Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

54:30099 Bhat, Mari P. Mortality in India: levels, trends and patterns. Pub. Order No. DA8725140. 1987. 561 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Intercensal mortality estimation procedures to reduce sensitivity to age misreporting are developed and applied to Indian national data since 1881 and to state-level data since 1951. "We also briefly discuss estimates of the crude birth rate that were obtained as by-product of applying the procedures. Our estimates indicate that both mortality and fertility in India have declined in recent years more rapidly than is commonly believed. According to our estimates, life expectancy at birth increased by about 14 years between 1951-61 and 1971-81. During the same period the crude birth rate is estimated to have fallen by 20 percent." Age- and sex-specific trends and regional variations are noted.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(8).

54:30100 Blum, Alain; Monnier, Alain. Mortality in the USSR. [La mortalite en Union Sovietique.] Population et Societes, No. 223, Apr 1988. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent mortality trends in the USSR are reviewed based on a number of recently published secondary sources. Consideration is given to infant mortality, mortality over age 25, causes of death, and future perspectives.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30101 Brenner, M. Harvey. Economic instability, unemployment rates, behavioral risks, and mortality rates in Scotland, 1952-1983. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1987. 475-87 pp. Farmingdale, New York. In Eng.
"In this article it is demonstrated that, controlling for the significant effects of per capita cigarette, spirits, and fat consumption, and cold winter temperatures, there is in Scotland a significant long-term relation (at least a decade) between cumulative change in unemployment rates and mortality rates--for all causes, for total heart disease, and in particular for ischemic heart disease. Also, the exponential trend in real per capita income is related to mortality declines."
Correspondence: M. H. Brenner, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30102 D'Souza, Stan. Mortality case study Matlab, Bangladesh. ICDDR,B Special Publication, No. 24, LC 86-902788. 1985. 80 pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
This case study of mortality levels and trends in Matlab, Bangladesh, is a product of a joint UN-WHO project. Sex and socioeconomic differentials in mortality, primarily for the 1960s and 1970s, are examined using data from the Demographic Surveillance System and other published sources. Attention is also given to causes of death and to program costs associated with data collection and health intervention. The impact of a tetanus immunization program in Matlab in reducing infant and child mortality is documented.
Correspondence: ICDDR,B, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30103 de Paiva, Elias R.; Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil F.; Leser, Walter. Swaroop and Uemura's proportional mortality ratio: the need for periodic revision of the definition. [Razao de mortalidade proporcional de Swaroop e Uemura: necessidade de revisao periodica de sua definicao.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1987. 90-107 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The authors test the proportional mortality ratio developed by Swaroop and Uemura for those aged 50 and over using data for 34 countries for selected years from 1950 to 1980. They conclude that better discriminatory power between developed and developing countries can be obtained by using the proportional mortality ratio for those aged 75 and over.
Correspondence: E. R. de Paiva, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva da Escola Paulista de Medicina, Rua Botucatu 740, 04023 Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30104 Dmitrieva, R.; Andreev, E. Average life expectancy of the population of the USSR. [O srednei prodolzhitel'nosti zhizni naseleniya SSSR.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 12, 1987. 31-9 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality trends in the USSR from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present day are analyzed, with a focus on changes in life expectancy. The authors note that life expectancy increased up to 1964-1965, declined subsequently, and stabilized during the 1980s. Life expectancy has again started to rise since 1985. More detailed analyses of mortality differentials by sex and age and for the rural and urban populations are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30105 Edlavitch, Stanley A.; Baxter, Judith. Comparability of mortality follow-up before and after the National Death Index. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 127, No. 6, Jun 1988. 1,164-78 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the issue of whether mortality follow-up in epidemiologic studies based on a single state death certificate search using only data available in 1970-1975 can be compared with post-1979 mortality follow-up using the [U.S.] National Death Index. This question was addressed by following a cohort of 2,925 coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease 1980 hospital discharges from 1980 through 1983 with the use of both the National Death Index and the Minnesota Death Index (MINNDEX)....This study...provides evidence that trend analyses relying on single state death searches pre-1979 and on the National Death Index from 1979 are valid, particularly in chronically ill persons."
Correspondence: S. A. Edlavitch, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Stadium Gate 27, 611 Beacon Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:30106 El-Shalakani, Mostafa. Levels of mortality and relative contribution by socio-economic and health related factors in Arab countries. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Dec 1984. 119-50 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present study analyses the relationships between levels of mortality as depicted by life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rate and 8 [socioeconomic and health-related] variables. [A] multiple regression analysis is used to determine the degree to which alternative combinations of these factors are associated with levels of mortality." Data are from official sources for selected Arab countries.
Correspondence: M. El-Shalakani, Kuwait University, P.O.B. 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, MD.

54:30107 Humphreys, Robert. Mortality crises in sixteenth-century Dorking. Local Population Studies, No. 39, Autumn 1988. 46-53 pp. Matlock, England. In Eng.
Burial records from parish registers are used to analyze mortality crises occurring in Dorking, England, in the sixteenth century. The author notes that Malthus lived near Dorking for much of his life and may have consulted Dorking parish registers when formulating his population theories. The focus is on the two mortality crises occurring between 1551 and 1570 and the role played by the relationship between the availability of food and the well-being of the population.
Correspondence: R. Humphreys, Birkbeck College, University of London, Senate House, London WC1E 7HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30108 Jannetta, Ann B. Epidemics and mortality in early modern Japan. ISBN 0-691-05484-3. LC 86-15108. 1987. xxii, 224 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The impact of epidemic diseases on mortality in Japan during the Tokugawa period from 1600 to 1868 is analyzed. The author notes that this period was characterized by relatively low and stable mortality. In contrast to Europe, there is no evidence of bubonic plague; however, smallpox was a major cause of death. The author suggests that Japan's geography and isolation prevented the worst diseases of the early modern world from penetrating the country before the mid-nineteenth century. Data for the study are from medical literature, Buddhist temple registers, and documentary evidence from contemporary Japanese scholars.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30109 John, A. Meredith. Plantation slave mortality in Trinidad. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul 1988. 161-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Recent interest by historians in slavery in the United States, Latin America, and the Caribbean has resurrected questions about the life and death of slaves, first voiced in eighteenth and nineteenth century parliamentary debates on slavery, but largely left unanswered, for want of data or lack of technique. In the present study, upper and lower bounds for period life tables for plantation slaves in Trinidad are estimated from data on 17,087 slaves, collected during the Trinidad slave registrations of 1813 and 1816. In addition, many of the pivotal demographic queries raised during the parliamentary debate on the abolition of the slave trade and the emancipation of slaves are finally resolved by the application of life tables with covariates--hazard models--to the Trinidad slave registration data."
