Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

54:20812 Boland, Barbara. Operational and implementational aspects of population policy. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 14-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
General patterns of institutional organization for population policy implementation throughout the world are described. The author observes that most countries formulate and implement population policies through a system consisting of three major components--a population unit in the planning ministry, a national population council, and research and data collection centers. Problems of interaction between the units, the need for skilled personnel, and the importance of integrating population and development policies are discussed.
Correspondence: B. Boland, Population Affairs Officer, U.N. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Salvatori Building, 2 Frederick Street, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20813 Cagiano de Azevedo, Raimondo. Population, aid and development. Proceedings of an international meeting on aid and cooperation in the field of population and development: issues and strategies. Florence 1985. ISBN 2-87108-009-7. 1987. viii, 404 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international meeting held in Florence, Italy, in 1985. "The purpose of the meeting was...to bring together representatives of donor governments and agencies with major recipient countries as well as population specialists to discuss the future of aid and cooperation in the population field in the next decade...." The papers are organized under three headings. The first is concerned with the limited resources available for growing needs; the focus is on population research needs in Asia, Latin America, and Africa and on the role and status of women in fertility and family planning issues. The second section deals with donor and recipient views on selecting projects and assessing their effectiveness. The third section concerns the relationship between population and development and includes both current trends and strategies for the future.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20814 Dwyer, D. J. New population policies in Malaysia and Singapore. Geography, Vol. 72, Pt. 3, No. 316, Jun 1987. 248-50 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
Recent population policy changes in Malaysia and Singapore are summarized. Topics considered include demographic differentials among the major ethnic groups in Malaysia and fears of population decrease in Singapore.
Correspondence: D. J. Dwyer, University of Keele, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, England. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20815 Kiseleva, G. P. The popularization of demographic knowledge--an important element in demographic policy. [Propaganda demograficheskikh znanii--vazhnyi element demograficheskoi politiki.] In: Demograficheskoe razvitie v SSSR, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1985. 17-33 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The contribution of population policy to the development of socioeconomic policy in the USSR is assessed. The need to improve the public's understanding of demographic processes and to promote scientific knowledge is emphasized.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20816 Mason, Paul E.; Boland, Reed; Stepan, Jan. Annual review of population law, 1984: international resolutions and agreements, constitutional provisions, legislation, regulations, judicial decisions, legal pronouncements. Volume 11. ISBN 0-89714-052-4. 1987. xlii, 613 pp. United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Harvard Law School Library: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This report details changes in population law around the world. It is organized by subject, with separate entries for the countries or international agencies concerned. Texts, or summaries of texts, are provided. Subjects covered include population policy; fertility regulation, including family planning, contraception, sterilization, and induced abortion; family status and welfare, including marriage and marriage termination; children and child welfare; public welfare, including family allowances, parental benefits, old-age benefits, labor protection, personal status, and personal mobility; public health; education; and property and economic factors. An unannotated bibliography is included.
For Volume 10, concerning 1983, see 54:10775.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20817 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Population policy and individual choice: a theoretical investigation. International Food Policy Research Institute Research Report, No. 60, ISBN 0-89629-062-X. LC 87-16802. Jun 1987. 52 pp. International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to examine the general equilibrium implications of endogenous fertility for a number of social issues related to population policy. These issues include the optimal size or rate of growth of population, real and false externalities, and issues of inter- and intragenerational income distribution. The concern is thus with the normative rather than the positive implications of endogenous fertility. Endogenous fertility simply means that parents care about the numbers and welfare of their children and respond to economic constraints and opportunities in making the choices affecting their children."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20818 Stojanovic-Tina, Bogoljub. Population replacement policy in the Socialist Republic of Serbia. [Politika obnavljanja stanovnistva u SR Srbiji.] Statisticka Revija, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, 1986. 1-11 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr.
Population policy and its impact on reproduction in the Serbian republic of Yugoslavia are examined. Trends in fertility since the end of World War II are analyzed for Serbia as a whole and for the autonomous region of Kosovo.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20819 Stolnitz, George J. Population policies and development. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 4-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an overview of population policies, population growth trends, and economic development in developing countries since the 1960s. The author asserts that "the press of developmental and demographic events have done much to bring LDC development planners and policy makers into closer agreement with the concerns of population analysts and advisors." Particular emphasis is on the persistence in developing countries of population growth rates that are considered excessive. It is concluded that "family-planning programmes must depend greatly on the extent to which they can successfully change family-size aspirations; mere availability of family-planning services, even when efficiently provided, has not proved to be an adequate basis for effecting large fertility or associated social transitions...."
Correspondence: G. J. Stolnitz, Population Institute for Research and Training, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20820 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Case studies in population policy: Malaysia. Population Policy Paper, No. 14; ST/ESA/SER.R/80, 1987. vi, 45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This publication is one in a series of country case studies being prepared by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat that focus on selected issues in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies in various developing and developed countries." The present volume concerns Malaysia. Following a review of the demographic setting, chapters are included on population policies developed up to 1984 and those developed since 1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

