Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

54:30042 Mahatme, A. W. Population pressure in India. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 47, No. 3, Oct 1986. 341-6 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the usefulness of the concept of population density as [the] Indian Census defines it, and poses the question as to whether it would not be more relevant in this connection to think of a more refined measure which would relate to population pressure on land resources from which food and other essential commodities are produced, and, similarly, on available housing stock. The author observes that the picture with regard to relative crowding of population in the various States of India, presented in Indian Census reports on the basis of population per sq. km. of total geographic area, changes considerably if the density of population is worked out per sq. km. of arable land or per room as a housing unit."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30043 Portais, Michel. A map of the distribution of the population of Ecuador, 1982. The geographical distribution of the population of Ecuador according to the most recent population census (November 1982). [Mapa de distribucion de la poblacion ecuatoriana--1982. Reparticion geografica de la poblacion ecuatoriana segun el ultimo censo de poblacion (noviembre de 1982).] Documentos de Investigacion: Serie Demografia y Geografia de la Poblacion, No. 3, Jun 1986. 18 pp. Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigacion Geografica [CEDIG]: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
A map showing the spatial distribution of the population of Ecuador according to the 1982 census is presented. The accompanying text describes the methodology used, inequalities in population distribution, and spatial distribution by province.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30044 Vnukov, A. A. Dynamics of population in the Ukrainian SSR (1959-1984). Soviet Geography, Vol. 29, No. 5, May 1988. 501-13 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Analysis of change in the spatial distribution of population in the Ukrainian SSR demonstrates a pronounced shift toward the east and south, and toward the major metropolitan area of Kiev and Kiev Oblast. An upsurge in city growth in the least urbanized, western Ukraine, coupled with steady, above-average urban growth in other locations, has contributed to gradual erosion of the Donets-Dnieper Region's dominance in urban population. Accelerated rates of rural population decline in western areas of highest rural population concentration has promoted a gradual equalization of the distribution of rural population...."
This is a translation of the Russian article published in 1987 and cited in 54:20051.
Correspondence: A. A. Vnukov, Institute of Geography, Staromonetny per. 29, Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

54:30045 Ankerl, Guy. Urbanization overspeed in tropical Africa, 1970-2000. Facts, social problems, and policy. INU Societal Research Series, ISBN 2-88155-000-2. LC 84-52309. 1986. 117 pp. INU Press, Inter University Institute: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This work, translated from the original French, is concerned with the process of urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa since 1970. The available data are first reviewed. Problems associated with rapid urban growth are then considered. Attention is given to the search for solutions to those problems. The book concludes with policy recommendations. Particular attention is paid to the plight of the underprivileged and to how they can be helped. The primary focus of the study is on Nigeria, Zaire, Tanzania, Kenya, and Ghana.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30046 Bahr, Jurgen; Gans, Paul. Development of the German and foreign population in the larger cities of the Federal Republic of Germany since 1970. In: Foreign minorities in continental European cities, edited by Gunther Glebe and John O'Loughlin. 1987. 90-115 pp. Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to analyse the demographic changes for the German and foreign population of the larger cities [in the Federal Republic of Germany] and to identify the components of change (migration and natural increase) between 1970 and 1982. Furthermore the study emphasizes existing differences in population growth between the larger cities and offers explanations for these developments." Data are from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30047 Bradshaw, York W. Urbanization and economic expansion in post-independence Kenya. Pub. Order No. DA8723623. 1987. 259 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation is a case study of urbanization and economic expansion in Kenya that uses theories of modernization, economic dependency, and urban bias to explain events....Two separate statistical analyses are used to assess the validity of different theories. The first uses panel regression analysis to test district-level data at two points in time, and the second examines annual time-series data since independence. Overall, the results suggest that all three theories are partially applicable to Kenya."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Northwestern University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(8).

