Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

54:30558 Adams, John S. Housing America in the 1980s. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-003-7. LC 86-42950. 1987. xviii, 328 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, undertaken for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is one in a series of volumes presenting analyses of the results of the 1980 U.S. census. "This book describes and analyzes the housing portion of the U.S. settlement landscape during the early 1980s....[The] introductory chapter examines part of the recent history of U.S. housing, especially since 1960. Chapter 2 explores the meaning of housing in America--as shelter, as home, as store of wealth for households, as tax base for local governments, as status symbol for the middle class, and as an element of inclusion and weapon of exclusion in neighborhood and community life. Chapter 3 describes the U.S. housing stock--its volume, composition, and geographical distribution. Chapter 4 retreats the nature of housing demand....Chapter 5 explores how households of various types are matched with housing units throughout the United States. This national and regional treatment is followed by small-area analysis in Chapter 6....Chapter 7 reviews some persistent contemporary housing policy questions and related governmental responses."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30559 Day, Lincoln H. Numerical declines and older age structures in European populations: an alternative perspective. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 139-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The issues surrounding fertility decline and demographic aging in Europe are discussed. The author asserts that "the numerical declines and older age structures anticipated offer two potential benefits: First, a period of lessened pressure from population growth could provide...an improved quality of life by bringing consumption patterns into better alignment with ecological reality. Second..., a shift in age structure could possibly result in reduced demands on resources and could, in fact, provide less support for the general ethic of economic growth itself."
Correspondence: L. H. Day, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, POB 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30560 Japan. Policy Office for the Aged (Tokyo, Japan). Aging in Japan. 1983. 45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Demographic aging in Japan is reviewed using official statistics. Following a historical survey of trends since the mid-nineteenth century, attention is given to the situation in the early 1980s with regard to health and welfare, family and housing, economic factors, and employment and social integration. A section is included on Japan's policies affecting the aged.
Correspondence: Policy Office for the Aged, Prime Minister's Secretariat, Japanese Government, 1-6-1 Chiyoda-ku, Nagata-cho, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30561 Jelonek, Adam. On the sex and age structure of the population of Czechoslovakia. [O strukturze plci i wieku ludnosci Czechoslowacji.] Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, Prace Geograficzne, No. 66, 1986. 93-102 pp. Krakow, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic trends in Czechoslovakia since World War II are analyzed. Changes in the age and sex structure of the population by republic and by major ethnic group are described.
Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

54:30562 Jucovschi, V.; Ghenciu, G.; Balaci, M.; Popescu, C. Social gerontology and the demography of the elderly. [Gerontologia sociala si demografia virstei a treia.] Viitorul Social, Vol. 80, May-Jun 1987. 211-20 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Demographic aging and its consequences in Romania for the period 1930-2025 are analyzed using official data. Particular attention is paid to changes in the population over age 80. The activities and research of the National Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30563 Kong, Sae-Kwon; Kim, Cho-Kang. Demographic aspects of aging in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1987. 171-85 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic aging in the Republic of Korea is discussed, and social welfare needs of the aged are identified. Particular concerns related to longer female life expectancy are noted.
Correspondence: S.-K. Kong, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30564 Lopez, A. D. Demographic aspects of population aging in developed countries. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, 1987. 195-205 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"There has been a dramatic growth of the elderly (aged 60+) population in the developed countries since 1950. By the year 2000, roughly 20% of the population in these countries will belong to the aged. Women far outnumber men among the elderly due to differential mortality trends between the sexes. Male life expectancy at age 60 varies from 19.1 years in Japan to 14.6 years in Hungary. Among females, the range is from 23.2 years (Canada) to 18.4 years (Romania). Mortality rates have declined dramatically in several countries since 1970 due primarily to declines in death rates from ischaemic heart disease and stroke."
