Volume 54 - Number 4 - Winter 1988

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

54:40109 Baker, Russell. Multiply and subside. New York Times, Nov 16, 1988. A31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between human life expectancy and the length of television mini-series in the United States. It is found that "the length of mini-series is increasing much faster than human life expectancy....The sad conclusion is obvious: Increasing life expectancy takes all the snap, crackle, and energy out of Americans and leaves them sluggish, flabby-spirited and disposed to drag out everything eight times as long as necessary."
Correspondence: R. Baker, New York Times, 229 W. 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library.

54:40110 Colombia. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica [DANE] (Bogota, Colombia); UNICEF (New York, New York). Registration of deaths in Colombia, 1979-1984. [Registro de defunciones en Colombia, 1979-1984.] [1987?]. [530] pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
This report on death registration in Colombia contains data for the period 1979-1984. National-level data are provided on deaths by sex and age group, marital status, medical assistance, and cause of death. Data for individual regions are included on marital status and sex, medical certification, rural and urban rates, and cause of death.

54:40111 Daykin, C. D. The recent trend of mortality in Great Britain. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 114, Pt. 1, No. 456, 1987. 135-41 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in mortality in Great Britain are analyzed using data from official sources, the latest of which concern 1984 and 1985. Data are presented on age-specific death rates by sex from 1930 to 1985. The results show that although mortality for both sexes increased slightly in 1985, infant mortality continued to decline.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40112 Daykin, C. D. The recent trend of mortality in Great Britain. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 115, Pt. 3, 1988. 545-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in mortality in Great Britain up to 1986 are reviewed using data from official sources. Data are presented on age-specific death rates by sex from 1930-1932 to 1986. It is noted that overall mortality was approximately three percent lower in 1986 than in 1985 and some six percent lower than in 1980-1982.
For a previous article in this series presenting data for 1984 and 1985, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:40113 Dobson, M. J. A chronology of epidemic disease and mortality in Southeast England, 1601-1800. Historical Geography Research Series, No. 19, ISBN 1-870074-01-7. Nov 1987. 110 pp. College of St. Paul and St. Mary, Department of Geography: Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
"This paper aims to provide a framework for describing the annual movement of disease and mortality in one geographical region during the early modern period. The region selected is Southeast England, comprising the three counties of Kent, Essex and East Sussex and the chronology covers the years 1601-1800. The annual chronology of epidemic disease and mortality, accompanied by notes on weather and harvest conditions, is presented in tabular form....The chronology itself is preceded by a brief discussion of the approaches and sources applicable to the chronological study of epidemic disease and mortality as well as a short summary of some of the main findings to emerge from the Southeast England survey."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40114 Dobson, Mary J. From old England to New England: changing patterns of mortality. School of Geography Research Paper, No. 38, 1987. 64 pp. Oxford University, School of Geography: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines changing patterns of mortality between Old England and the colonies of America during the early modern period. It discusses, first, how the systems of burial registration varied between the two countries. It highlights, next, the different levels of mortality and the new disease environments which were experienced by the early settlers to North America. And, it describes, in particular, the contrasts and similarities in annual visitations of disease and death in Southeast England and New England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries...." Data are from private death registers in the United States and from parish registers in England.
Correspondence: School of Geography, University of Oxford, University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40115 Ghetau, Vasile. The relevance of some demographic indicators. [Relevanta unor indicatori demografici.] Revista de Statistica, Vol. 36, No. 4-5; 10, Apr-May; Oct 1987. 56-9; 31-5 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
This article, which is in two parts, is concerned with errors in the interpretation of demographic indicators of mortality in Romania. In the first part, the author examines county differences in two mortality indicators, crude death rate and standardized mortality rate. The second part is concerned with life table functions. The author notes that a frequent error is the confusion of the mean age of the population with life expectancy. Other errors are caused by deducing life expectancies from period and cohort life tables. Data for Romania are used to illustrate these concepts.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40116 Haberman, S. Measuring relative mortality experience. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 115, Pt. 2, No. 460, Jun 1988. 271-98 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A common method of measuring relative mortality experience in actuarial, demographic and epidemiological studies is by way of comparison of the actual number of deaths and the number expected if a given standard experience were applicable. The properties of this method are discussed. Further ways of making such a comparison are described, one of which (the widely used Cumulative Mortality Ratio) has a serious bias in application to follow-up mortality studies. The properties of an alternative approach, the Ratio of Geometric Average Death Rates (RAD), are also discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:40117 Krishnamoorthy, S. Mortality comparisons. Janasamkhya, Vol. 5, No. 2, Dec 1987. 89-94 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Two approaches for mortality comparisons are suggested which produce comparable results. The cumulative force of mortality has been given an interpretation useful for mortality comparisons. The method of computing the resultant total expected life span when everyone is excused from death once, twice, etc., has been presented." The two approaches are then applied to 1966 data for Madagascar and the United States.
Correspondence: S. Krishnamoorthy, Department of Population Studies, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40118 Linke, Wilfried. Estimation of trends of mortality rates in selected industrialized countries. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 56, 1988. 47-71 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The first part of the...paper [compares]....mortality trends of various age groups in twelve selected industrialized countries..., covering the period from the beginning of the 50s until 1980/81....Essential changes regarding the age-group specific mortality trends will be [outlined]....An estimation of trends of age-group specific mortality rates in the selected countries will be presented in the second part of this paper....The trend and the levels of the estimated mortality rates as well as the comparison between the selected countries will be described." Rates are presented separately for males and females.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40119 Mackenbach, Johan P.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Kunst, Anton E.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; van der Maas, Paul J. Post-1950 mortality trends and medical care: gains in life expectancy due to declines in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention in the Netherlands. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 9, 1988. 889-94 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In order to assess the impact of medical care innovations on post-1950 mortality in The Netherlands, we analysed trends in mortality from a selection of conditions suggested by Rutstein et al.'s lists of 'unnecessary untimely mortality'. This selection covers 11 types of innovation, and includes 35 conditions which have become amenable to medical care." The authors note a decline in mortality and an increase in life expectancy for Dutch men and women. They conclude that "although the exact contribution of medical care innovations to these changes in mortality thus cannot be determined, the impact of medical care on post-1950 mortality in the Netherlands could well have been substantial."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40120 Mahidol University. Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR] (Bangkok, Thailand). The morbidity and mortality differentials. ASEAN Population Programme Phase III. Thailand. Country study report. IPSR Publication, No. 119, ISBN 974-586-395-5. Jun 1988. x, 170 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of projects being developed under the auspices of the ASEAN Population Programme designed to provide accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality and to establish their determinants. The present report concerns Thailand and is based on an analysis of data from a variety of official sources, including the National Survey of Population Change conducted from 1984 to 1986. The data sources and methodology used in the survey are presented first. A chapter is then included on morbidity, followed by a chapter on mortality which covers such topics as age-specific mortality, life expectancy, infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, causes of death, and mortality differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40121 Phillips, David P.; King, Elliot W. Death takes a holiday: mortality surrounding major social occasions. Lancet, No. 8613, Sep 24, 1988. 728-32 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"To determine whether death can be postponed until after an important social occasion the number of deaths before and after the Jewish holiday of Passover (1966-84) were compared....In the total Jewish sample...the number of deaths was lower than expected in the week before Passover and higher than expected in the week after....The Passover pattern of mortality was found in each of the three leading causes of death." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: D. P. Phillips, Department of Sociology, University of California, La Jolla, CA 92033. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40122 Renshaw, Arthur E. Modelling excess mortality using GLIM. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 115, Pt. 2, No. 460, Jun 1988. 299-315 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines methods used in the field of life insurance underwriting in Great Britain to model excess mortality. The focus is on a technique called generalized linear interactive modeling, or GLIM, and the computer software package of the same name. The author concludes that GLIM "offers a more dynamic means of model building than has hitherto been attempted in this field in which the relationship between individual factors and their interactions on excess mortality may be assessed."