Correspondence: A. M. John, Institute for Population and Resource Studies/Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30110 Kim, Tai-Hun. Mortality transition in Korea: 1960-1980. 1986. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The main objectives of the present study were to ascertain the present situation of [mortality in the Republic of Korea] and to investigate the changing determinants of [the] Korean mortality transition. This study used death registration data in 1970-81 for adult mortality; and the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey data in 1955-73 for infant and childhood (ages 1-4 years) mortality. The differentials in adult mortality by socioeconomic variables were clear and in the expected direction: mortality levels among urban residence, higher educated groups, and non-agricultural workers were lower than among the other sub-groups....On the basis of Korean experience, the changing patterns of demographic and socioeconomic determinants of infant and child mortality are generalized....The pattern of changing determinants of child mortality is nearly the reverse of that of infant mortality."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Australian National University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:30111 Kim, Yoon-Shin. Recent life expectancy of Koreans in Japan, 1980 and 1985. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1987. 39-55 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Two abridged life tables for Koreans living in Japan for 1980 and 1985 are constructed using vital statistics and census data. Among the findings are that "the expectations of life at birth of Korean males in Japan are 68.4 in 1980 and 70.3 in 1985, whereas those values of Korean females in Japan are 78.3 in 1980 and 78.7 in 1985, respectively. Recent life expectancies of Koreans in Japan have come to resemble those of Japanese more than those of Koreans in Korea."
Correspondence: Y.-S. Kim, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30112 McAvinchey, Ian D. A comparison of unemployment, income and mortality interaction for five European countries. Applied Economics, Vol. 20, No. 4, Apr 1988. 453-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between unemployment and health status is examined in a comparative study of five European countries using a time series model. "The hypothesis considered in this paper is that the secular decline in mortality rates can be attributed to the secular rise in real per capita income and that the remaining fluctuations in mortality rates can be explained by cyclical movements in income and variations in unemployment." The data concern the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, and Ireland.
Correspondence: I. D. McAvinchey, Department of Economics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB9 1FX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30113 Pollard, John H. Projection of age-specific mortality rates. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 21-22, 1988. 55-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews a variety of methods that have been suggested, by actuaries and demographers alike, to project age-specific mortality rates: projection by extrapolation of mortality rates (or transformations of mortality rates) at selected ages; projection by reference to a 'law of mortality'; projection by reference to model life tables; projection by reference to another 'more advanced' population; projection by reference to an 'optimal' life table attainable under ideal conditions; projection by cause of death; and combinations of these methods. Examples of the use of these various methods are given, and conclusions are drawn on their respective advantages and disadvantages."
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30114 Ruzicka, Lado T. Long-term changes in Australia: life expectancies. Working Papers in Economic History, No. 87, ISBN 0-86784-819-7. Sep 1987. 18, 4 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Trends in Australian mortality over the past 100 years are analyzed. Consideration is given to period data and life expectancy, health and mortality, and mortality decline and the labor force participation of males.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30115 Ryan, Michael. Life expectancy and mortality data from the Soviet Union. British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6635, May 28, 1988. 1,513-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent official data on mortality in the USSR are summarized. The data concern regional differences in life expectancy and infant mortality as well as age-specific death rates. The author notes that although Soviet mortality trends have begun to improve after worsening in the 1970s and early 1980s, Soviet authorities remain concerned over the need to make further improvements in the health of the population, particularly in comparison with other countries.
Correspondence: M. Ryan, Centre of Russian and East European Studies, University College of Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:30116 Spencer, Byron G.; Winkowska, Irena. Mortality in rural Africa: a multivariate analysis of death in Ethiopia. QSEP Research Report, No. 217, Jan 1988. 27 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
This study provides an analysis of the determinants of mortality in a part of rural Ethiopia that is similar in many important respects to other parts of rural Africa. The empirical work is based on a 1980 survey of 292 households and provides strong evidence that mortality is systematically linked to both distance to the water source and cash income receipt; it is also found that the number of daily trips falls sharply with increasing distance from the water source.
Correspondence: Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Faculty of Social Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30117 Steckel, Richard H. The health and mortality of women and children, 1850-1860. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jun 1988. 333-45 pp. Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
This is an overview of mortality patterns among U.S. women and children during the period 1850-1860. The author examines "health as determined by nonsurvival in manuscript schedules of families matched in successive censuses. Losses were systematically greater for infants of the unskilled and of residents in large cities; for young children who lived on the frontier or had more young siblings; and for women who lived on the frontier or in the South. The findings have implications for fertility studies based on child-woman ratios, estimation of interregional migration, generality of regional mortality studies, slave-white differences in health, the modern rise of population, and wealth estimation from probate records."
Correspondence: R. H. Steckel, Economics Department, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30118 Tango, Toshiro; Kurashina, Shiusuke. Age, period and cohort analysis of trends in mortality from major diseases in Japan, 1955 to 1979: peculiarity of the cohort born in the early Showa era. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 6, Sep 1987. 709-26 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
Reasons for the recent increase in mortality among Japanese men born between 1925 and 1940 are explored. "To elucidate which factors are responsible for these trends, we analysed the mortality data quantitatively applying an age-period-cohort model modified so that period effects remain constant within certain age groups but may vary from one age group to the next." The results indicate that the increase in mortality from selected causes is due to cohort rather than period effects.
Correspondence: T. Tango, Division of Medical Intellectics, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 3-18 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30119 Toole, M. J.; Waldman, R. J. An analysis of mortality trends among refugee populations in Somalia, Sudan, and Thailand. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 66, No. 2, 1988. 237-47 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A review of mortality data from refugee camps in Thailand (1979-80), Somalia (1980-85), and Sudan (1984-85) indicates that crude mortality rates (CMRs) were up to 40 times higher than those for the non-refugee populations in the host countries....Acute respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, malaria, measles, and undernutrition were the causes of most reported deaths, the majority of which could have been prevented by adequate food rations, clean water, measles immunization, and an oral rehydration programme."
Correspondence: M. J. Toole, Division of Evaluation and Research, International Health Program Office, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30120 van Poppel, Frans; Veys, Dion. Mortality trends in the Netherlands and Belgium. [De ontwikkeling van de sterfte in Nederland en Belgie.] Mens en Maatschappij, Vol. 62, No. 2, 1987. 131-52 pp. Deventer, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1950, mortality trends in the Netherlands and Belgium have been very similar; female life expectancy increased sharply, male life expectancy first declined and then rose slightly. In the period studied, mortality rates at young ages declined consistently; at middle age and in old age they first increased, then dropped abruptly. In both countries, there are still large regional, socioeconomic and even ethnic differences. In the near future, life expectancy is expected to continue to rise. This trend will have significant repercussions in the field of family structure."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Nederlands Interuniversitair Demografisch Instituut, POB 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

54:30121 Miller, Michael K.; Stokes, C. Shannon; Warland, Rex H. The effect of legalization and public funding of abortion on neonatal mortality: an intervention analysis. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1988. 79-92 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of the legalization of abortion on neonatal mortality in the United States. Monthly time series data are used to estimate intervention models separately for the U.S. as a whole and for the States of New York and South Carolina. Legalization of abortion in 1973 is found to have no discernible impact on national neonatal mortality rates. However, results from New York and South Carolina, states in which accessibility and public funding of abortion differed markedly, suggest that abortion is significantly related to declines in neonatal mortality, particularly among nonwhites. The magnitude and timing of such impacts varied between races and states."