Correspondence: A. D. Lopez, World Health Organization, CH1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30565 Markides, Kyriakos S.; Mindel, Charles H. Aging and ethnicity. Sage Library of Social Research, Vol. 163, ISBN 0-8039-2728-2. LC 86-13910. 1987. 270 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this book is to attempt to synthesize social gerontological literature on America's major ethnic groups in order to make it more accessible to scholars and students." Chapters are included on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, mortality and health, and family structure and family relations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30566 Rosenwaike, Ira; Logue, Barbara. The extreme aged in America: a portrait of an expanding population. Contributions to the Study of Aging, No. 3, ISBN 0-313-24857-5. LC 85-8014. 1985. xxi, 253 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This study, based on data from official sources, is concerned with the U.S. population over age 85, the fastest-growing segment of the elderly population, which numbered around two and a half million in 1980. The study looks first at the expansion of the extreme aged population and assesses the reliability of available demographic data. A demographic profile, presented in the next seven chapters, reveals a population differing markedly from other Americans and significantly from other groups of older Americans. Included in the profile are data on age and sex distribution; race, ethnic group, and national origin; geographic distribution; social and economic characteristics; living arrangements; health status; and mortality patterns and life expectancy. International comparisons and population projections are also offered, and implications for national policy are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30567 Serow, William J.; Sly, David F.; Wrigley, J. Michael. Population aging in the United States. [1987]. vii, 169 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
Demographic aging in the United States is analyzed using data from official and other published sources. Separate consideration is given to trends in population aging; population distribution and migration; family, household, and housing characteristics; socioeconomic aspects; and the health status of the older population. Some policy implications are discussed.
Correspondence: Center for the Study of Population, College of Social Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:30568 Carson, Sandra A. Sex selection: the ultimate in family planning. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jul 1988. 16-9 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The author critically examines the efficacy of various preconceptual sex selection methods. "Sex preselection methods can be divided into three general groups: (1) dietary methods, (2) in vivo methods designed to produce conditions optimum for fertilization by either the X- or Y-bearing sperm, and (3) in vitro sperm separation methods designed to enrich semen into either X- or Y-bearing sperm....[The author concludes that] in none of these techniques have rigorous studies been conducted. No controlled studies have been reported, and follow-up is not sufficiently rigorous to offer confidence that cases are not lost to follow-up."
Correspondence: S. A. Carson, 956 Court D324, Memphis, TN 38163. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30569 Chahnazarian, Anouch; Blumberg, Baruch S.; London, W. Thomas. Hepatitis B and the sex ratio at birth: a comparative analysis of four populations. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 357-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The relationship between hepatitis B infection in parents and the sex ratio at birth of their offspring is examined in four populations. The hepatitis B carrier state in parents may increase the sex ratio of their offspring, but it seems that immunization against hepatitis B is unlikely to affect the sex ratio at birth of future generations." The data are from Greece, the Philippines, Greenland, and Papua New Guinea.
Correspondence: A. Chahnazarian, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30570 Cravioto, Patricia; Cravioto, Joaquin; Bravo, Gustavo; Fernandez, Guadalupe; Sanchez, Bertha G.; Galvan, Fernando; Mendoza, Mauricio. Age of menarche in a rural population: accuracy of records four years later. [Edad de la menarquia en un poblado rural: exactitud del recordatorio cuatro anos despues.] Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico, Vol. 44, No. 10, Oct 1987. 589-93 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The accuracy of recall of age at menarche after four years is examined using data for 85 girls with known menarcheal ages who were living in a rural area of Mexico. Significant differences between recalled and actual age at menarche are noted, and the implications for studies on this topic are considered.
Correspondence: J. Cravioto, Av. IMAN No. 1, Colonia Camisetas, C.P. 14 410, Mexico D.F., Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30571 Jayasekara, R.; Goonewardene, S. The influence of socio-economic factors on mean age of menarche in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Medical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, Jun 1987. 89-94 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The effects of socioeconomic factors on the age of menarche in Sri Lanka are studied in 3,967 Sinhalese girls in Colombo to ascertain the role of environment on the onset of menarche. The mean age of menarche in this group was found to be about 13.06 years and was unaffected by father's occupation, family size, or birth order. A trend toward earlier age at menarche over time was noted.
Correspondence: R. Jayasekara, Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, 94 Cumaratunga Munidasa Mawatha, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30572 Moore, Dan H.; Gledhill, Barton L. How large should my study be so that I can detect an altered sex ratio? Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jul 1988. 21-5 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
"The authors present simple, nontechnical reference tables for determination of the minimum sample size necessary to detect a change in sex ratio (1) from a theoretical value, and (2) between two experimental populations. Simple methods for analyzing the results of gender manipulation experiments are described. Technical details are included in a separate section."
