Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

54:30671 Al Dakkak, Mohamed S. The interaction between the legislative policy and the population problem in Egypt. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 30, Jun 1987. 83-94 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
The demographic situation in Egypt is discussed, with particular attention given to factors influencing the high birth rate and the population's distribution. Religious, social, health, and economic determinants of the fertility rate are discussed, with a focus on women's status. Probable outcomes of laws to regulate age at marriage, polygamy, divorce, and family planning are considered.
Correspondence: M. S. Al Dakkak, Department of International Law, Alexandria University, 22 El-Geish Avenue, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30672 Dechesne, Jean-Louis. Population policy in Nazi Germany. [La politique de population de l'Allemagne nazie.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 3, No. 2, ISBN 2-87085-137-5. Jan 1988. 117 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An overview of population policies in Nazi Germany in the 1930s is provided. Following a summary of the demographic situation in Germany in 1933, attention is given to the ideology of Nazi leaders concerning population issues, the family, and the role of women. The author then "attempts to draw up an inventory as large as possible of the measures, direct and indirect, traditional or not, the Third Reich took in the field of population. They go from marriage incentives to family and birth allowances, through the amelioration of dwelling conditions, sanitary measures, day-nurseries or the amelioration of the living conditions of the peasantry. But they include also human studfarms, abductions, researches on twins, artificial insemination, the [promotion] of out of wedlock conceptions, the easing of the divorce law, etc. They were counterbalanced by...marriage control, eugenic abortion and sterilization, mass imprisonment, forced migrations, racial and political murders, capital executions, euthanasia, etc." Contradictory policies and points of view are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30673 Demeny, Paul. Social science and population policy. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 138, May 1988. 40 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents arguments that call for a rethinking and redesign of institutional arrangements that now relegate policy-oriented social science work related to population issues in the developing world to the performance of technical functions servicing existing population programs. To the extent that programs do need such technical services, they can, and obviously will and should, continue to purchase them along with other program inputs. But monitoring and analyzing the process that more than doubled the world population since mid-century, assessing and understanding its causes and consequences, and not the least, observing and evaluating actual and potential policy approaches aimed at influencing demographic change, call for systematic, rigorous, and independent social science research efforts that cannot be conducted as activities ancillary to existing population programs."
Correspondence: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30674 Hecht, Jacqueline. Population policies and intervention on natality in Eastern Europe (Part 1). [Politiques de population et action sur la natalite en Europe de l'Est (1ere partie).] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 2, No. 4, ISBN 2-87085-094-8. Nov 1986. 7-51 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is an overview of population policies and their underlying doctrines in Eastern European countries since World War II. The author describes three chronological stages: "an orthodox populationist stage, from 1945 to 1955...; a phase of liberalization of abortion and at times of contraception from 1955 to 1965; and from this latter date, as a reaction against the accelerated decline of fertility, a phase of abortion and divorce restriction and of growing aid to family, likewise [marked] by the creation of National Population Committees and Institutes of Demographic Research." The countries of Eastern Europe are divided into three classifications: those with no population policy (Albania only); those with indirect measures, including Poland, Yugoslavia, and the USSR; and those with explicit, quantitative demographic goals, including Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, and Romania. The effectiveness of selected population policies is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30675 Hecht, Jacqueline; Henripin, Jacques; Ivanov, Serguei; There, Christine. Population policies and intervention on natality in Eastern Europe. Part 2: classified bibliography. [Politiques de population et action sur la natalite en Europe de l'Est. 2eme partie: bibliographie thematique.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 3, No. 1, ISBN 2-87085-118-9. Jun 1987. 5-87 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This is an unannotated bibliography of literature concerning Eastern European population policies, with an emphasis on policies pertaining to fertility. The bibliography is organized into two sections: the first is devoted to population theories and policies, fertility, contraception, and abortion; the second presents citations by country. An author index is included. Eastern Europe is defined as including Albania, the USSR, and Yugoslavia.