Correspondence: M. K. Miller, Center for Health Policy Research and Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30122 Parazzini, Fabio; Imazio, Cinzia; Pampallona, Sandro; La Vecchia, Carlo. Trends in perinatal, neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Italy, 1955-84. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 32, No. 6, 1987. 286-90 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Trends in stillbirth and in perinatal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates in Italy from 1955 to 1984 are analyzed using data from official sources. Declines in all the rates over time are noted; all were similar with regard to various indicators of maternal education and social class. The authors conclude that the observed declines were probably due to a general improvement in economic and cultural conditions. A comparison with data from other developed countries indicates that perinatal mortality rates in Italy remain relatively high.
Correspondence: F. Parazzini, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30123 Ventskauskas, A. V.; Dreerene, V. F. Major trends in decreasing prenatal and early infant mortality. [Osnovnye napravleniya snizheniya perinatal'noi i rannei detskoi smertnosti.] Pediatriya, No. 4, 1987. 8-11 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The authors review efforts to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality in the USSR. These include ultrasound screening, prenatal diagnosis of illness, and the development of intensive care units for infants of low birth weight.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

54:30124 Aguirre, Alejandro; Hill, Allan G. Childhood mortality estimates using the preceding birth technique: some applications and extensions. CPS Research Paper, No. 87-2, ISBN 0-902657-19-4. Sep 1987. v, 57 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
A method for estimating an index of early childhood mortality using the preceding birth technique developed by Brass and Macrae is described. Specific theoretical questions concerning the technique and its application are addressed. Experiences with a systematic trial of the method in five maternity clinics in Bamako, Mali, are summarized. The authors conclude that the estimation procedure will "provide a cheap, simple and up-to-date (i.e. nearly current) estimate of early childhood mortality which can be calculated easily from data generated within health programmes aimed at mothers and children....Primary health care workers with modest levels of education should be able to obtain the data without much difficulty. The index of early childhood mortality is simple to calculate [and] can be calculated for groups as small as 1,000 mothers...."
For the article by W. Brass and S. Macrae, published in 1985, see 51:10161 and 51:30142.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30125 Berentsen, William H. German infant mortality 1960-1980. Geographical Review, Vol. 77, No. 2, Apr 1987. 157-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Reduction of infant mortality has been an important public-policy goal in East and West Germany since 1950. Overall rates remain above those in other highly developed European countries. Causes of the persistently high rates lie in interrelated social factors. Air pollution is emerging as a contributory factor."
Correspondence: W. H. Berentsen, Department of Geography, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30126 Bourne, D. E.; Rip, M. R.; Woods, D. L. Characteristics of infant mortality in the RSA 1929-1983. Part II. Causes of death among white and coloured infants. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 73, No. 4, Feb 20, 1988. 230-2 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
The relative incidence of different causes of death in the first year of life for white and coloured infants in South Africa from 1929 to 1983 is examined. "Infections and perinatal and respiratory causes most commonly result in infant death among coloureds, while perinatal and congenital causes are commonest among whites. Over the 54-year period studied the mortality rate due to infections has fallen dramatically among whites but much less so among coloureds."
For Part I, by M. R. Rip et al., also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: D. E. Bourne, Department of Community Health, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30127 Brainard, Jean. Differential mortality in Turkana agriculturalists and pastoralists. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 70, No. 4, Aug 1986. 525-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study compares indirect childhood mortality estimates for Turkana nomadic pastoralists [in Kenya] with childhood mortality in a settled agricultural group within the same population and finds that pastoralists have substantially higher levels of mortality. Based on the childhood mortality estimates, model life tables are selected for pastoral and agricultural groups from which values for mean life expectancy and infant mortality are estimated and compared. Recent improvements in primary health care for the settled agricultural group are ruled out as being an important cause of their lower mortality levels, and some aspects of life-style associated with subsistence strategy are discussed as likely determinants of the mortality differences."
Correspondence: J. Brainard, Department of Anthropology, Ohio State University, Colombus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30128 Chiassino, Giuseppe; Papa, Onofrio. Some aspects of infant mortility in Apulia. [Taluni aspetti della mortalita infantile in Puglia.] Rassegna Economica, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 911-6 pp. Naples, Italy. In Ita.
Changes in infant mortality in the Italian province of Apulia between 1930-1932 and 1980-1982 are analyzed using data from official sources. Consideration is given to changes in infant mortality levels by sex over time.
Correspondence: G. Chiassino, University of Bari, Piazza Umberto 2, 70121, Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30129 Cramer, James C. Trends in infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups in California. Social Science Research, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 164-89 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper examines racial and ethnic trends in infant mortality in California from 1966 to 1982, using log-linear analysis to control for changes in composition and trends associated with other variables correlated with race, such as maternal age and marital status....Racial divergence was most notable in the neonatal period and among low-birthweight babies. In a close examination of recent years (1978-1982), no significant racial differences in trends in infant mortality, nor any changes in trends, were detected."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 393).
Correspondence: J. C. Cramer, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30130 Ferreira, Carlos E. de C.; Ortiz Flores, Luis P. The dimensions of infant mortality in Sao Paulo. [As dimensoes da mortalidade infantil em Sao Paulo.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Jul 1987. 107-35 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
Data from a survey undertaken in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1980-1981 concerning infant mortality are presented and analyzed. Consideration is given to the quality of the available data, the extent of infant mortality, causes of infant mortality, age and sex differentials, and methods of data analysis.
Correspondence: C. E. de C. Ferreira, Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados, Av. Casper Libero 464, Caixa Postal 8223, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30131 Gomaa, Ahmed; Mwafi, Mohamed; Nagaty, Ahmed; El Rafie, Mervat; Nasser, Shafika; Kielmann, Arnfried; Hirschhorn, Norbert. Impact of the National Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Project on infant and child mortality in Dakahlia, Egypt. Lancet, No. 8603, Jul 16, 1988. 145-8 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The impact of the Egyptian National Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Project, begun in 1983, on infant and child mortality in Dakahlia Governorate is examined. The authors note that the mortality rate for children under the age of five declined significantly from 1980 to 1986, particularly since 1982, and that most of the decline corresponded to the seasonal pattern of diarrhea-associated mortality throughout the year. They conclude that the Project's promotion of better treatment was responsible for the observed decline in mortality.