Correspondence: D. H. Moore, Biomedical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-452, University of California, P.O. Box 5507, Livermore, CA 94550. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30573 Rajangam, Sayee; Thomas, I. M. Menarche and menopause in Tamil Brahmins of India. Man in India, Vol. 67, No. 3, Sep 1988. 264-75 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
Age at menarche and menopause among the Tamil Brahmins of Bangalore, India, are analyzed using data on 295 women aged 25-70. Attention is given to the effect of consanguinity, socioeconomic status, family size, and birth order.
Correspondence: S. Rajangam, Division of Human Genetics, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore 560 034, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30574 Rex-Kiss, Bela; Szabo, Raffael. Data on the development of the sex ratio of the newborn (the secondary sex ratio) in Hungary. [Adatok az ujszulottek nemi aranyanak (szekunder sex rationak) alakulasahoz Magyarorszagon.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1987. 52-75 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in the sex ratio in Hungary are analyzed using official data for the period 1946-1984. Consideration is given to differences in the sex ratio by place of residence, parity, and legitimacy. The impact of late fetal deaths and spontaneous abortions on the sex ratio is considered. It is noted that the sex ratio has declined since 1975. The authors suggest that although the impact of late fetal mortality on the sex ratio is minimal, the impact of spontaneous abortions is significant.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30575 Sepetliev, Dimitar. Statistical methods for studying the biological and social characteristics of the Bulgarian population. [Statisticheski metodi za izuchavane na biologichnata i sotsialnata kharakteristika na naselenieto v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1987. 93-9 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author proposes a methodology for analyzing the biological and social characteristics of the population of Bulgaria using data from the 1985 census. The characteristics considered include the health status of the population and its labor force potential.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

54:30576 David, Martin H.; Menchik, Paul L. Changes in cohort wealth over a generation. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1988. 317-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Empirical computation of expected wealth is hampered by two problems: mortality risks vary in the population and over time; and observation of net estates for most cohorts is truncated, as some individuals in a cohort survive the calendar date on which observation is terminated. These two problems are solved in estimating cohort wealth for a sample of Wisconsin taxpayers. Hazard rate models of differential occupational mortality risks were estimated from the occupational information on the tax records. Values of net estate are simulated for individuals in each birth cohort who survived. Survivors have characteristics that imply greater wealth holdings than the deceased in every birth year covered by the study (1890-1924). Because of this, estimates of wealth-age relationships produced by the estate multiplier method for any given year will have a serious downward bias. Longitudinal data imply that dissaving does not occur after age 65."
Correspondence: M. H. David, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30577 Holden, Karen C.; Burkhauser, Richard V.; Feaster, Daniel J. The timing of falls into poverty after retirement and widowhood. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1988. 405-14 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A major concern of workers, even those financially prepared for retirement, is that a small risk of poverty may grow over time. Cross-sectional data showing that older cohorts have higher poverty rates substantiate this concern. Using data from the [U.S.] Retirement History Study, we analyze changes in the hazard of entering poverty as a cohort of elderly couples retire and age and the wives are widowed. The initial fall into poverty among those who were not poor before the husband retired is more closely linked to the event of retirement or widowhood than to the slowly eroding household income over the period of retirement and widowhood. The death of her retired husband puts a wife in economic jeopardy whether this shock occurs one year after his retirement or some years later."
Correspondence: K. C. Holden, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30578 Johnson, Paul. Savings behaviour, fertility and economic development in nineteenth-century Britain and America. Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper, No. 203, Oct 1987. iii, 35 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews evidence that life-cycle saving became the norm in nineteenth-century America, with a consequent fall in fertility and rise in the rate of capital formation, and considers whether a similar transition to life-cycle saving can be observed in nineteenth-century Britain. Although there is extensive evidence of widespread saving by British workers, most of this saving did not fit a life-cycle pattern....The paper concludes that some of the apparent differences between the savings behaviour of British and American workers may be the result of a misreading of U.S. evidence, some may be due to differences in old-age welfare systems, but that the most plausible explanation is that the real income of British workers in this period was substantially below that of their American counterparts." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 6 Duke of York Street, London, SW1Y 6LA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30579 Joshi, Heather. The cash opportunity costs of childbearing: an approach to estimation using British data. Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper, No. 208, Nov 1987. iii, 44 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research: London, England. In Eng.