Correspondence: A. E. Renshaw, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:40123 Rychtarikova, Jitka; Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. A comparative evaluation of mortality movements in Czechoslovakia and in France. [Evolution comparee de la mortalite en Republique Tcheque et en France, depuis 1950.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 555-86 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors compare mortality trends for selected causes of death in Czechoslovakia and France since 1950, with a focus on deaths among adults and older people. "Between 1966 and 1985, the expectation of life on the 40th birthday increased in France by 2.1 years for men and by 3.1 years for women; in the Czech Republic it decreased by 1.1 years for men and remained unchanged for women. The situation for Czech men was aggravated by an increase in deaths from cerebro-vascular diseases and, indirectly, by the rise in deaths attributed to alcoholism. However, the increased difference between the mortality of the two sexes in both countries could also be due to the fact that whereas deaths from cerebro-vascular disease have decreased considerably in France, they have remained stationary in the Czech Republic. The factors that have contributed to the decline in France (improvements in nutrition, and successful new treatments for these diseases) are not present in the Czech Republic."
Correspondence: J. Rychtarikova, Univerzita Karlova, Ovocny trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40124 Smith, Wrynn. Obstetrics, gynecology, and infant mortality. A Profile of Health and Disease in America, ISBN 0-8160-1455-8. LC 86-32838. 1987. xiii, 146 pp. Facts on File: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This volume reviews the major changes in life expectancy that have occurred in the United States and elsewhere since 1900. Two of the most dramatic changes have been the reduced mortality of the newborn and of women in childbirth." Chapters are included on average life expectancy, rates and causes of infant mortality and morbidity, obstetrics, and gynecology. Consideration is given to developments in medical procedures and treatments, maternal and child health care, trends in abortion and contraception, and the performance rate of hysterectomies and tubal ligations. The data are primarily for the United States, with data for selected other countries included for comparative purposes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40125 Spencer, Byron G.; Winkowska, Irena. Mortality in rural Africa: a multivariate analysis of death in Ethiopia. QSEP Research Report, No. 217, Jan 1988. 27 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
The authors analyze determinants of mortality in the Legeambo region of Ethiopia, utilizing data gathered through a survey questionnaire of 292 households. The survey results indicate a crude mortality rate of 36 per 1,000 per year in this area. The authors "found quite strong evidence that...the incidence of mortality is systematically related both to the distance to the water source and to cash income receipts, as well as to family size."
Correspondence: Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Faculty of Social Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40126 Waltisperger, Dominique. Mortality trends and causes of death. [Tendances et causes de la mortalite.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 279-307 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa are reviewed. Topics covered include causes of death and mortality differentials by age, sex, and geographical area. The prospects for future improvements in mortality are also considered.
Correspondence: D. Waltisperger, Service des Etudes et des Systemes d'Information, 1 Place Fontenay, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40127 Zhou, Jianle. Levels, trends and rural-urban differentials of mortality in China: 1963-1981. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 775-802 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Mortality trends in China's urban and rural areas between 1963 and 1981 are studied using statistics for the years 1963, 1975, and 1981 from the population register. The author seeks "to estimate mortality from reported number of deaths and population by age, sex and residence; to construct life tables for males and females by urban/rural residence for the years 1963, 1975 and 1981; [and] to study the mortality levels, trends and differentials in China's rural and urban areas." It is found that "during the period 1963-1981, there was a large mortality decline in all the age groups, for both males and females, in China's urban and rural areas; the greatest reduction seems to have occurred among children. The life expectations seem to have increased steadily in both urban and rural areas for both sexes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

54:40128 Bowman, Ellen; Doyle, Lex W.; Murton, Laurence J.; Roy, R. Neil D.; Kitchen, William H. Increased mortality of preterm infants transferred between tertiary perinatal centres. British Medical Journal, Vol. 297, No. 6656, Oct 29, 1988. 1,098-100 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Survivorship and mortality were examined for a group of premature infants born in Melbourne, Australia, during an 18-month period beginning January 1, 1986. Primary consideration is given to the effect of transferring premature infants from their hospital of birth to other tertiary care centers. The authors find that "after adjustment for potential confounding variables by logistic function regression the risk of dying for those transferred remained significantly higher than that for infants who remained...."
Correspondence: E. Bowman, Newborn Emergency Transport Service, Victoria, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40129 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael. Do gravidity and age affect pregnancy outcome? Australian Family Project Working Paper, No. 4, Aug 1988. 30 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Fetal loss has generally been found to vary with gravidity, previous experience of fetal loss and maternal age, but the literature is divided on the reasons for these associations. In this paper we examine pregnancy histories obtained retrospectively from a nationally representative one-in-one thousand sample of women in Australia aged 20 to 59 years. The relations of fetal loss ratios with both gravidity and previous outcome are consistent with heterogeneity of risk over the study population and a stopping rule, whereby high-risk women undertake more pregnancies than low-risk women to achieve the same number of live births. Evidence is presented that elevated loss ratios in the teens indicate not higher risk but a selection for short gestation intervals, while loss ratios beyond the mid-thirties do not point unequivocally to a substantial increase in risk at the older reproductive ages."
Correspondence: Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

54:40130 Agyei, William K. A. Indirect estimation of child mortality for Papua New Guinea. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 260-70 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper presents estimates of child mortality based on a survey conducted between November 1979 and March 1980....in rural and urban areas of the eight provinces of [Papua New Guinea]...." Data are from a sample of 3,986 women of reproductive age. Consideration is given to number of deceased children by sex, age, and residence of mother.
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, United Nations Development Programme, P.O. Box 7184, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40131 Akoto, Eliwo; Hill, Allan G. Morbidity, malnutrition, and infant mortality. [Morbidite, malnutrition et mortalite des enfants.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 309-34 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The factors affecting the high rates of infant mortality prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa are explored. These include age and parity of mother, birth intervals, parents' educational status, and access to and use of health services. Differences in infant mortality by age to three years are considered. The authors also examine mortality differentials by residence and socio-cultural background.