Correspondence: A. Nagaty, NCDDP, 55 Mousaddaq Street, Dokki G17A, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:30132 Guzman, Jose M.; Orellana, Hernan. Infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality in some Latin American countries. [Mortalidad infantil, neonatal y postneonatal en algunos paises de America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 15, No. 44, Aug 1987. 31-66 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in infant mortality in Chile, Costa Rica and Cuba are analyzed, and comparisons are made with trends in selected European countries. The results indicate that Cuba and Chile, but not Costa Rica, are following trends similar to those observed in Europe, where neonatal mortality is declining more rapidly than subsequent infant mortality. The authors conclude that since 1980, the proportion of neonatal deaths has not increased in Cuba or Chile despite the fact that overall infant mortality has continued to decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30133 Honduras. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Tegucigalpa, Honduras); Honduras. Secretaria de Planificacion, Coordinacion y Presupuesto (Tegucigalpa, Honduras); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (San Jose, Costa Rica); Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA] (Ottawa, Canada). National Demographic Survey of Honduras (EDENH II 1983). Vol. 5. Infant mortality: the mortality risks in different social and geographic contexts, 1955-1985. [Encuesta Demografica Nacional de Honduras (EDENH II 1983). Volumen 5. Mortalidad infantil: los riesgos de muerte infantil en diferentes contextos sociales y geograficos, 1955-1985.] CELADE Serie A, No. 1047/V; LC/DEM/CR/G.18, Jan 1988. [v], 85 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
These are the results from the second National Demographic Survey of Honduras (EDENH II) conducted in 1983 concerning infant mortality. The Brass technique of indirect estimation is applied to data from the 1975 and 1983 surveys, 1984 surveys of maternal and child health and contraceptive usage, and other official data to analyze infant mortality differentials by various socioeconomic and geographic factors. These include socioeconomic status, region of residence, basic sanitary conditions, and accessibility to hospitals, health centers, vaccination services, and child care. The prospects for a decline in infant mortality after 1980 are considered.
For a related report, published in 1985, see 53:10290.
Correspondence: CELADE, Apartado Postal 5249, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30134 Kim, Tai-Hun. Changing determinants of infant and child mortality: on the basis of the Korean experience, 1955-73. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 345-55 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Data from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey are used to analyze changes in the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of infant and child mortality in the Republic of Korea. The results indicate that as the demographic transition occurred, socioeconomic factors increasingly affected infant mortality and demographic factors declined in importance. As differences in living standards among classes diminished, so did mortality differentials. The pattern of changing determinants of child mortality is shown to be nearly the reverse of infant mortality.
Correspondence: T.-H. Kim, Department of Social Studies Education, Korean National University of Education, Chungwon-Gun, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30135 Nersesian, William S. Infant mortality in socially vulnerable populations. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 9, 1988. 361-77 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"Studies have shown for decades that certain subpopulations of infants, for example, those in poverty and in certain minority groups, are at substantially higher risk for illness and death than the national average. If mothers and infants of these 'vulnerable populations' were as healthy as their 'nonvulnerable' counterparts, as many as one third (approximately 12,000 deaths) of all infant deaths in the United States might be avoided each year. This paper is intended to document which infants are vulnerable, to quantitate the degree of risk where possible, and to outline potential changes in public policy that may lead to improvements in the health of these infants."
Correspondence: W. S. Nersesian, Metropolitan Pediatric Specialists, Southdale Medical Building, Edina, MN 55435. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30136 Palloni, Alberto. Does increasing contraception decrease infant mortality? CDE Working Paper, No. 88-5, [1988?]. 11, [6] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The relationship between contraceptive practice and infant mortality is examined, and a critique of conclusions reached by John Bongaarts is presented. The author contends that "his calculations overlook the association between the characteristics [associated with higher risks of infant mortality] and the joint effects of contraception and breastfeeding patterns. Application of a more adequate procedure to calculate gross and net effects of breastfeeding and contraception on infant mortality suggests that adoption of contraception does have beneficial effects on infant mortality." A simple model is developed and applied to data from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru.
For the article by Bongaarts, published in 1987, see 53:30149.
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30137 Parazzini, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo. Perinatal and infant mortality rates and place of birth in Italy, 1980. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 6, Jun 1988. 706-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In 1980, the ratio of home birth to public hospital perinatal and neonatal mortality rates decreased from Northern to Southern Italy, being inversely related to the proportion of home deliveries and probably reflecting the effect of planned versus unplanned home births. The post neonatal mortality rate in Southern Italy was about four times as high in children born at home (9.5/1,000 live births) than in those delivered in public hospitals (2.6/1,000 live births), probably reflecting differences in the socioeconomic status according to the birthplace selection in various regions."
Correspondence: F. Parazzini, Istituto de Richerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30138 Powell-Griner, Eve. Differences in infant mortality among Texas Anglos, Hispanics, and blacks. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 2, Jun 1988. 452-67 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Linked birth-infant death data for a large singleton birth cohort are used to examine the effects of birthweight, prenatal care, parental occupation, and marital status upon risk of infant death among Anglos, Hispanics, and blacks. The results of the hazards analysis indicate that each of these factors has a net effect upon infant death. Interactions between birthweight and race/ethnicity, prenatal care, and infant age indicate low birthweight is less of a disadvantage for black infants, prenatal care has the greatest impact on normal weight infants' survival, and the selective effects of birthweight lessen with age." The data were matched birth and death records for the 1980 Texas live birth cohort.
Correspondence: E. Powell-Griner, Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30139 Rip, M. R.; Bourne, D. E.; Woods, D. L. Characteristics of infant mortality in the RSA 1929-1983. Part I. Components of the white and coloured infant mortality rate. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 73, No. 4, Feb 20, 1988. 227-9 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"Secular trends in white and coloured neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality rates [in South Africa] are presented for the period 1929-1983. More detailed information is given for deaths in the first month of life. During this 54-year period the infant mortality rate for whites has declined from 64.2/1,000 to 13.5/1,000, whereas the rate for coloureds fell from 158.8 (1938) to 55.0/1,000. The greater part of the latter decline occurred after 1970. Since 1945 the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) for whites has exceeded the post-neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) but among coloureds the PNMR still exceeds the NMR."
For Part II, by D. E. Bourne et al., also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. R. Rip, Department of Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30140 Rip, M. R.; Bourne, D. E. The spatial distribution of infant mortality rates in South Africa, 1982. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 73, No. 4, Feb 20, 1988. 224-6 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"Infant mortality rates (IMRs) systematically calculated for the statistical regions of South Africa are presented for those groups of the population for which birth and death data are routinely collected. The geographical variation in the IMR and its statistical significance is presented in a series of maps. A more detailed analysis is also provided for the larger metropolitan areas." The data are presented separately for whites, blacks, and coloureds.
Correspondence: M. R. Rip, Department of Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30141 Rogers, Richard G. Assessing the accuracy of neonatal and postneonatal mortality: a comparison of cause- and period-specific infant mortality rates. Social Science Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1986. 411-8 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article investigates how well neonatal and postneonatal mortality--two period-specific rates--approximate endogenous and exogenous infant mortality--two cause-specific rates. The period-specific measures are assumed to be equivalent to cause-specific rates and are used interchangeably in the social science literature. We test this assumption, find variances with it, discuss what implications this holds for those studies that have relied on period-specific mortality rates, and suggest directions for future research with cause-specific infant mortality." Data are for the state of New Mexico.
Correspondence: R. G. Rogers, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30142 Stockwell, Edward G.; Swanson, David A.; Wicks, Jerry W. Economic status differences in infant mortality by cause of death. Public Health Reports, Vol. 103, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 135-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Infant mortality differentials in a metropolitan aggregate of eight Ohio cities were examined for the years 1979-81....The independent variable was defined as the percentage of low-income families in each tract at the 1980 census. Results of the analysis revealed that in spite of some very substantial declines in the overall level of infant mortality in recent decades, there continues to be a pronounced inverse association between the aggregate economic status of an area and the probability that a newborn infant will not survive the first year of life. This inverse association characterizes both males and females, whites as well as nonwhites, and it is observed during both the neonatal and postneonatal age intervals. Moreover, it is apparent that the adverse influence of a low economic status is reflected in the incidence of mortality from all major exogenous and endogenous causes."