54:30048 Bruneau, Jean-Claude; Lootens-de Muynck, Marie-Therese. The demographic dynamics of the neighborhoods of Lubumbashi from its foundation to the present day. [Dynamique demographique des quartiers de Lubumbashi des origines a nos jours.] Cahiers d'Outre Mer, Vol. 38, No. 150, Apr-Jun 1985. 121-49 pp. Bordeaux, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the spatial growth of the city of Lubumbashi, Zaire, since its foundation some 75 years ago. Current trends in urban spatial distribution are analyzed using data from a survey and aerial photography. The contrast in population density between the more prosperous neighborhoods and the poorer districts is noted.
Correspondence: J.-C. Bruneau, Departement de Geographie, Universite de Lubumbashi, BP 1825, Lubumbashi, Shaba, Zaire. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30049 Campisi, D.; La Bella, A. The dynamics of urban population. Sistemi Urbani, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1985. 221-35 pp. Naples, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The relative roles of natural increase and migration in determining the long-term dynamics of an urban population are considered. "Rogers' model is used to represent the simultaneous growth of a multiregional population. Exploiting the mathematical structure of the resulting system of difference equations, a perturbation theory for demographic models [is] outlined. This theory provides useful tools for analysing the sensitivity of stable population distribution and rate of growth to changes in the fundamental demographic parameters. With respect to the conventional approach to sensitivity analysis, it does not require the sometimes cumbersome calculation of matrix derivatives." A numerical example is given to demonstrate the method.
Correspondence: D. Campisi, Istituto de Analisi dei Sistemi ed Informatica del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Viale Manzoni 30, 00185 Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30050 Dieleman, F. M.; Jansen, A. W. P.; de Smidt, M. Metamorphosis of the city; recent changes in urban housing and employment in the Netherlands. [Metamorfose van de stad; recente tendensen van wonen en werken in nederlandse steden.] Nederlandse Geografische Studies, No. 19, ISBN 90-6809-026-7. 1986. 130 pp. Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap: Amsterdam, Netherlands; Geografisch Instituut Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collection of papers by different authors on recent changes in the Dutch urban system, with a focus on housing and employment. The papers were presented at a workshop held by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society in Utrecht, Netherlands, in April 1986. The volume is organized into ten chapters. After an overview, Chapters 2 through 5 discuss the effects of business and corporate relocations on the urban system and surrounding areas. Chapters 6 through 9 describe the changes in urban population characteristics, with attention to age factors and ethnic groups, and their effects on the urban housing market. Chapter 10 provides recommendations for changes in the focus of such research. Data are from official and other published sources.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30051 Gale, Dennis E. Demographic research on gentrification and displacement. Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 1985-1986. 14-29 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
The demographic impact of gentrification on U.S. cities is examined. "Studies of the net effects of gentrification on central cities during the late 1960s and early 1970s suggest that there was relatively little impact on population, income and racial, and socioeconomic succession patterns."
Correspondence: D. E. Gale, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:30052 Hohemberg, Paul M. Urbanization and population dynamics in history. Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1987. 171-7 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
This is a report on a seminar on the role of population processes in historical urbanization, which was organized by the Committee on Historical Demography of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and held at Keio University, Tokyo, January 22-25, 1986. The 37 papers presented were concerned with a wide range of countries and various historical periods from the sixteenth to twentieth centuries.
Correspondence: P. M. Hohemberg, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12181. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30053 Jones, Gavin W. Urbanization trends in Southeast Asia: some issues for policy. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1988. 137-54 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"The apparent Southeast Asian paradox of fairly slow urbanization but rapidly growing urban populations is due to continued high rates of natural increase, especially in rural areas. Southeast Asian countries differ greatly in the nature of their urban hierarchies, and the appropriate policy goals and strategies therefore also differ. In countering growing urban primacy, indirect approaches emphasizing macro-economic and sectoral policies conducive to more dispersed patterns of urban growth have greater potential impact than direct attempts to slow the growth of large city populations. Greater decentralization of power and decision making over resource allocation is also needed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30054 Kezeiri, S'aad K. Population growth of small towns in Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 30, Jun 1987. 69-82 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
The rapid population growth of small towns in Libya is examined, and future prospects are considered. "Their growth can be attributed to natural increase, internal migration and the influx of foreigners, all of which factors have been stimulated by the State. The paper provides detailed data on the growth and development of small towns and the changes occurring in the overall distribution and density of the Libyan population. The reasons behind the growth and sometimes the demise of individual towns are examined."