"The opportunity costs of rearing British children, in terms of cash earnings forgone by their mother, are estimated for a typical family. Data from the 1980 Women and Employment Survey provide estimates for hourly pay as a function of work experience and current hours of work. In addition, these data are used to generate participation and hours profiles for representative women with different numbers of children. These are then combined with the earnings function to simulate lifetime income. The simulations indicate that the earnings forgone as a result of bearing and rearing two children can be decomposed into three effects, of approximately equal magnitude: on participation, hours and pay. These effects exceed the direct costs of children and do not rise proportionally with family size." There is commentary on the contrasts between these findings and those reported in 1985 and 1986 by Calhoun and Espenshade for U.S. mothers.
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 6 Duke of York Street, London SW1Y 6LA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30580 Lam, David. Lorenz curves, inequality, and social welfare under changing population composition. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 10, No. 1, Apr 1988. 141-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the effects of population growth and other demographic changes on the distribution of income by examining Lorenz curves and generalized Lorenz curves produced from combinations of income distributions. The paper shows that when subpopulations have equal means, a number of simple conditions govern the positions of the Lorenz curve for the combined population relative to the Lorenz curves for the subpopulations. These conditions become less regular when the subpopulations have different means, and suggest that a combined distribution will almost never Lorenz-dominate an original distribution. Implications of the results for intertemporal comparisons of social welfare and inequality are discussed. The results are illustrated by comparing income distributions across generations in Brazil."
Correspondence: D. Lam, Department of Economics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30581 Nelissen, J. H. M. Age and income. [Leeftijd en inkomen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1987. 53-71 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this article is to give a picture of and to explain the developments in the age-income profile in the Netherlands. In the first section, the focus is on developments in the distribution of age groups over quintiles. Next the age-income profile is analysed. The cross-sectional profile gives a false impression, however, if one is looking for longitudinal developments. Consequently, age-income profiles for different birth-generations are deduced, an approach which yields a more differentiated picture. By means of a so-called APC-model the changes in the age-income profiles are interpreted."
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30582 Snipp, C. Matthew; Sandefur, Gary D. Earnings of American Indians and Alaskan natives: the effects of residence and migration. Social Forces, Vol. 66, No. 4, Jun 1988. 994-1,008 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of residence in metropolitan areas and migration from nonmetropolitan areas to metropolitan areas [in the United States] on the earnings of American Indian and Alaskan Native householders aged 25-54. The results indicate that: (1) the earnings of metropolitan Indians are markedly higher than those of nonmetropolitan Indians, but the earnings of nonmetropolitan-to-metropolitan migrants are very little more than those of nonmetropolitan stayers; and, (2) the difference in earnings between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Indians is due to better opportunities in metropolitan areas and to the interaction between these opportunities and the higher levels of human capital of metropolitan Indians."
Correspondence: C. M. Snipp, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30583 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Household after-tax income: 1986. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 157, Jun 1988. v, 66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is the seventh in a series presenting estimates of household after-tax income and taxes paid by [U.S.] households....Data from the 1983 Annual Housing Survey, the Income Survey Development Program, and the Internal Revenue Service were combined with the March 1987 Current Population Survey (CPS) data to derive the estimates shown in this report. The main purpose of this report is to provide estimates of year-to-year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30584 Winegarden, C. R. Women's labour force participation and the distribution of household incomes: evidence from cross-national data. Economica, Vol. 54, No. 214, May 1987. 223-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the effects of women's labour force participation on household income inequality. The theoretical background is examined, an econometric model is specified and tested, and a simulation is performed. It is found that the direction and strength of the income distribution effects depend on the level of women's participation. Starting from low levels, a rise in their activity rates intensifies income inequality, but the disequalizing tendency diminishes as participation continues to increase, and is replaced by an equalizing process when high levels of participation are attained."