Correspondence: E. G. Stockwell, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30143 Stockwell, Edward G.; Swanson, David A.; Wicks, Jerry W. Temporal variations in the relationship between infant mortality and economic status. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 217-27 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Data from a metropolitan aggregate comprising three Ohio [U.S.] cities for the years 1959-61, 1969-71 and 1979-81 reveal some noteworthy variations over time in the nature and magnitude of the traditional inverse association between economic status and infant mortality. This brief paper describes these variations and offers an explanation for the observed temporal changes that relates the influence of medical and infant health care advances to the prevailing overall economic situation."
Correspondence: E. G. Stockwell, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30144 Tamburo, Estela M. G. Infant mortality among the black population of Brazil, 1960-1980. [Mortalidade infantil da populacao negra brasileira, 1960-1980.] Textos NEPO, No. 11, Aug 1987. 103-28 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por.
This is a comparative analysis of infant mortality trends for the period 1960-1980 among blacks, whites, and mixed race population groups in Brazil, based on data from official sources. The impact of marital and educational status is considered. The study is confined to the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, and Sao Paulo. An appendix on the methodological issues involved is included.
Correspondence: NEPO, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 1170, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30145 Trussell, James; Potter, Joseph E. Does family planning reduce infant mortality? Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 171-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Two separate comments on a recent article by John Bongaarts concerning the impact of family planning on infant mortality rates are presented. James Trussell examines both the methodology and evidence presented by Bongaarts and argues that the mortality-reducing effect of family planning is important among women who use contraception to space their births or to eliminate high-order births. Joseph Potter focuses on ways in which family planning might affect child survival other than those examined by Bongaarts. A reply by Bongaarts is included (pp. 188-90). The focus is on developing countries.
For the article by Bongaarts, published in 1987, see 53:30149.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30146 Tulchinsky, Theodore H.; Palti, Hava. Infant mortality as a health status indicator: national, ethnic, and regional trends in Israel. Public Health Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, 1987. 121-40 pp. Tel Aviv, Israel. In Eng.
"Trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in Israel, particularly for the period 1970-1984, are presented. There has been a major decline in IMR for all ethnic groups, 45.5% for Jews and 50.2% for non-Jews, between 1970 and 1984. Substantial disparities, however, are seen among different ethnic, regional, and socioeconomic groups in the society." The use of IMR as a health status indicator is discussed.
Correspondence: T. H. Tulchinsky, Director of Personal and Community Preventive Health Services, Ministry of Health, 2 Ben Tabai Street, Jerusalem 93591, Israel. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30147 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Mortality of children under age 5. World estimates and projections, 1950-2025. Population Studies, No. 105; ST/ESA/SER.A/105, Pub. Order No. E.88.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151169-0. 1988. v, 50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents estimates and projections of infant and child mortality and of mortality under age five for the countries of the world from 1950 to 2025. The methodology used and sources of data are first described. The data are then presented by country and region. Comparisons are made with previous estimates.
For a previous report, published in 1983, see 49:20187.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30148 Urbina, Secundino. Infant mortality in Venezuela. [Mortalidad infantil en Venezuela.] 1987. 89 pp. Fondo Editorial Carlos Aponte: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Recent trends in infant mortality in Venezuela are analyzed. Data are primarily from official sources. Consideration is given to both national and regional trends.
Correspondence: Fondo Editorial Carlos Aponte, Apartado Postal 20:274, Caracas, Venezuela. Location: New York Public Library.

54:30149 Yach, D. Infant mortality rates in urban areas of South Africa, 1981-1985. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 73, No. 4, Feb 20, 1988. 232-4 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
Infant mortality rates (IMR) for blacks in South Africa are estimated for the period 1981-1985 for 10 large urban areas for which there are reliable data available. "Considerable variability in the IMR was found for blacks both between cities and years. An overall national IMR estimate for blacks of between 94 and 124 deaths per thousand live births was obtained. This is about twice as high as the national figure of 51.9 for coloureds. The coloured non-urban rate was 2.6 times the urban rate of 25.9 while the Asian and white rates were similiar in urban and non-urban areas (17.9 and 12.3 respectively)."
Correspondence: D. Yach, Department of Community Health, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30150 Zambrana Castaneda, Marcela. Analysis of socioeconomic and medical care variables in the determination of infant mortality levels in Mexico, 1970-1980. [Analisis de las variables socioeconomicas y medico-asistenciales en la determinacion de los niveles de mortalidad infantil en Mexico, 1970-1980.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 512-9 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines the possible associations between several socioeconomical, educative, and medical-care indicators and infant mortality in 1970 and 1980, and the decrease of the latter between 1970 and 1980. Education seems to be the most important factor associated with mortality levels." Questions related to the reliability of the available data are considered.
Correspondence: M. Zambrana Castaneda, Centro de Investigaciones en Salud Publica, INSP, Mexico City, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

54:30151 Cooper, Richard S. Has the period of rising mortality in the Soviet Union come to an end? International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1987. 515-9 pp. Farmingdale, New York. In Eng.
"After a decade and a half of rapid increase, adult mortality rates in the U.S.S.R. appear to have turned downward. As would be expected given the role played by coronary heart disease in producing this rise in mortality, fewer coronary deaths have been recorded in the U.S.S.R. in recent years. If this trend persists, the Soviet Union will join a number of other industrialized countries that have succeeded in curbing the coronary heart disease epidemic."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

54:30152 Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Life tables, 1980-1981: total and provincial totals. [Tablas de mortalidad, 1980-1981: total y jurisdiciones.] INDEC Estudios, No. 10, 1988. 128 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This report presents life tables by sex for Argentina and its provinces for 1980-1981. An introductory text reviews trends in mortality in general and differentials in mortality by age and sex.
Correspondence: INDEC, Direccion de Difusion Estadistica, Oficina de Distribucion y Venta, Alsina 1924, 1090 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: New York Public Library.

54:30153 Conin, Custodio N. P. S.; Marques, Armando; Pinto, Jose E. Abridged life tables: districts and autonomous regions, 1979-1982. [Tabuas abreviadas de mortalidade: distritos e regioes autonomas, 1979-1982.] Centro de Estudos Demograficos Caderno, No. 7, 1988. 140 pp. Instituto Nacional de Estatistica [INE], Centro de Estudos Demograficos: Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
Abridged life tables are presented for Portugal, including 18 mainland districts, and the Azores and Madeira, for the period 1979-1982. The tables are presented by five-year age group and by sex.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudos Demograficos, Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, 5 Avenida Antonio Jose de Almeida, 1078 Lisbon Codex, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30154 Curtin, Lester R.; Armstrong, Robert J. U.S. decennial life tables for 1979-81. Volume 1, Number 2. United States life tables eliminating certain causes of death. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 88-1150-2. LC 85-600190. Jul 1988. v, 83 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this report, official [U.S.] life tables by cause of death are published for 1979-81. Multiple-decrement life table functions and cause-elimination life tables are presented. Separate life table values are presented for each of the seven categories: total population, white males, white females, males other than white, females other than white, black males, and black females." The data are from the 1980 census and other official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30155 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). Hong Kong life tables, 1971-2006. ISBN 962-02-0071-3. Nov 1987. v, 95 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
Life tables for Hong Kong for the period 1971-2006 are presented. Sections are included on the construction of life tables and the calculaton of mortality rates. Consideration is given to trends in life expectancy with a comparison of selected developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30156 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 40th abridged life tables (April 1, 1986-March 31, 1987) with the 1st-39th abridged life tables. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 250, Feb 26, 1988. 67 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
These abridged life tables for Japan are the latest in a series published annually since 1947 and are based on official data.