Correspondence: E. Akoto, Departement de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40132 Brittain, Ann W.; Morrill, Warren T.; Kurland, Jeffrey A. Parental choice and infant mortality in a West Indian population. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 5, Oct 1988. 679-92 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper uses demographic data from an island in the French West Indies to assess the utility of the sociobiological model in predicting infant and early childhood death rates for the island's population.... Sociobiological theory predicts that if the cost of raising a child of either sex were the same, parents in this West Indian population would prefer to invest in sons as access to resources rose and would prefer to invest in daughters as their access to resources fell." They conclude that "in...the West Indian population...parental resources, either as a result of fluctuations in the availability of resources through time, or of social class differences, [cannot] be shown to have had a significant effect on early postnatal mortality rates. One must therefore conclude that if parental behavior in [this population] does favor the survival of children of one sex through selective neglect of the other, its effects on population demography are minimal."
Correspondence: A. W. Brittain, Department of Anthropology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40133 DaVanzo, Julie. Infant mortality and socioeconomic development: evidence from Malaysian household data. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 581-95 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Household data from Malaysia are used to assess the roles of a number of mortality correlates in explaining the inverse relationship between the infant mortality rate (IMR) and socioeconomic development. Increases in mothers' education and improvements in water and sanitation are the most important household-level changes that accompany regional and temporal development and contribute to the inverse relationship between the IMR and development. One concomitant of development--reduced breastfeeding--has kept the relationship from being even stronger. Continued prevalence of extended breastfeeding in the poorer states of Peninsular Malaysia and a narrowing of educational and sanitation differentials helped close the IMR gap between the richer and the poorer states."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 432).
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40134 Dominican Republic. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Familia [CONAPOFA] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). An investigation of infant mortality using the own-children method in the maternity hospital Nuestra Senora de la Altagracia and in the San Rafael Maternity Clinic: preliminary edition. [Investigacion de la mortalidad infantil mediante el metodo del hijo previo en el Hospital de Maternidad Nuestra Senora de la Altagracia y en la Clinica de Maternidad San Rafael: edicion preliminar.] 1987. 63, [4] pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
Infant mortality in the Dominican Republic is examined using data for 3,050 women attending maternal health facilities. Factors considered include place of residence, age, parity, birth intervals, type of facility in which the woman gave birth, and age of infant at time of death. Mortality differences between full-term and premature infants are compared.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40135 Feyisetan, Bamikale J.; Togunde, Oladimeji; Bamkole, Akinrinola. Infant mortality in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: an examination of the effects of mother's occupation and father's income. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 165-76 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between the probabilities of infant death [in Ile-Ife, Nigeria] and two indices of parent's social status--mother's occupation and father's income." Data are from a sample survey conducted in Ile-Ife in 1980 and 1981.
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40136 Hamed, Mohy E. Levels, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 171-97 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Differentials in infant and child mortality in Egypt are investigated using data from the 1984 Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Regional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors are taken into account in a multivariate analysis. The analysis indicates that "raising age at first marriage, improving the health and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas and raising the levels of educational attainment in general will probably lead to considerable reduction in infant and child mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40137 India. Office of the Registrar General. Demography Division (New Delhi, India). Child mortality estimates of India. Census of India Occasional Paper, No. 5 of 1988, 1988. vii, 255 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Estimates of child mortality are presented for India, its states, territories, and districts. The relationship between child mortality and religion, and educational and occupational levels of the mother are also examined. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Demography Division, Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2-A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40138 Johnson, Nan E.; Zaki, Khalida P. Racial and residential differences in U.S. infant death rates: a temporal analysis. Rural Sociology, Vol. 53, No. 2, Summer 1988. 207-19 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This study uses regression analysis to compare the relationship of annual rates of neonatal and postneonatal mortality to annual rates of low birth weight. The period of interest is 1963-1982. Regardless of whether neonatal or postneonatal mortality rates are considered, the same level of decline in the incidence of low birth weight is associated with a greater decline in the mortality rates for nonwhite than white infants and for nonmetro than metro infants. If all four subgroups had the same composition of low weights at birth, the neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates would be lower for nonwhites and nonmetro residents. The implications are discussed."
Correspondence: N. E. Johnson, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40139 Kannisto, Vaino. Factors associated with geographical differentials in infant mortality in Portugal since 1950. [Factores associados as diferencas geograficas da mortalidade infantil em Portugal desde 1950.] Revista do Centro de Estudos Demograficos, No. 28, 1986. 7-35 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in infant mortality in Portugal since 1950 are reviewed. Significant geographical differences in infant mortality are evident, and these are analyzed using various demographic, social, medical, and economic indicators. The author suggests that adherence to traditional religious and social values slows down the acceptance of modern child care methods and the use of public health services, and is associated with higher rates of infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40140 Kannisto, Vaino. On regional differences in infant mortality. [Imevaiskuolleisuuden alueellisista eroista.] Sosiaalilaaketieteellinen Aikakauslehti, No. 25, 1988. 108-17 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
Regional differences in infant mortality are examined using the examples of Finland and Portugal. The author concludes that no single model "can explain the dependence of infant mortality on social and economic variables in all countries nor necessarily at different periods in the same country." The continuing link between traditional social and religious values and higher levels of infant mortality in Portugal is noted.
Correspondence: V. Kannisto, Campo Grande 1, 6-D, 1700 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40141 Kintner, Hallie J. Determinants of temporal and areal variation in infant mortality in Germany, 1871-1933. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 597-609 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article investigates how sociodemographic, economic, medical, and public health factors influence infant mortality by using data [for] German administrative areas from 1871 to 1933. Marital fertility has the largest impact on infant mortality, followed by illegitimacy, medical care, urbanization, and infant welfare centers. The variables considered here account for most of the variation in infant mortality. Some of the unexplained variance is due to factors associated with regions, such as breastfeeding patterns, and with time periods, such as national health insurance. The analyses found no evidence that advances in medical technology affected infant mortality or that the influence of economic development changed over time."
Correspondence: H. J. Kintner, Operating Sciences Department, General Motors Research Laboratories, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40142 Kintner, Hallie J. The impact of breastfeeding patterns on regional differences in infant mortality in Germany, 1910. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1988. 233-61 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the impact of breastfeeding practices on the large regional differences in infant mortality in Germany around 1910. [It is found that] breastfeeding is strongly negatively associated with infant mortality and remains so after controlling for public health measures and for demographic, economic, and social factors that also affect infant mortality. But it contributes much less to regional differences in infant mortality than do access to medical care, percentage illegitimate and marital fertility. Breastfeeding is less important than these other factors because it affects fewer causes of death and has a smaller impact on cause-specific infant mortality rates."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1979 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 45, No. 3, July 1979, p. 374).