Correspondence: C. R. Winegarden, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30585 Yotopoulos, Pan A. A "world" distribution of income and of real poverty and affluence. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 3, Autumn 1987. 275-99 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
International comparative estimates of income distribution are formulated using data from household income and expenditure surveys for nine developing and five developed countries. The focus is on a comparison among countries concerning the percentage and number of the affluent and those living in poverty. The results show a decrease since the 1960s in the number of those living in poverty. The significance for economic development of the growth of an affluent population in the developing world is considered.
Correspondence: P. A. Yotopoulos, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30586 Zick, Cathleen D.; Smith, Ken R. Recent widowhood, remarriage, and changes in economic well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 1, Feb 1988. 233-44 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This research examines how changes in family composition due to the death of a spouse, and subsequent remarriage, affect economic status. The results of both descriptive analyses and a test of a simple multivariate model show that the death of a spouse translates into a substantial economic loss, particularly for widows. Furthermore, the economic gains for both widows and widowers who remarry are generally large compared to those of persons who remain widowed for at least five years. A key finding of this work is that the economic situations of the continuously widowed and the remarrying widowed differ markedly throughout their respective spells of widowhood....Data for this investigation come from the 1983 release of the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)."
Correspondence: C. D. Zick, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

54:30587 Bruno, Rosalind R. Educational attainment in the United States: March 1982 to 1985. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 415, Nov 1987. iv, 123 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report contains data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census in March of 1982 to 1985 [concerning]...years of school completed by age, sex, race, and Spanish origin....The detailed tables present data on years of school completed by persons 15 years old and over by age, sex, race, Spanish origin, type of residence, region of residence, occupation, marital status, and education of spouse. Also, summary data are presented for the 15 largest States and metropolitan areas." Time series data are also presented for the period 1940-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30588 de Tray, Dennis. Government policy, household behavior, and the distribution of schooling: a case study of Malaysia. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 303-36 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper sets out a study of one aspect of educational attainment (attendance rates) as a means of assessing for one country how successful educational policy has been as an instrument of change. The country in question is Malaysia, and the policy issue is its government's attempt to alter relative returns to education among segments of the Malaysian population. Beginning shortly after independence, Malaysian policy makers have worked on both the returns and cost side of the education equation to increase the value of education to Malays relative to Malaysians of Chinese or Indian extraction. The work reported herein uses household and community data from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS) to explore decisions families make regarding children's education, especially how those decisions were and can be affected by government policy."
Correspondence: D. de Tray, Development Research Department, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30589 Goldblatt, Peter. Changes in social class between 1971 and 1981: could these affect mortality differences among men of working ages? Population Trends, No. 51, Spring 1988. 9-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The composition of social classes in England and Wales is compared for 1971 and 1981 using data from the 1971 census, the OPCS Longitudinal Study, and a University of Warwick study of industrial occupations. The results indicate that a significant percentage of men were affected by a change of class during this period. The impact of these changes on official measures of health inequality is considered.
Correspondence: P. Goldblatt, Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30590 Houdaille, Jacques. The old bourgeoisie according to Andre Delavenne's genealogical dictionary. [La bourgeoisie ancienne selon le dictionnaire genealogique d'Andre Delavenne.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 311-29 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The genealogical dictionary of the French bourgeoisie published by Andre Delavenne in 1955 is used as a data source for a study of class characteristics in nineteenth-century France. "The professions of the heads of households indicate they were all very well-to-do. Age at marriage was high for men and rather low for women. Fertility declined among couples who were married in about 1740. It rose significantly among couples married in about 1840, and remained higher than the national average until the turn of the century. This population was probably very attached to traditional values, as is shown by the relatively large number of religious vocations in their families. Mortality rates were relatively low but decreased more slowly than the national average."