For a previous set of life tables in this series, published in 1985, see 54:20211.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30157 Klein, Thomas. Mortality change and life table bias. [Mortalitatsveranderungen und Sterbetafelverzerrungen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1988. 49-67 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Life tables and other demographic statistics concerning mortality are evaluated for bias using official data for the Federal Republic of Germany. The author concludes that the degree of bias varies with an increase or decrease in mortality and that the reporting of some causes of death is particularly affected by these biases.
Correspondence: T. Klein, Universitat Karlsruhe, Institut fur Soziologie, Postfach 6380, 7500 Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30158 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). New longevity record in the United States. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 69, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1988. 10-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Life tables for the United States are presented based on official data. Data are also presented on life expectancy for the period 1900/1902-1987 by sex and at selected ages, and for whites and non-whites. The results indicate that life expectancy at birth reached record highs for both sexes in 1987.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30159 Steffen, H.; Cipriani, J.; Oglesby, S.; Wyrsch, R.; Bergauer, G. Swiss life tables, 1978-1983. [Schweizerische Sterbetafel, 1978-1983/Table de mortalite pour la Suisse, 1978-1983.] Statistische Berichte, 1: Bevolkerung/Etudes Statistiques, 1: Population, ISBN 3-303-01013-7. 1988. 107 pp. Bundesamt fur Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre; Ger. with sum. in Ita.
Official life tables for Switzerland are presented for the period 1978-1983. Data are included on causes of death and mortality differentials by marital status, as well as on probabilities of marriage, widowhood, and divorce. An analysis of the data indicates that marriage is associated with higher life expectancy for both sexes.
For a related publication, published in 1985, see 51:20174.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30160 Storm, H.; Tas, R. F. J. Life tables for the Netherlands by province, 1981-1985. [Overlevingstafels naar leeftijd, geslacht en provincie, 1981-1985.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 4, Apr 1988. 13-27 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Differences in mortality by province in the Netherlands are analyzed using life table methods and data on internal migration. The results indicate that provincial mortality differences are small. Abbreviated life tables by sex and province of birth are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

54:30161 Arriaga, Eduardo E.; Way, Peter O. Determinants of excess female mortality. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 21-22, 1988. 45-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Changes in female mortality and in causes of death for women in Sri Lanka are examined. "As recently as the 1950s and presumably for some years before that time males in Sri Lanka had an expectation of life at birth higher than that for females. By the mid 1960s, that differential had virtually disappeared, although it persisted among some population subgroups. Sri Lankan data for the 1970s and 1980s show females making continued gains in life expectancy relative to males: by the mid 1970s Sri Lankan females had an advantage in life expectancy at birth similar to that found in the majority of countries around the world....Analysis of the data on deaths in estate and non-estate areas, by cause, for the 1962-1964 period suggests that nutritional deficiencies are the main causes of the differentially higher mortality of females relative to males in estate areas than in non-estate areas."
Correspondence: E. E. Arriaga, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30162 Caselli, Graziella; Duchene, Josianne; Wunsch, Guillaume. A methodology for the comparative analysis of differential mortality. [Une methodologie pour l'analyse comparative de la mortalite differentielle.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 140, ISBN 2-87085-151-0. Apr 1988. 14 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
A methodology is developed for the comparative analysis of differential mortality in developed countries using a longitudinal approach and linkage of data from various sources. The proposed model is descriptive in nature and is concerned with the number of variables that could affect mortality by cause. In particular, it is designed to measure the occurrence of each variable while controlling the impact of the others, in order to provide a bridge between individual and ecological factors.
Correspondence: University Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30163 Chenu, Alain. Sex and mortality in France, 1906-1980. [Sexe et mortalite en France, 1906-1980.] Revue Francaise de Sociologie, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1988. 293-324, 390-2 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ger.
Differential mortality in France is examined by sex, with a focus on the excess mortality among men during the period 1906-1980, using data from official and other published sources. The effects of occupation, social class, quality of medical care, and consumption of alchohol and tobacco are considered. The author finds that since 1976, life expectancy has been eight years higher for women than for men. While men employed in executive and white collar positions tend to live longer than their working-class counterparts, the situation is reversed for women, with executive women showing a higher mortality rate than other female employees and workers.
Correspondence: A. Chenu, Universite de Provence, 29 Avenue R. Schuman, 13100 Aix-en-Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30164 Green, Adele; Beral, Valerie; Moser, Kath. Mortality in women in relation to their childbearing history. British Medical Journal, Vol. 297, No. 6645, Aug 6, 1988. 391-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from the OPCS Longitudinal Survey are used to study the mortality of currently married women in the United Kingdom in relation to the number of liveborn children reported in the 1971 census, adjusting for husbands' social class. "Women who had never had children experienced a higher mortality from many causes of death than the parous women, and this was probably due, at least in part, to selective factors." The relationships between parity and mortality from various causes are reviewed. "These data suggest that there may be residual and cumulative effects of childbearing which influence patterns of disease in the long term."
Correspondence: V. Beral, Department of Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:30165 Liu, Zheng. The relationship of nuptiality, educational attainments and occupation to mortality. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, Jul 1987. 1-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The effects of nuptiality, educational status, and occupation on mortality in the People's Republic of China is examined using data from a study conducted in 1982 in Shunyi County and the Dongcheng and Xuanwu districts of Beijing. The author finds that mortality rates are lowest among those who are married, more highly educated, and employed in professional or management categories.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 5, 1986.
Correspondence: Z. Liu, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30166 Marin, Ritva. Occupational mortality, 1971-1980. [Ammattikuolleisuus, 1971-80.] Tutkimuksia/Undersokningar/Studies, No. 129, ISBN 951-47-0066-X. 1986. 263 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
Occupational mortality in Finland is examined for the period 1971-1980 using official data. The report analyzes causes of death by occupation for the population aged 20-64 by linking census data with individual death records. In particular, the period 1971-1975 is compared with the period 1976-1980. "The mortality of the economically active population fell steeply over the 1970s, as did the mortality of the entire population. At the same time socio-economical (and occupational) differences in disease mortality diminished, with the exception of unskilled male workers aged 45 and over, whose death rate fell less than on average."