Correspondence: H. J. Kintner, Operating Sciences Department, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI 48090-9057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40143 Nam, Charles B.; Eberstein, Isaac W.; Deeb, Larry C. Sudden infant death syndrome as a socially-determined cause of infant death. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 89-54, [1988]. [18] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"The background characteristics of infant deaths which have been certified by physicians as due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are examined. Two alternative models for explaining SIDS deaths are considered. The first views SIDS solely in medical/biological terms, while the second emphasizes the role played by social and cultural factors....Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for the 1980-82 cohort of live births in Florida, which have been merged with NCHS reports of multiple causes of death. Analysis suggests a pattern of SIDS reporting which varies inversely with maternal education, prenatal care, and race/ethnicity. This suggests either that social factors affect the etiology of the syndrome to a greater degree than would be expected from the medical/biological model or that deaths to infants of lower socioeconomic status are attributed to SIDS more often than warranted."
Correspondence: Center for the Study of Population, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40144 Oni, Gbolahan A. Child mortality in a Nigerian city: its levels and socioeconomic differentials. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1988. 607-14 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using the 'indirect' demographic estimation technique, levels of child mortality for some selected socioeconomic characteristics of mothers in Ilorin, an urban community in Nigeria, were derived. The adjusted effects of these variables on child mortality were assessed. The variables found to exert significant independent effects on child mortality included the husband's education, area of residence in the town, the parity of the mother, her use of modern contraception, availability of indoor pipe-borne water and the use of a refrigerator by the household." Data are from a household survey conducted in Ilorin between September 1983 and January 1984.
Correspondence: G. A. Oni, Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40145 Otto, Johannes. Some considerations regarding international comparisons of infant mortality. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 56, 1988. 133-47 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author discusses issues involved in making international comparisons of infant mortality. Differences in data availability and reliability among countries are described, and problems concerning the collection and interpretation of data are outlined. Factors affecting levels of infant and child mortality are also compared.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40146 Pamuk, Elsie R. Social-class inequality in infant mortality in England and Wales from 1921 to 1980. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 1, Sep 1988. 1-21 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the trend in social inequality in infant mortality in England and Wales between 1921 and 1980, using both class- and occupation-specific data. It employs a summary measure of inequality that uses all of the available data and can be evaluated in terms of its sensitivity to errors using accepted diagnostic techniques. Occupations that played a significant role in determining the time trend in inequality are identified and the effect of mortality among out-of-wedlock births is examined. Implications of these findings for assessing the determinants of social inequality in infant mortality and evaluating the contribution of the National Health Service in its amelioration are discussed."
Correspondence: E. R. Pamuk, 1095 B North Jamestown Road, Decatur, GA 30033-3612. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40147 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS] (London, England). Occupational mortality: childhood supplement. The Registrar General's decennial supplement for England and Wales, 1979-80, 1982-83. Series DS, No. 8, ISBN 0-11-691232-4. 1988. 85 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This report "presents statistics of childhood mortality in England and Wales for 1979-80 and 1982-3 using data from death registration related to the population enumerated at the 1981 Census....[It] describes differences in mortality between children in England and Wales in different social classes, socio-economic group and occupation orders."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40148 Uruguay. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Montevideo, Uruguay); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile); Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA] (Ottawa, Canada). Uruguay: infant mortality according to socioeconomic and geographical variables. [Uruguay: la mortalidad infantil segun variables socioeconomicas y geograficas.] [1987]. [viii], 73 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
Methods developed by Brass, Trussell, and others are used to analyze infant mortality trends in Uruguay from 1961 to 1983 using official data from censuses and vital statistics. Consideration is given to fetal deaths and to neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality; mortality differentials by region and place of residence; and differentials by educational status of mother and place of birth.
Correspondence: Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos, Cuareim 2052, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40149 Victora, Cesar G.; Vaughan, J. Patrick. Land tenure and child health in Rio Grande do Sul: the relationship between agricultural production, malnutrition, and mortality. [Propriedade da terra e saude infantil no Rio Grande do Sul: as relacoes entre producao agricola, desnutricao e mortalidade.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 127-51 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The relationships between infant and preschool age mortality, malnutrition, and land tenure patterns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were investigated with data from demographic and agricultural censuses, vital statistics, and a nutritional survey in urban and rural areas. These studies employed a variety of analytical methods and revealed that young children in areas with large ranches, livestock raising and a high proportion of agricultural wage-earners presented a higher mortality and a greater prevalence of malnutrition than children in areas with small farms, crop agriculture, and self-employed family workers. Children of landowners showed better nutritional status and smaller risk of death compared to children of laborers, although the differential seems to have narrowed in recent years. The conclusion is that land tenure patterns play a very important role in determining mortality and malnutrition of children in this Brazilian State."
Correspondence: C. G. Victora, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Social, Campus Universitario, 96100 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40150 Weeks, John R.; Rumbaut, Ruben G. Infant health and mortality among Indochinese refugees in San Diego County: final report. Jul 1988. v, 91, [25] pp. San Diego State University, International Population Center: San Diego, California. In Eng.
The authors "measure the incidence of infant mortality among Indochinese refugees [in the United States] and...measure the relative importance of identifiable risk factors in affecting infant mortality by using two existing quantitative data sets which include relevant information. In addition, based on these data, we will carry out comparative analyses of birthweights as a key index of infant health in this recently-arrived refugee population....One of the data sets (IHARP) is a sample of Indochinese refugees in San Diego County, [California,] interviewed in 1983 and again in 1984. The other data set is a computerized file of live births linked to infant deaths for the birth cohorts of 1978 through 1985....We will aim to be comparative in two respects: first, within the Indochinese population, by comparing patterns of infant health and mortality between the different Indochinese ethnic groups; and secondly, by comparing the patterns for the Indochinese groups against those for other ethnic/racial groups in the general American population." Case histories of two Hmong and two Vietnamese mothers are included.
Correspondence: International Population Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

54:40151 Kannisto, Vaino. Mortality at old age in the Nordic countries. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 26, 5-21 1988. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
Mortality among those over 80 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden since 1920 is examined using Vincent's method of extinct generations. Particular attention is given to sex ratios of mortality by age, country, and period. It is found that "mortality continues to be lowest in Iceland while its levels in the other four countries are converging. Yet, even with rapidly declining rates Finland retains a different age-sex-pattern which is related to mortality at middle age."