54:20821 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. Thailand's population policy. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 41-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The effectiveness of population policy in Thailand since 1970 is evaluated. It is found that "Thailand has experienced a population transformation commonly known as the 'reproductive revolution.' Fertility has declined substantially--from 6.3 in the mid-1960s to about 3.4 in the period between 1982 and 1984. One of the chief reasons for Thailand's success is the fact that the country was one of the first to consider alternatives to the use of physicians to deliver family-planning services."
Correspondence: A. Chamratrithirong, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, 2 Prannock Road, Bangkok 10700, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20822 Dikarev, A. D. Measures to influence the birthrate in China. [Mery vozdeistviya na rozhdaemost' v KNR.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 63-74 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Recent population policy developments in China are outlined. The coercive nature of the one-child policy is discussed, and possible consequences such as female infanticide are considered. The policy is designed to achieve a stationary population by the beginning of the twenty-first century. The author notes the effectiveness of the policy in lowering the rate of population growth. Regional differences in policies concerning the right to have a second child are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20823 Hungu, J. Kenya's population policy. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 36-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The experience of Kenya's national family planning program, established in 1967, is assessed. Particular attention is given to the government's efforts between 1975 and 1979 to lower the population growth rate and improve maternal and child health. The author finds that "the Population Programme in Kenya made considerable progress in information and education activities as well as improvement in the health of mothers and children. But the crucial family-planning component had limited success." Reasons for the limited success are enumerated.
Correspondence: J. Hungu, National Commission on Population and Development, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20824 Kojima, Hiroshi. Pronatalist policies in Europe. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 178, Apr 1986. 54-61 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Pronatalist policies of European countries are discussed, with special emphasis on France and six Eastern European countries both from a historical perspective and in terms of the present situation. Three main categories of policies are examined: restriction of contraception and abortion, economic incentives, and measures to encourage pregnancy among working women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20825 Kvasha, A. On demographic policy and the cost of children. [O demograficheskoi politike i raskhodakh sem'i na detei.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 197-212 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author discusses the formulation of government policies to provide families in the USSR with economic incentives to have many children. The impact on family size of increased child-rearing costs and psychological factors is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20826 Lefebvre, Pierre; Perrot, Jean. Family policies in France and Quebec. [Les politiques familiales en France et au Quebec.] Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales, Vol. 41, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 19-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to delineate the primary objectives of family policies and to present a comparative analysis of such policies in France and Quebec. The emphasis is on measures designed to encourage families to have more children. The main drawbacks in the present systems of family allowances are identified as bureaucratic, in that the system is neither known nor understood by many of those who could benefit from it, and is perceived to be lacking long-term reliability.
Correspondence: P. Lefebvre, Departement de Sciences Economiques, Universite du Quebec, CP 8888, Suc. A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20827 Schwarz, Karl. Demographic effects of the family policy in the Federal Republic of Germany and its Lander after World War II. [Demographische Wirkungen der Familienpolitik in Bund und Landern nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1987. 409-50 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines family policy in the Federal Republic of Germany since World War II, with a focus on the demographic effects of family and population policies in the individual states (Lander). He presents separate studies of national policies and measures designed to facilitate family formation in each state. Particular attention is paid to the cases of Berlin and Baden-Wurttemberg, where fertility is high relative to other states, and to the Saarland, where it is relatively low. It is determined that "family policy led to pronatalist successes whenever family policy measures of the Federal Government were accompanied by significant additional Lander measures." Data from official sources provide information by state on first marriage and fertility rates.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrabe 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20828 Webb, Frances J. Demographic engineering: the case of Romania. Bloomsbury Geographer, Vol. 13, 1985. 20-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is an account of the immediate and long-term effects of an abortion law enacted in 1966 in Romania to reverse decreasing fertility. The author discusses the previously existing situation, in which 80 percent of pregnancies were terminated, and the consequences of the abrupt change to tight restrictions on both abortion and divorce. The decree's consequences in terms of illegal abortion, quality of medical care, maternal and infant mortality, and unwanted children are considered. It is noted that women have found ways to reduce fertility in spite of the state's actions to stimulate it.
Location: John Crerar Library, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

54:20829 Buccianti, Cinzia. Swiss legislation concerning immigration and Italian migrations. [Le disposizioni elvetiche in materia di immigrazione e il movimento migratorio italiano.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 24, No. 87, Autumn 1987. 374-400 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The impact of Swiss legislation on trends in migration from Italy since World War II is examined. The author notes that since 1945, some 2.5 million Italians have entered Switzerland, where the resident Italian community numbers around 400,000. The development of legislation restricting immigration since 1964 is noted.
Correspondence: C. Buccianti, Universita di Siena, Banchi di Sotto 55, 53100 Siena, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20830 Khomra, A. U. Systematic migration of the population under socialism. [Planomernost' migratsii naseleniya pri sotsializme.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 11, 1987. 75-91 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The planned nature of migration under conditions of socialism is examined, with a focus on the goals and effects of migration policy. The geographical emphasis is on the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20831 Schubert, Herbert J. Limits of political support for spatial mobility: as exemplified by the effects of long-distance migration on families. [Grenzen der politischen Forderung raumlicher Mobilitat: am Beispiel der Auswirkungen von Fernmigration auf Familien.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1987. 473-90 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author reviews the literature pertaining to migration in the Federal Republic of Germany, focusing on the effects of long-distance migration on families. Proposed government promotion of long-distance migration as a means of coping with decreased population size is evaluated in terms of human ecology. The anticipated consequences of migration for families, their living situations, social relations, and day-to-day life and the impact on depopulated areas are discussed. The author argues against broad public support of long-distance migration.
Correspondence: H. J. Schubert, Institut fur Entwicklungsplanung und Strukturforschung, Grotefendstrasse 2, 3000 Hanover 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.