Correspondence: S. K. Kezeiri, University of Gar Younis, POB 1308, Benghazi, Libya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30055 Kirby, Andrew; Lynch, A. Karen. A ghost in the growth machine: the aftermath of rapid population growth in Houston. Urban Studies, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1987. 587-96 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses upon the social and political consequences of rapid growth in cities outside the regions of traditional economic development in the U.S. We argue that this growth has taken place despite a number of broadly-defined environmental costs. For the most part, these costs have been transferred to low-income residents, or passed to other levels of government, as these cities have functioned as growth machines. A slowdown in economic development, plus contractions within federal expenditures are uniting to pose serious problems for these cities; we examine how the growth machines will function, and consider the implications for future federal urban policies."
Correspondence: A. Kirby, Institute for Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:30056 Montgomery, Mark R. How large is too large? Implications of the city size literature for population policy and research. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 4, Jul 1988. 691-720 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this article I review the evidence for urban agglomeration economies....I shall also consider the evaluation issues involved in urban disamenities and attempt to draw together these different strands of the literature....The article is in six parts....Part I presents an economic model...that considers both agglomeration economies and urban disamenities in deriving an optimum size for a single city....Parts II and III then review the empirical literature in which the magnitude of agglomeration effects is estimated. The links between city size and urban disamenities are discussed in Part IV, and a model integrating agglomeration and disamenity effects is proposed in Part V. The paper concludes, in Part VI, with some suggestions for policy and research."
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:30057 Mutlu, Servet. The spatial urban hierarchy in Turkey: its structure and some of its determinants. Growth and Change, Vol. 19, No. 3, Summer 1988. 53-74 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"This paper gives a detailed description of the Turkish spatial hierarchy, tests certain aspects of the central place theory, and identifies the principles by which the hierarchy is organized. From the results of a country-wide survey, a seven-level hierarchy is identified....Regression analysis reveals that different factors operate at different levels and with varying intensities in ordering the structure of the system with no one factor being predominant. Income per capita, the density of the road network, the nature of the terrain, the degree of spatial mobility, the structure of economic activity in rural areas, and the distribution of labor force by type of activity emerge as ordering the frequency of centers and the sizes of their nested tributary areas."
Correspondence: S. Mutlu, Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 566, Irbid, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30058 Osteria, Trinidad S. Recent trends in urbanization in the ASEAN region: implications for health programmes. Southeast Asian Affairs, 1987. 63-82 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"This paper examines recent trends in urbanization in four selected ASEAN countries--Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand--giving particular attention to the scale and pace of urbanization, the unique features of urban communities, and the health changes and adjustments that accompany urban development in these countries."
Correspondence: T. S. Osteria, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Pasir Panjang, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30059 Owen, Guillermo. Application of game theoretic analysis to a problem in demography. Management Science, Vol. 33, No. 2, Feb 1987. 253-7 pp. Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"Governments in certain countries have tried over the last two decades to draw most industry to the largest cities. The effect has generally been a large increase in both the population and land area of the cities, as the nearby rural areas are taken out of agricultural production and urbanized. Where the land is especially fertile, this can represent a definite loss to the country's agricultural capabilities. By studying the Nash equilibria we show that, given political pressures, there is a very real danger that this process will continue until all, or practically all of the land has been urbanized." The geographical focus is on Colombia.
Correspondence: G. Owen, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5100. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30060 Rutz, Werner. Cities and towns in Indonesia: their development, current positions and functions with regard to administration and regional economy. Urbanization of the Earth/Urbanisierung der Erde, No. 4, ISBN 3-443-37006-3. 1987. x, 292 pp. Gebruder Borntraeger: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This work, translated from the original German, presents a comprehensive analysis of the Indonesian urban system. Following an introduction to the political and geographic framework of the urban system, the author describes the origins and type of existing towns and their cultural and architectural form. A chapter is included on spatial distribution and urban regions, followed by a chapter on the population size of cities and towns. Other chapters examine their function, their role in the central place hierarchy, and their spheres of influence and hinterlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30061 Sembajwe, Israel. Urban population growth rates in Africa with special reference to Lesotho. Working Papers in Demography, No. 4, LC 87-132328. Sep 1985. 31 pp. National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics, Demography Unit: Roma, Lesotho. In Eng.