Correspondence: V. Kannisto, Centro de Estudos Demograficos, Avenida Antonia Jose de Almeida, Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40152 Vemuri, Murali D.; Deshpande, A. P. Post-child mortality estimates for the major states of India, 1971-1981. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 271-82 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper we compute and examine male and female life expectancy at age five for the intercensal period 1971 to 1981 for India and its major states." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: M. D. Vemuri, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

54:40153 Chile. Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas [INE] (Santiago, Chile); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile); Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA] (Ottawa, Canada). Chile. Abbreviated mortality tables by sex. Total country and regions 1980-1985. [Chile. Tablas abreviadas de mortalidad por sexo. Total del pais y regiones 1980-1985.] Fasciculo F/CHI, No. 2, 1987. [7], 81 pp. Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Abbreviated life tables for Chile are presented based on data from the 1982 census and vital statistics data on births and deaths to 1985. The tables provide data by sex and age group for the whole country and for each of its 13 regions for the period 1980-1985.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas, Casilla 7597, Correo 3, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40154 Dow, Malcolm M. Nonparametric inference procedures for multistate life table analysis. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1985. 245-63 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Recent generalizations of the classical single state life table procedures to the multistate case provide the means to analyze simultaneously the mobility and mortality experience of one or more cohorts. Within this multidimensional demographic literature, however, little attention has been paid thus far to problems of statistical inference. In this paper, an inferential and hypothesis testing strategy is proposed based on fairly general nonparametric matrix permutation procedures. Several examples are presented to illustrate this matrix combinatorial approach to hypothesis testing."
Correspondence: M. M. Dow, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40155 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Life tables by causes of death, 1981-85. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamistauluja kuolemansyiden mukaan/Dodlighets- och livslangdstabeller enligt dodsorsaker.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1988, No. 1, ISBN 951-47-1541-1. Jun 30, 1988. 77 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng; Swe.
Life tables for Finland are presented for the period 1981-1985. The tables are presented for major causes of death by age and sex for the whole country and the 12 provinces.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40156 Italy. Istituto Centrale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy). Life tables for the Italian population by region, 1979-1983. [Tavole di mortalita della popolazione italiana per regione, 1979-83.] Note e Relazioni Anno 1987, No. 1, LC 88-114986. [1987]. 57 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
Regional life tables for Italy are presented by sex for the period 1979-1983. The methodology used to prepare the tables is outlined.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40157 Mina Valdes, Alejandro. The development of life tables for Mexico using the methods developed by Preston and Bennett. [Elaboracion de tablas de mortalidad para Mexico, empleando el metodo de Preston y Bennett.] No. DT-87-03, Jan 1987. 55 pp. Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
A method developed by S. H. Preston and N. G. Bennett is used to construct abbreviated life tables for Mexico by sex and by five-year intervals for the period 1950-1980. Results are compared with official life tables for the same period.
For the study by Preston and Bennett, published in 1983, see 49:20159.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Sta. Teresa, 10740 Mexico City, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40158 Nagnur, Dhruva; Nagrodski, Michael. Cause-deleted life tables for Canada, (1921-1981): an approach towards analysing epidemiologic transition. Nov 1987. 18, [19] pp. Statistics Canada, Social and Economic Studies Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"A series of cause-deleted life tables for every decennial from 1921 to 1981 has been developed for Canada for males and females. A quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic shifts in mortality over the past six decades has been attempted through the parameters of the life tables and indices such as Entropy. A method to test the consistency of the derived cause-deleted life tables is presented. The importance of such tables, in the analysis and projection of mortality and the examination of health-resource priorities, is stressed."
Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

54:40159 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hoofdafdeling Bevolkingsstatistieken (Voorburg, Netherlands). Life tables by marital status, 1981-1985. [Overlevingstafels naar burgerlijke staat, 1981-1985.] ISBN 9-0357-1015-0. 1988. 48 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng; Dut.
"In this publication mortality, marriage and marriage dissolution in the population of the Netherlands in the period 1981-1985 are observed using life tables by marital status." The data presented include life expectancy by marital status, age, and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40160 Panama. Direccion de Estadistica y Censo (Panama City, Panama). Republic of Panama: abbreviated life tables of the republic, urban-rural areas, and provinces, according to sex: the period 1980-2000. [Republica de Panama: tablas abreviadas de vida de la republica, areas urbana-rural y provincias, segun sexo: periodo 1980-2000.] Estadistica Panamena, No. 5, Apr 6, 1987. 57 pp. Panama City, Panama. In Spa.
This publication contains abbreviated life tables for Panama for the period 1980-2000. Data are presented by age group and sex for the country as a whole, urban and rural areas, and provinces.
Correspondence: Direccion de Estadistica y Censo, Contraloria General de la Republica, Apartado 5213, Panama 5, Panama. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40161 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS] (London, England). English life tables, No. 14, 1980-1982. Series DS, No. 7, ISBN 0-11-691067-4. 1987. vi, 22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Life tables by sex for England and Wales are presented for the period 1980-1982. Data are also provided on mortality by marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40162 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1986. Volume II, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 88-1147. Oct 1988. 14 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Life tables for the United States for 1986 are presented. Data are included on abridged life tables by race and sex, number of survivors at single years of age by race and sex, and life expectancy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40163 Wolf, Douglas A. The multistate life table with duration-dependence. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1988. 217-45, 317 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A method for generalizing the multistate, or increment-decrement, life table to include rates which depend upon duration of exposure to risk, as well as upon age, is proposed. The method is built upon the linear approximation, called the linear integration hypothesis, developed mainly by Rogers and his colleagues....It is possible to derive several new summary indices of the life-table cohort's history, such as the mean and median time in current status, at any age. The method is illustrated using a simple four-state marital-status model which has appeared often in the literature; here, rates of divorce and widowhood vary by duration of marriage as well as age." An example is demonstrated using 1984 period data for women in Finland aged 15-50.
Correspondence: D. A. Wolf, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40164 Zhai, Zhenwu. Estimate of indicators of life tables in 1953-1964 and 1964-1982. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 1, Jan 29, 1987. 22-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The variable-r method is applied to data from the 1953, 1964, and 1982 censuses of China to produce life tables for 1953-1964 and 1964-1982. The tables are used to discuss a selection of mortality indicators, including infant mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy by sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

54:40165 Anderson, Peter. Excess mortality associated with alcohol consumption. British Medical Journal, Vol. 297, No. 6651, Oct 1, 1988. 824-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"To estimate the excess mortality due to alcohol [consumption] in England and Wales death rates specific to alcohol consumption that had been derived from five longitudinal studies were applied to the current population divided into categories of alcohol consumption....This resulted in an estimate of 28,000 deaths each year in England and Wales as the excess mortality among people aged 15-74 associated with alcohol consumption."
Correspondence: P. Anderson, Oxfordshire Health Authority, Oxford OX3 9DZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40166 Anson, Jon. Mortality and living conditions: relative mortality levels and their relation to the physical quality of life in urban populations. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 9, 1988. 901-10 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The general inverse association between mortality and the availability of material resources has been well established in large populations. Using data for Israeli urban locations, we show that indirectly standardized mortality ratios (SMR) are well able to capture this relationship in small populations for which reliable age specific mortality data are not available; and that they are inversely related to the standard of living, as measured by a variety of census based indicators. It is thus suggested that SMRs offer a ready indicator of living standards in populations for which more specific indicators may not be readily accessible."
