Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

54:20778 Burch, Thomas K. Age-sex roles and demographic change: an overview. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 129-46 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents a framework for consideration of the mutual interrelationships of demographic change and change in sex-roles. Possible or plausible generalizations are set forth regarding implications for age-sex roles of recent trends in fertility, union formation/dissolution, migration, and household formation. Possible or plausible generalizations are set forth regarding implications for demographic change of changes in age and sex patterns of education and labour force participation, and of a general increase in the homogeneity of age-sex roles." Official data for Canada are used to support the hypotheses presented.
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, Centre for Canadian Population Studies, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20779 Doescher, Tabitha A.; Turner, John A. Social Security benefits and the baby-boom generation. American Economic Review, Vol. 78, No. 2, May 1988. 76-80 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The future of the U.S. Social Security system is examined, with consideration given to the impact of political forces. The Social Security Administration's projections of future benefit levels are first reviewed. The authors then present a theoretical model that postulates "first, as the number of retirees increases relative to the number of workers, the retirees acquire additional political power which can be used to raise individual benefits. However, at the same time, the cost of increasing individual benefits is greater, and this may lead to a lowering of individual benefits." The results suggest that "the benefits received by the baby-boom generation will be significantly lower than those projected by the Social Security Administration."
Correspondence: T. A. Doescher, Office of Business and Economic Research, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20780 Dominican Republic. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Familia [CONAPOFA] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic). Population and society (national seminar, 1983): summary. [Poblacion y sociedad (seminario nacional, 1983): resumen.] [1985?]. 48 pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
This is a summary of papers presented at a seminar on population and society, held in the Dominican Republic in October-November 1983. The aim of the seminar was to attain a better understanding of the interrelations among population variables and socioeconomic factors and their impact on development. Chapters are included on the relationships among population and family structure, food and agricultural production, changes in life expectancy, labor force, the social status of women, ecology, basic services, housing, health, and education. The production and use of demographic data is briefly discussed, and population policies and social development are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20781 Ecuador. Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo [CONADE] (Quito, Ecuador); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population and social change: a socio-demographic analysis of Ecuador, 1950-1982. [Poblacion y cambios sociales: diagnostico sociodemografico del Ecuador: 1950-1982.] Biblioteca de Ciencias Sociales, Vol. 13, 1987. 367, [8] pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
Population trends in Ecuador from 1950 to 1982 are analyzed using census data. The focus is on the relationships among population growth, structure, distribution, and social development. Consideration is given to the impact of such factors as educational status, residence, housing conditions, social services, levels of savings, and socioeconomic status on differentials in mortality and fertility. Internal migration trends, urbanization, and changes in spatial distribution as well as the implications of these developments are examined. Future population trends are discussed, together with their anticipated impact on employment, health, education, and social security.
Correspondence: Corporacion Editora Nacional, Veintemilla y 12 de Octubre, Edif. Quito 12 El Giron W O. 51, P.O. Box 4147, Quito, Ecuador. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20782 Khasiani, Shanyisa A. The role of the family in meeting the social and economic needs of the aging population in Kenya. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 103-20 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author examines the extent to which modernization has affected the ability of the family to meet the social and economic needs of the aging population in Kenya. The results indicate that the elderly, most of whom live alone, are still respected, although their economic well-being has deteriorated as the extended family has given way to the nuclear family. The need for government assistance to the elderly is noted.
Correspondence: S. A. Khasiani, Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20783 Koesoebjono, Santo. Socio-demographic accounts: framework to measure the dynamics of population. 1987. 23 pp. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Socio-demographic accounts (SDA) are developed as a framework in which statistical information on the societal and social situation of the population, and changes therein, can be presented as a coherent whole. These accounts present the relation between size and structure of and trends in different population categories, permitting...an insight into the dynamics of the population and living arrangements. The development is based on a 'life-course model'. This paper discusses the SDA on the societal life course of the population i.e. a statistical description of positions individuals occupy in the course of their life with respect to social activities." The geographical focus is on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20784 Leibowitz, Arleen; Waite, Linda J.; Witsberger, Christina. Child care for preschoolers: differences by child's age. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 205-20 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Because of the high rates of employment of mothers, a large and increasing number of preschool children receive regular care from someone else. This article develops and tests hypotheses about the choice of child care arrangements for younger and older preschool children, using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women. We argue that appropriate care depends on the age of the child. It includes care by the mother or a paid provider in the child's home for children aged 0-2 and mother care and nursery school or center care for those 3-5. We estimate models of the mother's employment and choice of child care separately for younger and older preschoolers. Our results show that need for care, presence of substitutes for the mother, financial resources, and preferences all affect both full-time care by the mother and the type of child care chosen by working women, although they affect these two decisions in different ways."
