a distinct cultural-genetic type.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10071 Kibal'chich, O. A.; Polyan, P. M. Issues of contemporary urbanization. [Problemy sovremennoi urbanizatsii.] LC 87-159742. 1985. 148 pp. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moskovskii Filial Geograficheskogo Obshchestva SSSR: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of essays by various authors on urbanization issues in the Soviet Union. Topics covered include definitions and terminology, socioeconomic geography and historical change, the evolution of rural and urban settlements, recent developments in the national scheme for settlements, characteristics of major urban centers in the USSR, contemporary urbanization in France and the United States, managing the development of capital cities, and the potential impact of urbanization.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:10072 Kim, Won Bae. Urbanization and urban growth in Korea. Studies in Population Problems, Vol. 3, Dec 1986. 69-81 pp. Pusan, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
Using data from a number of different sources, the author surveys the characteristics of urban growth in the Republic of Korea. Topics covered include migration, urban spatial distribution, population redistribution efforts, and the likely future course of urbanization.
Correspondence: W. B. Kim, Population Research Center, Department of Economics, Dong-A University, 1, 3-ga Dongdaeshin, Dong Seo-gu, Pusan 600, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10073 Liao, Cheng-hung. Urbanization in Taiwan: 1900-1985. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 129-62 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper [reviews] previous research and statistical data concerning urbanization and its relationship to migration in Taiwan during [the period] 1900-1985." The author examines urban population growth rates for different periods and finds that rural-urban migration, rather than the natural increase in urban population, has been primarily responsible for urban growth.
Correspondence: C.-H. Liao, Population Studies Center, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10074 Mears, R. R. Some demographic and economic aspects of Third World and First World urbanization and the economic implications thereof for South Africa. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan 1988. 46-58 pp. Sandton, South Africa. In Eng.
"This paper analyses various demographic and economic features of the urbanization process that is taking place in Third World (developing) and First World (developed) countries. A comparison of some demographic and economic differences between contemporary Third World urbanization and First World urbanization at a comparable stage of development is made. The aim is to see what South African urbanization can learn from the comparison between Third and First World urbanization."
Correspondence: R. R. Mears, Department of Economics, Vista University, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10075 Obudho, R. A. Multivariate analysis of Kenya's urban system. GeoJournal, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1986. 385-99 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The study analyzes the structure, spatial interaction, and dimension of the post-colonial urban systems of Kenya using component factor analysis and based on selected socio-cultural, economic, and demographic variables. The study identified seven major dimensions of variation accounting for 72.0%. The analysis of the urban spatial variation is compared and intertwined with studies done in other countries to find out the regional variation of the loadings. Finally, a seven-order characteristics of Kenya urban systems is suggested, based on the study. The accurate knowledge of these salient characteristics of Kenya urban sub-systems is important before any viable spatial planning should be implemented."
Correspondence: R. A. Obudho, State University of New York, Department of African and Afro-American Studies, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

55:10076 Petrakos, George. Urbanization and metropolitan concentration in developing countries. Pub. Order No. DA8815632. 1988. 138 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the determinants of urbanization and metropolitan concentration in developing countries. In the first part, the two-sector, open-economy model proposed suggests that changes in the international economic environment, such as deteriorating terms of trade, increasing capital prices, and increasing protectionism have positive effects on the pace of urbanization in developing countries. The second part of the study provides empirical evidence that foreign capital expansion, the nature and stability of the political system, the level of development, and the degree of population homogeneity are significant factors affecting the degree of metropolitan concentration."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Arizona.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(6).