Correspondence: J. Anson, Department of Social Work, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, 84105 Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40167 Balarajan, R.; McDowall, M. E. Regional socioeconomic differences in mortality among men in Great Britain today. Public Health, Vol. 102, No. 1, Jan 1988. 33-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Regional socioeconomic differences in mortality among men aged 20-64 years [in the United Kingdom] were studied using data from the Decennial Supplement on Occupational Mortality based on the 1981 census. In our analysis deaths from all causes showed an increasing gradient from the south-east to the north-west of the country with the highest levels in Scotland....The regional gradient for all causes was steeper in the manual workers than in the non-manual workers." Regional differences in mortality from various major causes by socioeconomic group are described.
Correspondence: R. Balarajan, Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Robens Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:40168 Fu, Haishan. Multi-states life table analysis of marital status in the Philippines: 1975-80. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 709-50 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author seeks "to apply the multi-states life table model to examine the mortality differentials by marital status and to study the patterns of marital status...of the population of...the Philippines." Census data for the years 1975 and 1980 and vital statistics for the period 1975-1979 are used. "Analysis of the marital status life tables has revealed that, in the Philippines, mortality for males is generally higher than for females. Also, it is observed that the death rates for widowed were very high in the younger ages, while those for the single were higher at the older ages, compared to the death rates of the presently married persons."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40169 Haberman, S.; Bloomfield, D. S. F. Social class differences in mortality in Great Britain around 1981. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 115, Pt. 3, 1988. 495-517 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality differentials among males in England and Wales are analyzed by social class using data from the Decennial Supplement on Occupational Mortality for 1979-1980 and 1982-1983 and from the OPCS Longitudinal Study. Definitions of social class are considered first, and the nature of the available data is described. The construction of life tables for specific social classes is then outlined. There is some evidence of a significant difference in mortality rates among classes, and that the gap has widened since 1970-1972. Reasons why improvements in mortality have been confined to the professional and managerial social classes are discussed.
Correspondence: S. Haberman, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:40170 Hu, Yow-Hwey. Family roles and female mortality differentials across cultures: an inquiry of cultural adaptation in industrialization. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1988. 57-78 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between family support systems and female mortality in Chinese and American cultures is studied using 1980 official data from Taiwan and the United States. The differences in female mortality by marital status support the hypotheses that Chinese families provide greater support for older than younger females, and that the emphasis on filial piety in Chinese society provides more support for the elderly by Chinese than American children.
Correspondence: Y.-H. Hu, National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40171 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Fourth meeting of the UN/WHO/CICRED network on socio-economic differential mortality in industrialized societies. Socio-Economic Differential Mortality, Vol. 6, 306 [1988?]. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is a report on the fourth meeting of an international network of institutions researching socioeconomic aspects of differential mortality in developed countries, which was held in Zamardi, Hungary, September 13-16, 1986. The papers are concerned with aspects of differential mortality in Eastern Europe, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Italy, Hungary, Denmark, France, the United States, Asia, Scandinavia, and Australia. Papers are also included on methodological problems and on the past and future activities of the network.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40172 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). International seminar on the socio-economic aspects of differential mortality. Socio-Economic Differential Mortality, Vol. 5, [1988?]. 456 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international seminar on the socioeconomic aspects of differential mortality. The seminar, held in Zamardi, Hungary, September 9-19, 1986, was organized jointly by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, and the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. The 27 papers by various authors include studies on aspects of differential mortality in Hungary, Poland, Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, the United Kingdom, the USSR, the United States, Greece, Sweden, Australia, Bulgaria, India, Kenya, and Sri Lanka, as well as some general methodological studies and studies concerning international comparisons.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40173 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 4. Socioeconomic and occupational mortality differentials, 1980. 1. [Halandosagi vizsgalatok, 4. A halandosag tarsadalmigazdasagi-, foglalkozasikulonbsegei, 1980. 1.] 1988. 24, 535 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Data on mortality differentials in Hungary for 1980 are presented. The data, which have been compiled by pairing 1980 vital statistics with 1980 census results, concern approximately 14,120 deaths and causes of death. The data are presented separately by sex, occupation, age, and social class for Budapest and for rural and urban areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40174 Keith, Verna M.; Smith, David P. The current differential in black and white life expectancy. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 625-32 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The 1980 National Center for Health Statistics life tables for the U.S. black and white populations reveal a difference in life expectancy of 7 years between black and white males and 6 years between black and white females. Using cause-substituted life tables, we show that a number of causes of death contribute to the difference. The largest contributors are cardiovascular disease for both sexes and homicide and cancer for males."
Correspondence: V. M. Keith, Department of Sociology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40175 Liu, Zheng. An analysis of regional differential mortality. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Sep 29, 1986. 11-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Regional differences in mortality and life expectancy in China are explored, and the socioeconomic, cultural, and educational factors affecting such differences are considered using data from the 1982 census. The author notes that mortality, particularly infant mortality, is highest in economically underdeveloped areas, and female infant mortality is high in both rural and urban areas. It is also observed that female life expectancy is 3.26 years longer than for males in urban areas, and 1.38 years longer in rural areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40176 Loslier, Luc. Social and spatial mortality differentials in Puerto Rico. [Disparites socio-spatiales de mortalite a Porto-Rico.] Revue Canadienne d'Etudes du Developpement/Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1987. 117-32 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"A factor analysis on twenty-six social and economic variables measured in the seventy-eight 'municipios' of [Puerto Rico] is used to build a socio-economic model that reveals regional disparities [in mortality]. Adult and infant mortality rates in the different regions are computed and show that disparities in public health do exist. In fact, it appears that the most developed urban areas have patterns of mortality similar to the more traditional rural areas. On the other hand the developing regions have pathogenic patterns."
Correspondence: L. Loslier, Departement de Geographie, Universite du Quebec, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

54:40177 Lucas, Joao dos S. Social inequality with regard to death and disease in Portugal--1985. [Inequidade social perante a doenca e a morte em Portugal--1985.] Revista do Centro de Estudos Demograficos, No. 28, 1986. 69-97 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Social inequalities concerning mortality and morbidity in Portugal are analyzed. The results indicate that the employed male population, particularly in the younger ages, suffer such mortality inequalities and that the working population in the Greater Lisbon area has a higher risk of morbidity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40178 Maccheroni, Carlo. Differentials in mortality measured in terms of dissimilarity. Mortality differences between sexes according to twentieth-century Italian tables. [La mortalite differentielle mesuree en termes de dissemblance. Les ecarts de mortalite entre sexes selon les tables italiennes du XXe siecle.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1988. 65-89 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Under some conditions, the comparison of life expectancies may lead to a much more accurate measure, in terms of dissimilarity between the empirical distributions of the number of years expected to live at each age. This paper analyses these conditions and applies the dissimilarity approach to the data of the Italian life tables of the 20th century."