Correspondence: Central Statistical Office, P.O. Box 504, SF-00101, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30167 Okolski, Marek. Male mortality trends in Eastern and Western Europe. [Umieralnosc mezczyzn w Europie Wschodniej i w Europie Zachodniej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/89, 1987. 3-28 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Male mortality rates in Poland and Hungary during the period 1950-1980 are analyzed by cause of death and compared with those for selected countries in Western Europe. The author finds that since 1965, Eastern and Western Europe have experienced opposite trends in male mortality, with a persistent increase in mortality observed in the eastern part of the continent. Data are from official and other published sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30168 Pringle, D. G. Premature mortality in the Republic of Ireland, 1971-1981. Irish Geography, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1986. 33-40 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"Regional variations in the incidence of premature deaths between 1971 and 1981 are examined by mapping standardised mortality ratios for deaths under the age of 65. Premature mortality is also examined with [regard] to the number of years of normal life lost by those who die prematurely, using a specially defined unfulfilled life index. Unfulfilled life and premature deaths are found to have a higher incidence in the major urban areas and a lower incidence in western counties, although there are some interesting differences in their spatial distributions. Differences with regard to sex, age at death and cause of death are also examined."
Correspondence: D. G. Pringle, Department of Geography, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30169 Ting, Tin-Yu; Jou, Susyan. Industrial pollution and the regional variations of life expectancy at birth in Taiwan. Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 58, No. 1, Winter 1988. 87-100 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examines variables influencing the regional variations of life expectancy at birth in Taiwan. It is argued that rapid industrialization has been accompanied by negative factors which produced unexpected environmental pollution in Taiwan. We present an analysis focusing on the relationship between industrial pollution and regional variations of life expectancy at birth. The total number of factories is adopted as an indirect measure of industrial pollution....Findings support the hypothesis that there is a negative and significant relationship between total number of factories and the level of life expectancy at birth, after controlling other independent variables."
Correspondence: T.-Y. Ting, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

54:30170 Arca, Massimo; di Orio, F.; Forastiere, F.; Tasco, C.; Perucci, C. A. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) before age 65 in Italy. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 9, Sep 1988. 1,202-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The Italian death rates and years of potential life lost (YPLL) for all causes and for 12 selected aggregations of causes are reported for 1979 and 1983, with the latter compared to United States data. Cancer is the leading cause of YPLL in Italy (23.8 per cent of total YPLL), followed by unintentional injuries (16.3 per cent) and heart disease (11.2 per cent). Rates of YPLL for all causes decreased 12.0 per cent from 1979 to 1983, the strongest declines in absolute terms being observed for prematurity and unintentional injuries, and in percentage decline for pneumonia and influenza, and infectious diseases; during the same period, YPLL for diabetes increased. The rates of YPLL are higher for males than for females (rate ratio=1.9) especially for causes related to lifestyle factors. Premature mortality is lower in Italy than in the U.S.A., because of the striking difference in mortality from injuries and heart diseases."
Correspondence: M. Arca, Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale, via G. Carducci 4, 00187 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30171 Baron, Roy C.; Dicker, Richard C.; Bussell, Kelly E.; Herndon, Joy L. Assessing trends in mortality in 121 U.S. cities, 1970-79, from all causes and from pneumonia and influenza. Public Health Reports, Vol. 103, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 120-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The quality of data on mortality from all causes in 121 U.S. cities collected by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for the period 1970-1979 is compared with data from official mortality statistics compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The results suggest that, in general, the CDC data are both timely and useful for epidemiologic purposes.
Correspondence: R. C. Baron, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30172 Chackiel, Juan. Research on causes of death in Latin America. [La investigacion sobre causas de muerte en la America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 15, No. 44, Aug 1987. 9-30 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The use of vital statistics data to study causes of death in Latin America is examined. It is shown that reliable data are available for Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Uruguay and that relatively good data are available for Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela. Consideration is given to different approaches to the analysis of such data in order to provide additional information concerning the diseases that contribute to mortality. The possiblity of using the data in conceptual models in order to identify the socioeconomic and biological factors affecting mortality is noted. Consideration is also given to how the analysis of data on causes of death can be used to improve mortality projections by sex and age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30173 Collishaw, Neil E.; Tostowaryk, Walter; Wigle, Donald T. Mortality attributable to tobacco use in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 79, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 166-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Mortality attributable to tobacco use in Canada is estimated from different data sources. [One estimate is] based on a ten year follow-up of the 1970-72 Nutrition Canada Survey cohort....A second set of estimates was prepared that provided more detailed estimation for 5-year age groups. It is based on the combination of risk data obtained from observations in representative national surveys conducted in the United States during the period 1966-68, and recent Canadian mortality and smoking prevalence data....The two estimation methods produced similar results. It is concluded that in recent years, at least one-quarter of all deaths among persons aged 35-84 in Canada were attributable to tobacco use."
Correspondence: N. E. Collishaw, Room 137, Environmental Health Centre, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30174 Damiani, Paul. The law of mortality from accidents. [Loi de mortalite par accident.] Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Vol. 128, No. 4, 1987. 232-8 pp. Nancy, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An attempt is made to produce a law of mortality due to accidents that would provide age- and sex-specific probabilities of death from an accident. The author uses a time scale weighted by age, which he employed previously in efforts to develop a general law of mortality, and extends the general law by the addition of a supplementary expression for nonbiological causes.
For a related study, published in 1985, see 51:40112.
Correspondence: P. Damiani, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Boulevard A.-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30175 Fortney, J. A.; Susanti, I.; Gadalla, S.; Saleh, S.; Feldblum, P. J.; Potts, M. Maternal mortality in Indonesia and Egypt. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1988. 21-32 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Female mortality in Bali, Indonesia, and Menoufia, Egypt, is analyzed. The authors find that 23 percent of deaths to women of reproductive age are due to maternal causes. "Families of women of reproductive age who died were interviewed about the conditions leading to death and other characteristics of the deceased. Completed histories were reviewed by a Medical Panel who were able to assign a cause of death in more that 90% of cases. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths occurred to women who were over 30 and/or who had 3 children--the usual targets of family planning programs."
Correspondence: J. A. Fortney, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park Branch, Durham, NC 27709. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30176 Graham, Wendy; Brass, William; Snow, Robert V. Indirect estimation of maternal mortality: the sisterhood method. CPS Research Paper, No. 88-1, ISBN 0-902657-20-8. Apr 1988. ii, 33 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes a new indirect technique, the sisterhood method, for estimating maternal mortality and the results of the first field trial in The Gambia." The field trial was conducted in September 1987 and involved interviews with 2,163 individuals over age 15. A table is included presenting the interviewee responses, estimates of ever-married sisters, lifetime risks of maternal deaths by age group, and the proportion of dead sisters dying of maternal causes. The calculated estimates are assessed with relation to siblings' responses and to death reports from the British Medical Research Council surveillance system in the Gambia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30177 Kaplan, George A.; Salonen, Jukka T.; Cohen, Richard D.; Brand, Richard J.; Syme, S. Leonard; Puska, Pekka. Social connections and mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease: prospective evidence from eastern Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 2, Aug 1988. 370-80 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The association between an a priori measure of social connections and five-year mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases..., and ischemic heart disease...was studied in 13,301 men and women from eastern Finland who were first interviewed in 1972 or 1977. For men, there was a graded association between extent of social connections and mortality. In multivariate models with adjustment for age, smoking, serum cholesterol, mean weighted blood pressure, measures of prevalent illness, and other possible confounders, men who were in the two lowest quintiles of the social connections scale were at increased risk compared with those in the highest quintile....No strong or consistent association was found for women....In three separate analyses, there was no evidence for confounding or effect modification due to prevalent illness at baseline."
