Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

54:30654 Halter, William A.; Hemming, Richard. The impact of demographic change on social security financing. International Monetary Fund Staff Papers, Vol. 34, No. 3, Sep 1987. 471-502 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relationship between prospective demographic changes and social security tax rates over the long term is examined for four countries--the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Through use of a simple projection model it is shown that, without significant reform, social security programs as constituted in 1980 would have implied substantial increases in social security tax rates by the year 2025 in all four countries. The model is then used to explore how a range of policy options would affect the evolution of tax rates. Recent policy measures taken in each of the countries can be summarized in terms of the model, and it is shown that these measures lead to markedly lower tax rates than with unreformed programs, although the tax rate in Germany will remain high."
Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

54:30655 Poulain, Michel. Population and social welfare: Floreffe. [Population et aide sociale: Floreffe.] ISBN 2-8041-1044-3. 1988. 95 pp. Fondation Roi Baudouin: Brussels, Belgium; De Boeck Universite: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This is one in a series of reports analyzing the social, economic, and cultural effects of current demographic trends at the local level in Belgium, with the aim of giving local policymakers a basis for decisions concerning infrastructure, education, and administration. The emphasis of this report is on the relationship between demography and social welfare, using the commune of Floreffe as an example. A demographic analysis of the commune is presented, and the system of social welfare is described. The relationship between demographic factors and the social services is discussed, for both the present and the future.
For a related report by the same author, also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30656 Sembajwe, Israel. The impact of rapid population growth on school enrolments in southern Africa. Working Papers in Demography, No. 5, Oct 1985. vi, 38 pp. National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics, Demography Unit: Maseru, Lesotho. In Eng.
"This study illustrates the impact of rapid population growth on school enrolments in the Southern African states which are members [of the U.N. Economic Commission for Africa]. It also highlights the importance of incorporating population variables in planning for education." The geographical focus is on the states of Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland. The author concludes that "the three Southern African States have made important steps towards universal primary education and more expanded secondary and higher education enrolments....but due to rapid population growth there may still be several thousand children without access to primary school education by the year 2000."
Correspondence: I. Sembajwe, National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics, Demography Unit, P.O. Roma 180, Maseru, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30657 Wood, Charles H.; de Carvalho, Jose A. M. The demography of inequality in Brazil. Cambridge Latin American Studies, No. 67, ISBN 0-521-35174-X. LC 87-32991. 1988. xii, 303 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book examines how transformations in Brazil's social, economic and political organization affect the demographic behaviour of people who live in different parts of the country and who occupy different positions in the social system. The authors review the history of unequal development and document the concentration of income and land ownership. Using data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses, they show how the Brazilian style of economic growth unequally affected different population subgroups. Mortality estimates for white and nonwhite people measure the consequences of racial inequality on the life chances of children. Other chapters investigate rural out-migration, the impact of Amazon colonization schemes on rural poverty, and the implications of differential rates of population growth among rich and poor households for future patterns of inequality and underemployment. The overall perspective places the concept of inequality at the centre of the study of demographic and structural change."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