Correspondence: J. Houdaille, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30591 Mason, Andrew. The transition in education: intergenerational effects. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 42, Mar 1988. vi, 39 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with linking decision-making about schooling to trends in the level and variance of educational attainment and to intergenerational mobility in educational attainment. A simple transition model is presented in which schooling is determined by the educational attainment of one's parents. Educational attainment of successive generations is tracked with attention to three characteristics--mean attainment, the variance of attainment, and the correlation in attainment between parents and their children. The model is applied to the case of Thailand using the results from analysis of enrollment based on the 1981 Socio-Economic Survey."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30592 Stewart, Charles T. Structural change and intergenerational occupational mobility. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jan 1987. 141-57 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
The rapid structural change that accompanies contemporary economic development in the more successful developing countries is analyzed, with particular regard to the initial opportunities for upward social mobility and the subsequent decline in such opportunities as the economy matures. The first part of the paper "presents data on Kuwait illustrating the problem confronting nations whose income is largely derived from oil. More extensive data are presented for Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The second part estimates an equation for predicting the proportion of employment in professional and technical occupations as a function of per capita income. The third part projects the occupational structure required in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan to avoid downward intercohort and intergenerational occupational mobility....The fourth part interprets the results of the preceding section in light of demographic trends." The author concludes that the decline in opportunity for professional and technical occupations combined with the growth in the number of those qualified to perform such jobs may cause major social and political unrest.
Correspondence: C. T. Stewart, Department of Economics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

54:30593 Bean, Frank D.; Tienda, Marta. The Hispanic population of the United States. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-104-1. LC 87-9748. 1987. xxiv, 456 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, undertaken for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 census, is one in a series of volumes concerned with analyses of the results of the 1980 U.S. census. The book begins with a theoretical consideration of Hispanic ethnicity, focusing on the socioeconomic and ethnic differentiation among the three major Hispanic groups, those of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origin. Chapter 2 "is devoted to defining the population and to providing a critical discussion of the data used to portray changes in the characteristics of Hispanic origin peoples....The remainder of the book is dedicated to compiling a comprehensive profile of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the Hispanic origin populations, emphasizing the vast diversity among them through comparisons of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans; Central/South Americans; and, where appropriate, blacks and non-Hispanic whites. The book is organized by subject matter rather than by nationality of the groups." Topics covered include immigration; spatial distribution, internal migration, and segregation; marriage, family, and household; fertility; educational status; labor force participation; and income.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30594 Clark, W. A. V.; Mueller, Milan. Hispanic relocation and spatial assimilation: a case study. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 2, Jun 1988. 468-75 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The relationship between geographical and social mobility among the Hispanic population is examined using data for Los Angeles and Orange County, California, from the Public Use Microdata Files of the 1980 U.S. census. "The research shows that there has been significant growth in suburban Hispanic populations and these populations in general are shown to be better educated and have higher incomes. There is also evidence that the Hispanic population in suburban areas is less segregated than the Hispanic population in central cities."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30595 Cornevin, Marianne. Black populations in South Africa. [Populations noires d'Afrique du Sud.] Afrique Contemporaine, Vol. 26, No. 141, Jan-Mar 1987. 32-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Current population trends among the black population of South Africa are reviewed. The author notes that official data is available for eight different black ethnic groups and for the four racial groups of whites, Coloureds, Indians, and blacks. The exclusion of data for blacks residing in the independent black homelands is noted. Specific attention is paid to the development of an urban black population for whom tribal origins are of diminishing importance and to trends in ethnic intermarriage with other black groups. The implications of this change for the country's future are assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30596 Kozlov, V. I. Processes of ethnic change and population dynamics among the peoples of the USSR. Soviet Anthropology and Archeology, Vol. 26, No. 3, Winter 1987-88. 46-60 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The impact of ethnic changes on the population dynamics of the USSR is analyzed. The primary focus is on the different rates of assimilation of various ethnic groups over time, particularly through marriage. Data are from the Soviet censuses of 1926, 1939, 1959, 1970, and 1979.
This is a translation of a section of the Russian study published in 1982 and cited in 49:30595.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30597 Proebsting, Helmut. Marriages, divorces, births, and deaths of aliens, 1986. [Eheschliessungen, Ehescheidungen, Geburten und Sterbefalle von Auslandern 1986.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 2, Feb 1988. 80-5 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Data on marriages, divorces, births, and deaths for Germans and resident aliens in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented for 1986. Tables provide data by state of residence for couples, 1950-1986; divorce by nationality, 1986; divorce by state of residence, 1977-1986; births, deaths, and birth rates, 1960-1986; legitimate births by parents' residence and illegitimate births by mother's residence, 1960-1986; births by country of origin, including West Germany, 1975-1986; legitimate births by birth order and nationality; age structure, 1985; and projected age structure for the year 2010.