"In this paper, current urbanization trends in Africa are discussed with special reference to Lesotho. Factors leading to these trends are highlighted and possible solutions to reverse the trends are suggested." Consideration is given to the effects of urbanization on migration, fertility, and mortality. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Demography Unit, National University of Lesotho, P.O. Roma, Roma, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30062 Sun, Lanxun. A preliminary analysis on population structure of Dukou City. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, Jul 1987. 21-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author describes population characteristics in the newly built industrial city of Dukou in Sichuan Province, China, using data from the 1982 census. Consideration is given to the sex ratio, age distribution, age dependency ratios, employment rate, and population growth.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 5, 1986.
Correspondence: L. Sun, Planning and Designing Institute, Dukou City, Sichuan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30063 Tesfaghiorghis, Habtemariam. The growth of urbanization in Ethiopia, 1966-1984. Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1986. 157-67 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper studies the growth and dynamics of urbanization in Ethiopia during the period 1966-1984. Despite its very low level of urbanization (10.6%), Ethiopia experienced rapid urban population growth of 4.8% per annum over the period. The urban growth was more rapid at the beginning (1966-70 = 6.6%) then slowed down to 4.23% in 1970-1984. There is highly uneven regional distribution of urbanization with the core urban region accommodating close to half the urban population; within regions, the majority of the urban population is concentrated in one or very few large urban areas." Data are from the preliminary results of the 1984 census, the two rounds of urban National Sample Surveys, and the Manpower and Housing Survey.
Correspondence: H. Tesfaghiorghis, Demography and Housing Division, Office of the National Committee for Central Planning, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30064 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population distribution and development: implications for policy decisions. Population Research Leads, No. 28, 1988. 11 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Urban population growth, urbanization, and population distribution policies in Asia are discussed, based on documents presented at the April 1988 meeting of ESCAP. Trends since 1970 and projections to the year 2000 are summarized for each country with regard to the urban proportion of the population and urban-rural population growth rate differentials. Growth rates of the 15 largest urban agglomerations are projected, and socio-demographic aspects of internal migration are examined.
Correspondence: Population Information Section, Population Division, ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

54:30065 Joseph, Alun E.; Keddie, Philip D.; Smit, Barry. Unravelling the population turnaround in rural Canada. Canadian Geographer/Geographe Canadien, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 1988. 17-30 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper attempts to unravel the rural population turnaround in Canada through a disaggregation and analysis of rural growth rates by (1) two decades, 1961-71 and 1971-81, (2) the farm and non-farm components of rural population, (3) provincially based regions, and (4) area types based on proximity to urban centres. Following a discussion of the various definitional and boundary-matching issues arising from the use of the Census of Canada, results are presented in tabular and map form. Although rural growth rates did in all likelihood exceed urban rates in the 1970s, the extent of this turnaround is undoubtedly exaggerated in the census data, primarily because of definitional and reclassification effects. Moreover, setting aside data-related anomalies, there is strong evidence that much of this rural population growth was in fact 'spillover' from urban centres."
Correspondence: A. E. Joseph, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30066 Kaczor-Pankow, Grazyna. Factors of changes of the socio-professional structure of rural population. [Czynniki zmian struktury spoleczno-zawodowej ludnosci wiejskiej.] Problemy Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa, ISBN 83-01-03158-1. LC 86-193308. 1986. 130 pp. Polska Akademia Nauk, Instytut Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in the socioeconomic characteristics of the rural population of Poland are analyzed using data collected in 1975-1978 concerning 1,300 individuals. The emphasis is on changes in educational status and professional qualifications between generations. The results indicate that the better educated and qualified still tend to leave rural areas to migrate to the towns, but that the rural areas with higher levels of social and cultural development and better infrastructures are better able to keep their qualified young people.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.