54:30658 Johnson, Stanley P. China, the United States and the United Nations. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 47-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The issues surrounding the dispute between China, the United States, and the United Nations over UNFPA involvement in China's one-child policy and family planning program are discussed. Consideration is given to factors leading to the partial withdrawal of U.S. funding to UNFPA in 1985 and 1986; the effects of China's population policy on fertility; the general demographic situation in China today; and the extent to which China's population control measures could be used by other countries. Data are from official and other published sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30659 Kahn, Joan R.; Mason, William M. Political alienation, cohort size, and the Easterlin hypothesis. American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Apr 1987. 155-69 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Easterlin argues that his cohort crowding explanation of temporal variability in fertility trends applies to divorce, suicide, crime and political alienation. Using two commonly employed survey items held to measure political alienation, we show that Easterlin's argument does not account for temporal variability in alienation between 1952 and 1980 in the United States. In addition, we find that a period basis, as distinguished from an age, cohort, or more elaborate basis, suffices to describe swings in alienation for the years under consideration....The issues associated with the rise of political alienation in the 1960s were primarily political and social, not economic, as would be required by a generic cohort crowding hypothesis." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: W. M. Mason, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30660 Rouyer, Alwyn R. Political capacity and the decline of fertility in India. American Political Science Review, Vol. 81, No. 2, Jun 1987. 453-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"With data from 15 Indian states, in this study I demonstrate that political capacity, defined as the ability of government to penetrate society and extract resources, has a more significant--though indirect--effect on fertility behavior than does level of economic development. A path-analysis model with six variables--crude birth rate (the dependent variable), family-planning-program effort, mean female age at marriage, physical-quality-of-life index (PQLI), income per capita, and political capacity--showed a strong indirect effect by the political-capacity measure on fertility decline through both the PQLI and family-planning effort. Within the model, income per capita had little effect on birth rate or any of the intervening variables. The conclusion drawn is that under conditions of economic backwardness as exist in India, it is politics, not economics, that is the primary determinant of fertility patterns."
Correspondence: A. A. Rouyer, Department of Political Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:30661 Bogdanov, Zdravko. Possibilities and problems of studying health status by means of population censuses. [Vazmozhnosti i problemi za izuchavane na zdravnoto sastoyanie pri prebroyavaniyata na naselenieto.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1987. 100-5 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Problems concerning the measurement of the health status of Bulgaria's population are described. In particular, the author assesses the use of census data for this purpose. The use of surveys to collect health status data to supplement census data is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30662 Breckenridge, Mary B.; Tallia, Alfred F.; Like, Robert C. Display of small-area variation in health-related data: a methodology using resistant statistics. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1988. 141-51 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We present a methodology based on exploratory data analysis (EDA) techniques that we have found useful in examining health-related data for our ambulatory care catchment area. Our examples use three population characteristics that have major implications for health care planning for the elderly: 1970-1980 change in population aged 65+; the percent of the population aged 65+ below poverty level; and the percent of single-person households among households with one or more persons aged 65+....Comparison of maps based on the EDA techniques and maps based on several traditional methods of value classing for the same data illustrates the influence of classing choices on the interpretation of cartographic displays of health-related data." Data are from the 1980 census and concern 25 municipalities in Middlesex County, New Jersey.
Correspondence: M. B. Breckenridge, Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30663 Breckenridge, Mary B.; Like, Robert C. Practical applications of demography in community-oriented primary care. In: Community-oriented primary care: from principle to practice, edited by Paul A. Nutting. Pub. Order No. HRS-A-PE 86-1. 1987. 90-108 pp. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This chapter, part of a book on community-oriented primary care (COPC), demonstrates how demographic information and data analysis techniques can be used by health-care professionals and administrators. It focuses on "techniques for making the readily available demographic information more useful to you as you consider moving into a COPC mode of practice. The age and sex composition of one New Jersey county's population provides the examples of simple pencil-and-paper graphics--age histograms, box-and-whiskerplots, stem-and-leaf displays--that draw your attention to similarities and differences. The chapter gives step-by-step instructions for these graphic techniques so you will be able to apply them to pertinent epidemiological and other health-related data for a community of your choice."
Correspondence: M. B. Breckenridge, Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30664 Hull, Terence H. Plague in Java. In: Death and disease in Southeast Asia, edited by Norman G. Owen. Southeast Asia Publications Series, No. 14, ISBN 0-19-588853-7. 1987. 210-34 pp. Oxford University Press: Singapore. In Eng.
The spread and eventual containment of the bubonic plague in Java, Indonesia, is discussed, using official data for the period 1910-1939. The disease is tracked from its outbreak in 1910 through a remission period and periods of higher activity, with an emphasis on the geographic pattern of its spread. Government response and the effects of the disease on the public health system are noted, as are the influence of government home sanitation policies concerning the plague on family health and infant mortality in subsequent years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30665 Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil F.; Goihman, Samuel; de Paiva, Elias R.; Leser, Walter. Haenszel's standardized coefficient of lost years of life: a comparison with the standardized coefficient of general mortality with regard to its use as a health level indicator for populations. [Coeficiente padronizado de anos de vida perdidos, de Haenszel. Comparacao com o coeficiente padronizado de mortalidade geral, quanto a utilizacao como indicador de nivel de saude de populacoes.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1987. 108-22 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The authors apply the Lost Years of Life Rate (LYLR) developed by Haenszel in 1950 to data from various countries, and more specifically to data from the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. They conclude that the LYLR is in many cases a more useful indicator of the health level of a population than is the Standardized Mortality Ratio.
Correspondence: Y. Juliano, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva da Escola Paulista de Medicina, Rua Botucatu 740, 04023 Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30666 Lacoste-Dujardin, C. Fertility and contraception in the Maghrib. [Fecondite et contraception au Maghreb.] Famille et Population, No. 5-6, 1987. 37-47 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ara.
The cultural and historical factors that have contributed to poor maternal health in the countries of Northern Africa are described. The consequent low level of maternal health in the region is identified as a major obstacle with regard to change in family planning in the region.
Correspondence: C. Lacoste-Dujardin, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 295 Rue Saint Jacques, F-75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30667 Ramirez, Nelson; Duarte, Isis; Gomez, Carmen. Population and health in the Dominican Republic. [Poblacion y salud en la Republica Dominicana.] IEPD Estudio, No. 5, Dec 1986. 158 pp. Profamilia, Instituto de Estudios de Poblacion y Desarrollo [IEPD]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
This study is concerned with the relationship between health and population factors in the Dominican Republic. Chapters are included on methodological aspects, the relationship between population trends and the health situation, factors affecting health, health service needs from 1990 to 2000, and conclusions and recommendations. Data are from a variety of local primary and secondary sources.
Correspondence: IEPD de Profamilia, Calle Dr. Pineyro No. 160, Apartamento 302, Apartado Postal 1053, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: New York Public Library.