Correspondence: C. Maccheroni, Universite Bocconi, Institut de Methodes Quantitatives, Via R. Sarfatti 25, 20136 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40179 McKeigue, P. M.; Marmot, M. G. Mortality from coronary heart disease in Asian communities in London. British Medical Journal, Vol. 297, No. 6653, Oct 8, 1988. 903 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In England and Wales in 1970-2 mortality from coronary heart disease was 20% higher in men and women who had been born in south Asia than in the general population....[In this one-page article, the authors examine] the pattern of mortality in different ethnic groups originating from south Asia by using districts of residence to distinguish communities in which one group predominated; five London boroughs were chosen on this basis....[It is found that] mortality from coronary heart disease among Asians in England and Wales has increased by about 25% since 1970-2."
Correspondence: P. M. McKeigue, Department of Community Medicine, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London WC1E 6EA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40180 Neubauer, Gunter. Regional mortality differentials in Bavaria: an empirical investigation of the socioeconomic and ecological causes. [Regionale Sterblichkeitsunterschiede in Bayern: eine empirische Untersuchung der soziookonomischen und okologischen Ursachen.] Schriften zur Gesundheitsokonomie, Vol. 3, ISBN 3-925710-08-6. 1988. xxxvii, 325 pp. Verlag P.C.O.: Bayreuth, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Mortality differentials among 96 rural and urban areas of Bavaria, Federal Republic of Germany, are analyzed by major cause of death for the period 1973-1982. The data are from official sources. Demographic, medical, socioeconomic, and environmental factors are examined as possible causes of regional mortality differentials. The findings indicate the importance of migration, income, and educational level as factors contributing to differential mortality.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:40181 Norway. Statistisk Sentralbyra (Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway). Regional mortality, 1981-1985. [Regional dodelighet, 1981-1985.] Norges Offisielle Statistikk, No. B 790, ISBN 82-537-2674-0. 1988. 58 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng; Nor.
Official statistics are presented on regional variations in mortality in Norway according to cause of death for the period 1981-1985. Tables are included on deaths by sex and age group, infant mortality, and sex-specific mortality from selected causes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40182 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS] (London, England). Occupational mortality. The Registrar General's decennial supplement for Great Britain, 1979-80, 1982-83. Part 1: commentary. Series DS, No. 6, ISBN 0-11-691174-3. 1986. ix, 128 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the latest in a series of publications presenting data on occupational mortality in the United Kingdom. The present report is based on official data, including the 1981 census, and for the first time includes data for Scotland. The data cover 500 occupations and over 170 causes of death. The focus of this part is on methodological aspects of data analysis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40183 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France; Rychtarikova, Jitka. A comparative analysis of mortality by cause in the Czech Socialist Republic and in France with regard to developments since 1950. [Srovnavaci analyza umrtnosti podle pricin v Ceske Socialisticke Republice a ve Francii ve vyvojovem pohledu od roku 1950.] Demografie, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1988. 193-211 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality since 1950 in France and the Czech part of Czechoslovakia is analyzed. The authors note that mortality in both countries declined until 1960, at which date both total and infant mortality were lower in the Czech Socialist Republic. Following 1960, mortality continued to decline in France, particularly in the decade 1970-1980, and among those over age 40. In contrast, mortality in the Czech Socialist Republic has increased since 1960. Changes in mortality by eight major causes are analyzed over time using direct standardization methods for each sex from 1950 to 1984 in both countries. The results indicate that diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasms are the major causes of death in the Czech Socialist Republic, with the greatest contrast with France concerning mortality from cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40184 Vallin, Jacques. Social change and mortality decline: the conquest or reconquest of a female advantage? [Evolution sociale et baisse de la mortalite: conquete ou reconquete d'un avantage feminin?] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 17, Jun 1988. 33 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Reasons for the mortality differentials by sex observed in modern societies are explored. Biological advantages and disadvantages, such as maternal mortality, are first considered. The author then describes the development of excess male mortality in modern societies, relying primarily on official data for France. Finally, he examines why modern women are less susceptible to the influence of those factors responsible for higher mortality among men.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40185 Yanagishita, Machiko; Guralnik, Jack M. Changing mortality patterns that led life expectancy in Japan to surpass Sweden's: 1972-1982. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 611-24 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Between 1972 and 1982, Japan caught up to and then surpassed Sweden as the country with the longest life expectancy. The contributions of different causes of death and age groups to life expectancy changes in males during this time period are examined in detail for these two countries. Even though cerebrovascular disease mortality rates remained lower in Sweden over the entire interval, the rapid gain made by Japan relative to Sweden for this cause of death was a prime factor in Japan's ending the period with a higher life expectancy. Important contributions to life expectancy improvement in Japan came from declining mortality rates in those aged 55 and older."
Correspondence: M. Yanagishita, Epidemiology, Biometry, and Demography Program, National Institute on Aging, 7550 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

54:40186 Andersson, Ingvar; Aspegren, Knut; Janzon, Lars; Landberg, Torsten; Lindholm, Karin; Linell, Folke; Ljungberg, Otto; Ranstam, Jonas; Sigfusson, Baldur. Mammographic screening and mortality from breast cancer: the Malmo mammographic screening trial. British Medical Journal, Vol. 297, No. 6654, Oct 15, 1988. 943-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors present the results of a study conducted among women over age 45 residing in the city of Malmo, Sweden. The purpose of the study was "to determine whether mortality from breast cancer could be reduced by repeated mammographic screening." Data concern more than 40,000 women, 21,088 of whom were in the study group, with 21,195 members of the control group. The authors find that "invitation to mammographic screening may lead to reduced mortality from breast cancer, at least in women aged 55 or over."
Correspondence: I. Andersson, Department of Radiology, Malmo General Hospital, S-214 01 Malmo, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40187 Benjamin, B.; Michaelson, R. Mortality differences between smokers and non-smokers. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 115, Pt. 3, 1988. 519-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Available data on mortality differences between smokers and nonsmokers are reviewed. The data are presented separately by sex and primarily concern the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:40188 Bogdanov, Zdravko. Mortality from accidents in Bulgaria and selected other countries. [Smartnostta ot nestastni sluchai v Balgariya i v nyakoi drugi strani.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1987. 51-63 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author characterizes the state and tendency towards change in trauma- and poisoning-inflicted mortality in Bulgaria for the 1970-1984 period. The analysis comprises not only the general coefficients, but also mortality by sex, age and place of living of the deceased, as well as some comparisons with similar processes in other countries." Data are from official and other published sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40189 Doyon, Bernard; Serrano, Ghyslaine; Marc-Vergnes, Jean-Pierre. Trends in mortality from cerebrovascular disease in France from 1968 to 1978: with reference to cardiovascular and all causes of death. Stroke, Vol. 19, No. 3, Mar 1988. 330-4 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"Cerebrovascular disease mortality in France during the period 1968-1978 was compared with cardiovascular and all other causes of death. Our study demonstrated a 25% decline in the age-adjusted cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in both sexes and particularly in the middle-aged groups. This decline is greater than that of the general causes of mortality, which was on the order of 20%. It parallels the decline in congestive heart failure mortality but differs from that of ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, despite the increase in the proportion of elderly people in the population, the total number of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases has remained almost unchanged, although the deaths occur at a higher age than previously. If this trend is confirmed, cerebrovascular diseases will remain one of the more frequent causes of death in the elderly and thus a social problem of crucial importance."