Correspondence: G. A. Kaplan, Human Population Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, 2151 Berkeley Way, Annex 2, Berkeley, CA 94704. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:30178 Mesle, France; Vallin, Jacques. The main components of cardiovascular mortality in France since 1925: results of a historical reconstitution. [Les composantes de la mortalite cardio-vasculaire en France depuis 1925: resultats d'une reconstitution historique.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 391-425 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in cardiovascular mortality in France from 1925 to 1978 are analyzed using data from a reconstitution of the available data in a continuous series, in an attempt to avoid the problems posed by changes in the International Classification of Diseases and in the proportion of ill-defined causes of death. The results indicate that total cardiovascular mortality has decreased continuously over this period and that this decrease has accelerated during the most recent decades.
Correspondence: F. Mesle, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30179 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Trends and regional differences in breast cancer mortality. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 69, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1988. 26-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in U.S. breast cancer mortality for the period 1979-1981 and for 1985 are reviewed. Data are computed from official sources. Consideraton is given to differences by region and state. Data are also presented on age-specific mortality from breast cancer.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30180 Moses, Vijayakumar; DePersio, Sara R.; Lorenz, Dick; Oberle, Mark W.; Rochat, Roger; Fermo, Aurora. A thirty-year review of maternal mortality in Oklahoma, 1950 through 1979. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 157, No. 5, Nov 1987. 1,189-94 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
Trends in maternal mortality in Oklahoma from 1950 through 1979 are reviewed using data from the state's Maternal Mortality Committee review process. Over this time, maternal mortality has declined from 95.1 to 8.1 per 100,000 live births. Consideration is given to differences in risk of death from childbearing by ethnic group. The authors note that the Committee estimated that two-thirds of current maternal deaths are preventable and that therefore further reductions in mortality are achievable.
Correspondence: M. W. Oberle, Program Evaluation Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30181 Pandit, Ramesh D. Changing trends in maternal mortality in developing countries. Asia-Oceania Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 385-94 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Changes in maternal mortality in India over time are analyzed using data from a Bombay hospital for the period 1929-1983. The results show that maternal mortality declined from 1,920 per 100,000 live births in the decade 1929-1939 to 80 per 100,000 in the period 1980-1983. The author suggests that many factors contributed to this decline, including improvements in antenatal, natal, and postnatal care.
Correspondence: R. D. Pandit, Sagar Mahal, G-1, 65 Walkeshwar Road, Bombay 400 006, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30182 Samphier, M. L.; Robertson, C.; Bloor, M. J. A possible artefactual component in specific cause mortality gradients: social class variations in the clinical accuracy of death certificates. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jun 1988. 138-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates...the possibility of social class biases in the accuracy of diagnosis of cause of death and the systematic misallocation of certain social groups to particular diagnoses. Information on this topic was obtained by matching occupational data gathered at death registration with data on the accuracy of diagnosis of cause of death (measured by diagnostic agreement between clinician and pathologist) collected in a prospective study of 1,152 [U.K.] hospital necropsies." The authors find that "although diagnostic agreement does indeed vary with the social class of the patient, the variation is small and in all the major diagnostic chapters except respiratory diseases the effect of correcting such diagnostic biases would be either negligible or...steepen existing class gradients."
Correspondence: M. J. Bloor, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, 6 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30183 Savona-Ventura, C.; Grech, E. S. Maternal mortality in the Maltese Islands. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, No. 4, Aug 1987. 283-90 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Maternal mortality statistics from the Maltese Islands since 1935 are reviewed to show that there has been a marked decrease in maternal mortality rates. This decrease is probably related to reductions in family size and improvements in the perinatal care of mothers. Hypertensive disease is now the most important cause of maternal mortality."
Correspondence: C. Savona-Ventura, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Malta, St. Luke's Hospital, Malta. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30184 United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Office on Smoking and Health (Rockville, Maryland). Bibliography on smoking and health, 1986. Public Health Service Bibliography Series, No. 45, Pub. Order No. DHHS(CDC)87-8399. Apr 1987. i, 614 pp. Rockville, Maryland. In Eng.
The 1986 edition of this bibliography contains 1,950 annotated citations to recent literature on the relationship between smoking and health. The bibliography is organized by subject and includes sections on mortality and morbidity, neoplastic diseases, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Author and subject indexes are provided. The geographical focus is worldwide.
For the 1985 edition, published in 1986, see 52:30266.
Correspondence: Office on Smoking and Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Park Building Room 116, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30185 Vallin, Jacques. A seminar on causes of death: application to the case of France. [Seminario sobre causas de muerte: aplicacion al caso de Francia.] CELADE Serie E, No. 31; LC/DEM/G.55, 1988. 151 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a seminar on the study of causes of death using vital statistics data, held in May 1986 in Santiago, Chile. The examples provided use data for France, particularly since 1925 when data on causes of death were first made available. The publication is in four parts, based on the author's four lectures given at the seminar. They concern statistics on causes of death, the reconstitution of coherent statistical series in the context of the International Classification of Diseases, the development of a typology of causes of death, and the distribution of poorly defined or unstated causes of death.
Correspondence: CELADE, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30186 van Reek, J.; Appels, A.; van Zutphen, W. M.; Otten, F.; ten Thije, A. J.; Mulder, P. G. H.; Sturmans, F. Mortality and cardiovascular morbidity by social class among men in Rotterdam during the period 1972-1981. [Mortaliteit en cardiovasculaire morbiditeit naar sociale klasse bij Rotterdamse mannen in de periode 1972-1981.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1987. 1-6 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the Netherlands are analyzed using data for 3,365 men aged 45-59 from Rotterdam who were followed from 1972-1973 to 1981. Of the 350 deaths recorded, 112 were due to myocardial infarction. "Mortality was lower among higher occupations and higher among labourers. Age and smoking explained the gradient partially. The significance of the differences disappears after controlling for marital status. No gradient by social class was found for fatal and not fatal myocardial infarctions."
Correspondence: J. van Reek, Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Vakgroep Medische Sociologie, Postbus 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30187 Wing, Steve; Casper, Michele; Riggan, Wilson; Hayes, Carl; Tyroler, H. A. Socioenvironmental characteristics associated with the onset of decline of ischemic heart disease mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 8, Aug 1988. 923-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relation of community socioenvironmental characteristics to timing of the onset of decline of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality was investigated among the 507 State Economic Areas of the continental United States." Data are for white males and are from the 1960 and 1970 censuses and other official sources. The results indicate that "areas with the poorest socioenvironmental conditions were two to 10 times more likely to experience late onset than those areas with the highest levels. We found that income-related characteristics could account for most of the difference in onset of decline of IHD between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan places. We conclude that community socioenvironmental characteristics provide the context for changes in risk factors and medical care."
Correspondence: S. Wing, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Rosenau Hall 201H, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

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