54:30668 Rosenberg, Michael J. Smoking and reproductive health. ISBN 0-88416-549-3. LC 86-25604. 1987. xvi, 239 pp. PSG Publishing: Littleton, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This collection of 38 papers by various authors is the product of the International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health held in San Francisco, California, in 1985. The primary focus is on reproductive problems associated with smoking. "These problems include contraindication to use of certain contraceptives, impaired conception and fetal development, and problems with delivery, infant development, and cancers of the reproductive system." Secondary considerations include the effectiveness of smoking prevention programs and the provision of a forum for presenting the interests of nonsmokers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30669 Sagan, Leonard A. The health of nations: true causes of sickness and well-being. ISBN 0-465-02893-4. LC 87-47518. 1987. 233 pp. Basic Books: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is a book about health, about its meaning, and about its sources." The author's theme is that although the increase in human life expectancy of about 40 years associated with modernization is one of the most remarkable events in human history, we know very little about the causes of this increase. He demonstrates that many of the popular beliefs concerning the causes of increased life expectancy have little or no basis in fact. He also examines the health experience of the United States, particularly reasons for the failure of U.S. mortality rates to keep pace with those of other developed countries. The author concludes that the modern rise in life expectancy is not due primarily to the provision of better medical care, nutrition, or clean water. "More important in explaining the decline in death worldwide is the rise of hope and the decline in despair and hopelessness." The implications for the individual and society and particularly for the provision of public health and research in the United States are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

54:30670 Masaki, Motofumi. The effect of migration on maximum opportunity for selection. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 337-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effect of migration on the maximum opportunity for selection is analysed using koseki data, the Japanese family registration records, of a village population in a small island. When selection intensity is divided into two components, migration greatly influences the variance of the mortality component of the original formula. The difference in selection intensity, with and without allowance for migration, is conspicuous in the recent cohort; the intensity, with a migration component, shows a consistent increase, whereas it declined in the original formula. The implications of this are discussed in the context of the genetic structure of a population of small size, changing rapidly over time."
Correspondence: M. Masaki, Center for Demographic and Population Genetics, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.