For Part 1, published in 1986, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30676 Hooz, Istvan. Some theoretical questions of population policy. [A nepesedespolitika nehany elmeleti kerdese.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1987. 11-26 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Some theoretical considerations concerning the development of population policies are explored. The author notes that the objectives of such policies might include the acceleration or slowing down of the rate of population growth, changes in population structure, or changes in spatial distribution. The elements of policies designed to meet these varied objectives are described, including economic measures such as the provision of health, education, and child care services at reduced or no cost, tax incentives, child allowances; and legal measures, such as laws designed to protect the family and control employment. The need to develop public opinion to support population policies is noted. Problems concerning the evaluation of the impact of such policies are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30677 Keyfitz, Nathan. Why population policy is not always effective. Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 2, No. 2, ISBN 2-87085-045-X. Feb 1985. 57-72 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The reasons why population policies are difficult to evaluate are discussed. It is the author's assertion that these policies concern two overlapping but incompatible subsystems, involving the objectives of the state and those of individual families. He also shows that population policy goals can be in conflict with the goals of other social policies. The situation is further complicated by lack of knowledge about how to connect a selected objective with a specific instrument of policy and by the tendency of policy measures to generate unforeseen results. The geographical scope of the study is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30678 Lal, Sheo K.; Chandani, Ambika. India's population policy: critical issues for future. LC 87-904318. 1987. xxiv, 180 pp. Twenty-First Century Publishers: Meerut, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of 21 papers by various authors that were presented at a seminar entitled India's Population Policy: Critical Issues for Future, held at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, November 16-18, 1985. The papers are grouped under three main headings: critical issues concerning national population policy, population control, and family welfare; population dynamics and development, population processes, environment, and quality of life; and population education. Special lectures are included on population education, health and nutrition in planned and unplanned families, and data collection in the census.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30679 Livenais, Patrick. Scientific population policies? On how to appear to be what one is not...and not to appear to be what one is (J. P. Sartre's definition of hypocrisy). [Les politiques scientifiques de population? Ou "comment etre ce que l'on n'est pas...et ne pas etre ce que l'on est" (definition de l'hypocrisie de J. P. Sartre).] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 2, No. 4, ISBN 2-87085-094-8. Nov 1986. 53-85 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author suggests that most of the population policies in developing countries since World War II are based on unproven scientific argument. Such arguments disguise the inadequacy of current knowledge concerning the relationship between population and development. He notes that the practical implication of such policies has generally been confined to the creation of a family planning program designed to reduce fertility. The need for the development of a new politically oriented demography is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30680 Mali. Direction Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Informatique (Bamako, Mali); Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD] (Yaounde, Cameroon). Proceedings of the national seminar on population policies in Mali (Bamako, March 22-26, 1983). [Actes du seminaire national sur les politiques de population au Mali (Bamako, 22-26 mars 1983).] [1983]. 432 pp. Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of the first seminar on population policy held in Bamako, Mali, in March 1983. The objectives of the seminar were to examine the administrative implications of integrating demographic considerations into the development process and to increase awareness among planners, decision makers, and researchers of the need to develop, implement, and evaluate population policies in the context of development.
Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

54:30681 O'Haire, Hugh. The "land of a thousand hills" adopts a population policy. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 26-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Population growth and the recent adoption of a population policy in Rwanda are discussed. The author notes the influence of the Catholic church and traditional Rwandan values on the country's previous reluctance to develop such a policy. A review of the government's efforts, including the formation of its planning agency, l'Office National de la Population (ONAPO), is followed by an interview with the director of the agency, Madame Habimana Gaudence.
Correspondence: H. O'Haire, Populi, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30682 Pelet, Jean-Marie. Updating of the tables from the study by J. C. Chasteland. Population policies in the third world eight years after Bucharest: hopes and realities. [Mise a jour des tableaux de l'etude de J. C. Chasteland. Les politiques de population dans le Tiers Monde huit ans apres Bucarest: espoirs et realites.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 2, No. 3, Jul 1986. 73-86 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author provides updates for 1985 for eight tables published in an earlier study by Jean-Claude Chasteland concerning perceptions and realities of population dynamics in developing countries. Information is presented in tabular form on perceived and observed rates of population growth, population policies, quantitative goals for fertility reduction, official government positions on observed life expectancies and fertility rates, access to family planning, and government viewpoints concerning population distribution and migration. Some of the data are provided for regions of the world and some for selected developing countries.
For the article by Chasteland, published in 1984, see 49:30654.