Correspondence: B. Doyon, INSERM U. 230, Service de Neurologie, Chu Purpan, F31059 Toulouse Cedex, France. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:40190 Fletcher, Ben C. Occupation, marriage and disease-specific mortality concordance. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1988. 615-22 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationships among marital status, occupation, and cause of death are examined for Great Britain, using data from official sources concerning 324,822 men aged 20-64 and 35,915 women aged 20-59 for the periods 1979-1980 and 1982-1983. "Mortality statistics for more than 500 different occupations were examined for all causes of death, neoplasms, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, and deaths from external causes. The paper shows that a married woman's life expectancy, and her cause of death, is reliably associated with the occupational mortality risk of her husband. It demonstrates that this is so when social class is controlled, when statistically contaminating 'outliers' are excluded, and when the correlation of any particular cause of death with other causes of death is partialled out. The findings suggest that specific occupational risks are transmitted between marital partners, perhaps through psychological mechanisms."
Correspondence: B. C. Fletcher, Psychology Division, School of Natural Sciences, Hatfield Polytechnic, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40191 Gabennesch, Howard. When promises fail: a theory of temporal fluctuations in suicide. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 1, Sep 1988. 129-45 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Numerous studies have reported that suicide rates tend to be affected by temporal variables (month, day of the week, day of the month, holidays). Few authors have provided convincing explanations of these relations, and no one except Durkheim has suspected that they display similarities which indicate that they might have some causal origins in common. This article attempts to look at several temporal correlations as examples of the same underlying dynamics and to offer a theory which helps to organize a traditionally enigmatic body of research."
Correspondence: H. Gabennesch, Department of Sociology, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, IN 47712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40192 Hasanova, Viera. Regional differences in mortality from diseases of the circulatory system in Czechoslovakia. [Regionalna diferenciacia umrtnosti na choroby obehovej sustavy v CSSR.] Demografie, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1988. 108-18 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in mortality from diseases of the circulatory system in Czechoslovakia are analyzed using district-level data for the period 1980-1984. The analysis is performed separately by sex and for various causes. The geographical differences noted are significant.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40193 McCormick, James; Skrabanek, Petr. Coronary heart disease is not preventable by population interventions. Lancet, No. 8615, Oct 8, 1988. 839-41 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Attempts to identify and modify risk factors associated with coronary heart disease are critically assessed. "For coronary heart disease, the identification of risk factors has led to the belief that modification of such factors could prevent or reduce its incidence. While epidemiological studies may lead to the formulation of important hypotheses about the causes of coronary heart disease, only experiment can prove causal relations....This review of the present experimental evidence that we can prevent much coronary heart disease provides no data to justify the time, energy, and money which are being devoted to this crusade." The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on a study conducted in the Finnish province of North Karelia.
Correspondence: J. McCormick, Department of Community Health, University of Dublin, 196 Pearse Street, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40194 Sempos, Christopher; Cooper, Richard; Kovar, Mary G.; McMillen, Marilyn. Divergence of the recent trends in coronary mortality for the four major race-sex groups in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 11, Nov 1988. 1,422-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Our purpose in this study was to document the divergence in CHD [coronary heart disease] mortality trends and the slowing of the rate of decline for three of the four major race-sex groups in the United States. The public health importance of the slowing in rates of decline is evidenced by approximately 40,000 excess CHD deaths of White females and Black males and females that would not have occurred if mortality rates had continued at the rates observed during 1968-75. The results emphasize the need for increased efforts aimed at primary and secondary prevention and access to appropriate treatment in Blacks and in White females, while maintaining and improving upon the gains already made in White males."
Correspondence: C. Sempos, Nutrition Branch, National Center for Health Statistics, Room 2-58, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40195 Smith, Wrynn. Cancer. A Profile of Health and Disease in America, ISBN 0-8160-1454-X. LC 86-32851. 1987. x, 149 pp. Facts on File: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume provides an "in-depth look at cancer incidence, mortality, [and] 5-year survival for various cancers occurring in people classified by age, sex, and racial group along with [a] discussion of the advances in [medical] diagnosis and treatment [in the United States]...." Data are from official and other published sources for the United States and selected other countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40196 Smith, Wrynn. Cardiovascular disease. A Profile of Health and Disease in America, ISBN 0-8160-1025-0. LC 86-32846. 1987. xii, 128 pp. Facts on File: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an examination of the prevalence of and mortality due to cardiovascular disease in the United States. Consideration is given to risk factors, including diet, smoking, hypertension and diabetes, and life-style. Data are from official sources and are presented by age, sex, and ethnic group.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40197 Starrin, Bengt; Larsson, Gerry; Brenner, Sten-Olof. Regional variations in cardiovascular mortality in Sweden--structural vulnerability in the local community. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 9, 1988. 911-7 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this investigation was to study the connection between various phenomena in the local community and the number of deaths from ischemic heart disease (IHD) [in Sweden] for both men and women in the 45-64 age group in the period 1979-1983." Consideration is given to regional variations, the effects of socioeconomic status and level of occupation, employment and unemployment levels, and age factors. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: B. Starrin, County Council of Varmland, Section for Community Medicine, Box 426, S-651 07 Karlstad, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40198 Sterling, Theodor D.; Weinkam, James J. Errors in estimates of smoking-related deaths derived from nonsmoker mortality. Risk Analysis, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1987. 463-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A number of recent analyses have computed present and future costs associated with a risk by estimating what would happen if the risk were absent. Two sources of bias are associated with this approach: (1) differences in confounding factors between present risk avoiders and risk takers, and (2) the difficulty of selecting an unbiased sample of risk avoiders. A staff memo from the Office of Technology Assessment used this approach to estimate mortality due to smoking. Numbers of deaths and age at death distributions of U.S. smokers and nonsmokers for all causes, all cancers, lung cancers, heart disease, and cerebrovascular lesions are used to assess the accuracy of these estimates. Large errors in the OTA estimates are found. Conditions are discussed that might help reduce errors from this approach."
Correspondence: T. D. Sterling, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40199 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). State-specific estimates of smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost--United States, 1985. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 37, No. 45, Nov 18, 1988. 689-93 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Estimates of mortality attributable to cigarette smoking in the United States are presented by state for 1985. The results indicate that more than 314,000 deaths were caused by smoking in 1985. Estimates are also included on years of potential life lost through smoking deaths.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.