55:10077 Picouet, Michel. Tunisian cities: an essay on prospects to the year 2009. [Les villes tunisiennes: un essai de prospective a l'an 2009.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 199-212, 170 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Possible trends in urbanization in Tunisia to the year 2009 are discussed. Regional aspects of urban population growth and the impact of internal migration from rural to urban areas are considered.
Correspondence: M. Picouet, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 03, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10078 Richardson, Harry W.; Schwartz, Gerd. Economic development, population and primacy. Regional Studies, Vol. 22, No. 6, Dec 1988. 467-75 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relationship between economic development and primacy advanced by El-Shakhs, Mera and others, and finds no statistically significant link when obvious demographic influences are taken into account. Three variables (national population, the urban population share, and a Latin American dummy) explain 40% of the variation in primacy in a sample of 116 countries (including 82 developing countries). Economic factors do not appear to be important. Demography may be more influential than economics in attempts to explain primacy."
Correspondence: H. W. Richardson, Department of Economics, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10079 Schweizer, Gerhard. Time-bomb city: the global crisis of population centers. [Zeitbombe Stadt: die weltweite Krise der Ballungszentren.] ISBN 3-608-93126-0. 1987. 349 pp. Klett-Cotta: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The problems associated with the rapid growth of the developing world's largest cities are examined. Topics covered include overcrowding, the lack of social support services, and uneven rates of modernization. The author examines both past and future trends for selected cities.
Correspondence: Klett-Cotta, Abteilung Vertrieb, Postfach 809, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10080 Smith, David A. Overurbanization reconceptualized: a political economy of the world-system approach. Urban Affairs Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 2, Dec 1987. 270-94 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"After many years of relative neglect, the issue of 'overurbanization' in Third World countries has recently received renewed attention in the social science literature. Adopting a political economy of the world-system perspective on urbanization and development, this article critiques the theoretical adequacy of the overurbanization thesis. Conceptualizing a causal relationship between spatio-demographic imbalances (labelled 'over-urbanization') and relatively skewed and stagnant economic development is midleading. Both urban patterns and development trajectories are distorted by the international dependency of Third World nations in the world economy. The general argument is illustrated by discussing the role that the so-called 'urban surplus labor' of the 'informal sector' plays in surplus extraction under peripheral capitalism."
Correspondence: D. A. Smith, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10081 Stahura, John M. Black and white population change in small American suburbs since World War II: regional differences. Sociological Focus, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1988. 317-29 pp. Kent, Ohio. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns."
Correspondence: J. M. Stahura, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10082 Thrift, Nigel. "Difficult years": ideology and urbanization in South Vietnam, 1975-1986. Urban Geography, Vol. 8, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 420-39 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with tracing the links between the ideology of the Vietnamese Communist Party and the pattern of urbanization in South Vietnam over the period from 1975 to 1986. The paper is in three parts. The first part considers the nature of Vietnamese Communist Party ideology. This is followed by a discussion of the economic policies generated by this ideology. Finally, the different causes of South Vietnamese urban population growth and redistribution are outlined and the nature of their links to Vietnamese Communist Party ideology (and consequent policies) is made clear."
Correspondence: N. Thrift, Department of Geography, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1SS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10083 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Karachi. Population Policy Paper, No. 13; ST/ESA/SER.R/77, 1988. vii, 43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series on population policies and planning issues in the mega-cities of the developing world. The focus is on the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies designed to improve the quality of life and standard of living in the world's largest cities. This study concerns Karachi, Pakistan. A chapter on demographic characteristics examines population growth, migration, and population projections.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10084 USSR. Akademiya Nauk SSSR. Institut Sotsial'no-Ekonomicheskikh Problem (Leningrad, USSR). The large city: issues and trends in development. [Krupnyi gorod: problemy i tendentsii razvitiya.] ISBN 5-02-027210-8. 1988. 168 pp. Nauka: Leningrad, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collective work by members of the Institute of Socioeconomic Problems of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. It is concerned with trends affecting large cities in the Soviet Union, including economic, social, demographic, ecological, and spatial aspects. Radical changes in the management of economic and social processes in large cities are proposed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10085 van Jaarsveld, F. A. Urbanization in South Africa. [Verstedeliking in Suid-Afrika.] ISBN 0-86979-611-9. 1985. 191 pp. Universiteit van Pretoria: Pretoria, South Africa. In Afr.
This collection of 15 articles by various authors is based on a series of lectures given at the University of Pretoria as part of an interdisciplinary course on urbanization in South Africa. The subject scope includes the historical process of urbanization and the associated social and economic development that affected the various racial groups in the country. The major urban areas in contemporary South Africa are analyzed individually.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10086 Volait, Mercedes. Cairo: problems of growth in light of the 1986 census. [Le Caire: les problemes de la croissance a la lumiere du recensement de 1986.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 213-25, 170-1 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"According to the 1986 Census, the population in Cairo [Egypt] has reached 10 million inhabitants....[making it] one of the most densely populated [cities] in the world." The author notes that although the rate of the city's growth remains high at 2.4 percent a year, this is almost entirely due to natural increase. The economic impact of the increase in the size of the poor, urban population and of the shortage of urban housing is discussed.
Correspondence: M. Volait, Centre d'Etudes Juridiques, MRC, P.O. Box 494, Tokkiguiza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10087 Yeung, Y. M.; Zhou, Yixing. Urbanization in China: an inside-out perspective. Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, Spring-Summer 1987. 173 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles, translated from the original Chinese, on urbanization and urban policy in China. The first part contains five articles on the urbanization process in modern China. The second part is concerned with the policy implications of urbanization and with the policies that have developed to influence urbanization trends.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10088 Zhou, Yixing. Urbanization problems in China. Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, Spring-Summer 1987. 14-41 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
Problems related to urbanization in China are discussed. The author first reviews trends in urbanization over the past 30 years, and then considers the relationship between urbanization and the country's economic growth. Probable future trends in urbanization up to the year 2000 are next described, with a final note on regional differences in urbanization patterns.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Chengshi He Jingjiqu, People's Press of Fujian, 1984, pp. 242-62.
Correspondence: Y. Zhou, Department of Geography, Beijing University, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

55:10089 Guichaoua, Andre. Social conservation and constraint emergence of urban centers in the peasant states of the Central Highlands. [Conservation sociale et emergence contrainte des centres urbains dans les Etats-paysans des Hautes Terres Centrales.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 245-60, 172-3 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Despite rapid urbanization in Africa, the Central Highlands of Rwanda and Burundi have retained rural stability. The author discusses the impact of high population density, poor agricultural productivity, soil erosion, and limited food supplies on the tendency to migrate from the area. The impact of urbanization on social class and agriculture is also considered.
Correspondence: A. Guichaoua, Universite de Brest, Departement de Sociologie, 20 Avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu, 29200 Brest, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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