Correspondence: J.-M. Pelet, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30683 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Case studies in population policy: Kuwait. Population Policy Paper, No. 15; ST/ESA/SER.R/82, 1988. viii, 59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This publication is one in a series of country case studies being prepared by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat that focus on selected issues in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies in various developing and developed countries." The present study concerns Kuwait and is based on censuses for selected years from 1957 to 1985. "In most developing countries, population growth is due to relatively high fertility [but] in Kuwait, it is the increasing rate of in-migration that is responsible....Economic as well as social factors have led to the creation of a national minority in Kuwait. This study investigates many of the State's pronatalist policies, which have sought to encourage a rise in Kuwaiti fertility rates, and its labour policies, which have attempted to curb the increase in foreign migrants to the country." Some suggestions for policy reform are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30684 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). International co-operation in the area of population. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 21-22, 1988. 70-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Official government responses collected in a 1983 U.N. survey concerning experiences with and perceived needs for cooperation in population programs are discussed. "This paper analyses in detail the responses received, on a regional and interregional basis, and derives...a pattern of past and future population technical co-operation priorities that correlates well across most regions as well as with the statement of priorities issued in the Report of the International Conference on Population. For example, all of the major developing regions except Asia and the Pacific assigned highest priority to basic demographic data collection, analysis, and associated training, leading to the formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies and programmes, while the area of family planning programmes was ranked lowest in priority, except in the Asia and Pacific region."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

54:30685 Anichkin, A. B. Demographic policy in France. [Demograficheskaya politika vo Frantsii.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 14, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 74-82 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The pronatalist policies that have been adopted in France over the past century are described. The author notes that the original policy approach, involving the prohibition of contraception and abortion, was succeeded by an approach based on encouraging births through family allowances. The author estimates that the pronatalist measures adopted have increased the fertility rate by about 10 percent.
Correspondence: A. B. Anichkin, Institute of Sociological Research, ul Krzhizhanovskogo 24/35 korpus 5, 117259 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30686 Chaudhry, Mahinder. Population policy and fertility behavior in India. May 1988. iii, 122 pp. Royal Military College of Canada: Kingston, Canada. In Eng.
The effect of India's voluntary family planning program of fertility behavior is examined. Data are from national censuses and other official sources and cover the period 1951-1984, with some comparative figures from selected earlier years; projections up to the year 2000 are also included. Variables affecting fertility behavior are discussed, including mean age at marriage, widow remarriage, contraceptive use, coital frequency, age-sex composition, induced abortion, and sterility. There is also a brief analysis of son preference in India. The author finds that although India's birth rate has stalled since the mid-1970s, "the cumulative total of the births averted up to 1984-85 exceeds 68 million; and the contraceptive protection is enjoyed by over one-third of all the eligible couples (those with wives in the age group of 15-44 years) out of a total of 126 million. The population policy is considered a qualified success." Predictions for future trends in India's population growth rate are included for state and Union territories.
Correspondence: M. Chaudhry, Department of Political and Economic Science, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 5L0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30687 David, Henry P.; Fleischhacker, Jochen; Hohn, Charlotte. Abortion and eugenics in Nazi Germany. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 81-112, 220-2 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article reviews and summarizes widely scattered evidence on abortion and eugenics in Nazi Germany. Following an overview of abortion legislation from the beginnings of the German Reich through the Weimar Republic and a brief perspective on the birth control movement, sex education, and contraception, consideration is given to the influence of demographic trends and notions of eugenics and racial hygiene in evolving population policy. The Nazi years are then discussed in terms of abortion and birth control policies and practice in the period 1933-39 and in the war years 1939-45. The former period was characterized by the suppression of the birth control movement, increasing restrictions on grounds for legal abortion, and severe penalization of performers of illegal abortions. During the war, racial grounds were virtually the only basis for legal abortion, numbers of illegal abortions rose abruptly, and penalties were severe. Experiences in neighboring occupied countries mirrored, with some variation, the German policies and practices."
Correspondence: H. P. David, Transnational Family Research Institute, 8307 Whitman Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30688 Festy, Patrick. Fertility and demographic policy in Eastern Europe. [Fecondite et politiques demographiques en Europe de l'Est.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 2, No. 3, Jul 1986. 7-51 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends and policies in Eastern Europe since World War II are examined. Particular attention is given to demographic changes associated with policy changes intended to liberalize or restrict abortions. The efficacy of pronatalist policies is critically assessed.