For a previous report concerning 1985, published in 1987, see 53:30653.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30598 Shaw, Chris. Latest estimates of ethnic minority populations. Population Trends, No. 51, Spring 1988. 5-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article gives new estimates of the size and characteristics of the ethnic minority populations of Great Britain derived from the results of the Labour Force Surveys of 1984, 1985 and 1986. Averaged over this period, the size of the ethnic minority population is estimated to have been 2.43 million or 4.5 per cent of the total population of Great Britain."
Correspondence: C. Shaw, Population Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30599 Singh, K. S. The people of India. A national project: its perspectives and prospects. Man in India, Vol. 67, No. 3, Sep 1987. 232-49 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
The author describes the current and planned activities envisaged under the Anthropological Survey of India to survey and study the castes and ethnic groups of contemporary India. Consideration is given to the availability of data on such subjects in the census.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30600 Stuckert, Robert P. Black populations of the Southern Appalachian mountains. Phylon, Vol. 48, No. 2, Summer 1987. 141-51 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The size and characteristics of black populations in the Southern Appalachian region of the United States between 1860 and 1980 are reviewed. Following an overview of the growth of this population, attention is given to the increasing diversity of occupations and to the urbanization of the black population after World War II.
Correspondence: R. P. Stuckert, Department of Sociology, Berea College, Berea, KY 40404. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30601 Tas, Ronald F. J. The population of Surinamese and Antillean origin in the Netherlands, 1971-1986. [La population originaire du Surinam et des Antilles neerlandaises aux Pays-Bas, 1971-1986.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1987. 69-89 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic characteristics of residents of the Netherlands who are of Surinamese or Antillean origin are examined using official data. The size of these migrant groups, age and sex distribution, fertility, mortality, nuptiality, and international migration rates are discussed for the period 1971-1986. Comparisons are made with demographic indicators for the total population of the Netherlands.
Correspondence: R. F. J. Tas, Subdivision of Population Trends, Department for Population Statistics, Central Bureau of Statistics, 428 Prinses Beatrixlaan, P.O. Box 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30602 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1985. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 422, Mar 1988. v, 74 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States. A distinguishing feature of this report is the focus on changes in the social and economic characteristics of Hispanics which have occurred between 1982 and 1985. Most of the data shown in the report were collected in the supplement to the March 1985 Current Population Survey (CPS)....This report contains data for the total Hispanic population and its subgroups--Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and other Spanish origin. Comparable data for the overall population and the non-Hispanic population also are included. The social and economic characteristics presented include age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, family composition and size, income, and poverty status."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30603 Valdes, Luz M.; Menendez, M. Teresa. The dynamics of the Indian-language-speaking people, 1900-1980. [Dinamica de la poblacion de habla indigena, 1900-1980.] Serie Demografia Etnica, ISBN 968-6038-60-4. 1987. 110 pp. Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Population dynamics among the Indian-language-speaking population of Mexico are analyzed using census data, up to and including the 1980 census. The analysis is presented separately at the national level and by state. Extensive tabular data on the various language groups are included.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:30604 van Amersfoort, Hans. Ethnic residential patterns in Dutch cities: class, race, or culture? [Residence et groupes ethniques dans les villes neerlandaises: classe, race, ou culture?] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1987. 91-115 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Settlement patterns of immigrants from Suriname, Turkey, and Morocco living in the Netherlands between 1970 and 1982 are described. The author "explores to what extent general theories about ethnic residential differentiation are corroborated by the ethnic patterns in Dutch cities. On the basis of the literature four 'theories' of ethnic residential differentiation are formulated. It is pointed out that three of these four 'theories' contribute to our understanding of the existing ethnic patterns in Dutch cities, though they certainly do not fit perfectly."
Correspondence: H. van Amersfoort, Institute of Social Geography, University of Amsterdam, 23 Jodenbree Street, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30605 Yuan, D. Y. Chinese-American population. ISBN 962-308-004-2. 1988. xii, 139 pp. UEA Press: Hong Kong. In Eng.
This is a collection of 10 articles, 9 of which have been published previously, on the Chinese-American population of the United States. The primary focus is on the period 1960-1980, although consideration is given to earlier periods. Topics covered include segregation and settlement patterns of Chinese residents in U.S. cities, occupations and labor force participation, suburban and rural populations, and intermarriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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