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30689 Ryabushkin, T. V. Population policy in a Socialist society. [Demograficheskaya politika sotsialisticheskogo obshchestva.] LC 87-120466. 1986. 190 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of essays by various authors dealing with theoretical and practical issues concerning population policies in Socialist countries. The emphasis is on the effectiveness of alternative methods designed to optimize demographic trends, particularly those designed to raise fertility. The experience of Socialist countries in implementing such policies is described. Sections are included on population theory, policy evaluation, and regional aspects of population policy.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

54:30690 Blanchet, Didier. Regulating the age structure of a population through immigration. [Immigration et regulation de la structure par age d'une population.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 293-309 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper examines the consequences of a demographic policy which would use migration as a means to control the ratio of the working age population to the population of retirees. It is shown that, if such a policy aims at a short term stabilization of this ratio (by allowing each year the number of immigrants which exactly compensates for retirements) it generates waves of immigration of an increasing amplitude, both in terms of crude numbers of immigrants and in terms of immigration rates. This result is demonstrated analytically with two models, one in discrete time, with four generations, and one in continuous time. It is then illustrated by some projections made for the French case."
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30691 Courgeau, Daniel. Policies of spatial population redistribution. [Politiques de redistribution spatiale de la population.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 2, No. 1, ISBN 2-87085-042-5. Jan 1985. 80 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Population redistribution policies and factors influencing them are examined using examples from tribal, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial societies. Policy objectives and types of policies, including both direct and indirect measures, are identified. The effectiveness of spatial redistribution policies is assessed. A presentation by Hubert Gerard (pp. 5-7) and comments by Jacques Henripin (pp. 71-7) are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30692 Hammar, Tomas. European immigration policy: a comparative study. Comparative Ethnic and Race Relations, ISBN 0-521-26326-3. LC 84-17477. 1985. xi, 319 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book presents a comparative analysis of immigration policy in six countries: Sweden, the Netherlands, Great Britain, France, Switzerland and the Federal Republic of Germany....These six countries...have all experienced large-scale postwar immigration, and they exemplify a range of different policy responses." The first part of the book consists of six case studies of the countries concerned, written in a common format by different authors. The second part presents a comparative analysis that deals with economy and ideology, immigration regulation, immigrant policy, the policy-making process, and efforts toward convergence.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30693 Kim, Won Bae. Population redistribution policy in Korea: a review. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1988. 49-77 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper reviews Korean policies and programs for population redistribution, assesses their effects in redressing the three major spatial imbalances--between urban and rural, between regions, and between cities of different sizes--and draws lessons for policy formation in [the Republic of] Korea as well as in other countries which are considering such a policy." Data are from official and other published sources and concern rural-urban income differentials; provincial shares of production, population, and employment, 1960-1980; urban population growth by city; and manufacturing composition, growth, and spatial patterns by subsector, 1966-1981.
Correspondence: W. B. Kim, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30694 Koot, Willem. West Indians in the Netherlands: prospects of return. [Les Antillais aux Pays-Bas: perspectives de retour.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1987. 117-27 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The return migration policy of the Netherlands and the probability of its success are assessed, with the focus on migrants from the Netherlands Antilles. Factors associated with return migration are studied using data from a sample survey and from other published sources. Age, educational status, and social welfare in the Netherlands show significant correlations with desire to return to the Netherlands Antilles. "Those who have actually returned belong to the higher social strata of the migrant group; having a job in the West Indies matters much more to them than housing conditions....It is concluded that the Netherlands should increase their financial contribution to the system of social welfare in the West Indies and even more so to the economic development of these islands."
Correspondence: W. Koot, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30695 Kritz, Mary M. International migration policies: conceptual problems. International Migration Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, Winter 1987. 947-64 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article has examined how states approach migration and how they define who is a migrant. Policy modes toward three types of immigration were examined--permanent, temporary, and illegal--for selected countries." Data are from official and other published sources. The lack of published material on migrant definitions used by states is noted, and some recommendations for improving the data base on international migration are made.
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Population Sciences, Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30696 Poulain, Michel. The measurement of international migration in Belgium. International Migration Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, Winter 1987. 1,107-37 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines legislation affecting international migration in Belgium, from the perspective of two questions: 1) What types of migrants are definable by legislation? and 2) What kinds of documents may be utilized to compile statistics on international migration?" Attention is given to several categories of aliens, including privileged foreigners; foreign nationals from EEC member countries; refugees; and foreign students. The measurement of international migration on the basis of census data and annual population registers is examined.
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Institut de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.