Correspondence: A. Leibowitz, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20785 Lesthaeghe, R.; Surkyn, J. Exchange, production and reproduction: women in sub-Saharan demographic regimes. IPD Working Paper, No. 1988-1, 1988. 39, [12] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Patterns of social organization and exchange involving women, production, and reproduction in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. The authors attempt "to assess the impact of societal configurations of traits in social organization (i.e. the translation of ethnicity) upon the postpartum taboo and characteristics of the nuptiality regimes in sub-Saharan Africa." Attention is given to the productive value of women, lineage organization, Islamic and Christian penetrations, and female literacy. NUPFILE-3, a database linking ethnographic and demographic information, is used, and multivariate regression and Boolean analyses are described. It is found that "polygyny and the long postpartum taboo are strongly patterned by the traditional modes of production, lineage organization and the Christian or Islamic penetrations, and much less by aspects of recent socio-economic change (e.g. female literacy). By contrast, ages at marriage show the opposite effects."
Correspondence: IPD Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20786 Morin, Richard. The impact of demographic changes on housing demand. [L'impact des changements demographiques sur la demande de logements.] Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 243-60 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The effect of demographic changes on housing demand in Canada is examined, with particular attention to demographic aging, the growing number of small households, and the diversification of household types. It is noted that "older people, young adults and one parent families are increasing in importance and are facing particular housing problems with respect to affordability, residential autonomy and access to services."
Correspondence: R. Morin, Departement d'Etudes Urbaines, Universite du Quebec, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20787 Pool, Ian. Population and social trends: implications for New Zealand housing. National Housing Commission Research Paper, No. 86/3, ISBN 0-477-03815-8. LC 87-146194. Nov 1986. x, 154, xxi pp. National Housing Commission: Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
Changes in population and social patterns in New Zealand and their implications for housing policy are analyzed using 1981 census data. The author argues that changes in composition rather than size should be the main concern of those responsible for housing policy. Consideration is given to regional needs.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20788 Rybakovskii, L. L. The significance of demographic processes in the social development of the USSR. [Znachenie demograficheskikh protsessov v obshchestvennom razvitii SSSR.] In: Demograficheskoe razvitie v SSSR, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1985. 5-16 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the significance of demographic factors in the social development of the USSR. The current demographic situation is outlined, and changes in reproductive behavior and vital rates are analyzed. The evolution of demographic research is considered.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20789 South, Scott J.; Trent, Katherine. Sex ratios and women's roles: a cross-national analysis. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 93, No. 5, Mar 1988. 1,096-115 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Data for a sample of 117 countries are analyzed to test several hypotheses derived from the Guttentag-Secord theory relating societal-level sex ratios to women's status and roles. The theory implies that high sex ratios, which indicate a relative undersupply of women, will be positively associated with the proportion of women who marry and the fertility rate and negatively associated with women's average age at marriage, rates of divorce and illegitimacy, and female rates of literacy, labor-force participation, and suicide. Although the bivariate correlations between the sex ratio at ages 15-49 and these dimensions of women's roles provide little support for the theory, most of the expected relationships emerge when the level of socioeconomic development, as measured by a multi-item index, is statistically controlled. Additional analyses indicate that the effect of the sex ratio on women's roles is more pronounced in developed than in developing countries."
Correspondence: S. J. South, Department of Sociology, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

54:20790 Fukuda, Takeo. Population and survival. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1987. 11-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a general overview of three factors that the author views as threats to world peace--the East-West political conflict, the global economic situation, and the problem of population and economic development. In addition, the increasing depletion of the world's natural resources by a rapidly growing population is noted. The need for coordination among government and religious leaders in formulating effective population policy is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20791 Levy, Michel L. Election and population. [Election et population.] Population et Societes, No. 222, Mar 1988. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
mod 8179iew of recent demographic developments in France is provided using official data, the most recent of which are for 1987. A drop in the number of deaths and little change in the numbers of marriages and births between 1986 and 1987 are noted. Particular attention is given to changes in the electorate since 1978 in view of the 1988 presidential elections.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris, Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20792 Mumford, Stephen D. The pope and the new apocalypse: the holy war against family planning. ISBN 0-937307-00-9. LC 86-70854. 1986. viii, 82 pp. Center for Research on Population and Security: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
The author cirtically examines the positions of both the U.S. government and the Catholic church concerning population growth, birth control, and women's rights, with a focus on the growing public opposition to such positions. He develops the hypothesis that the seriousness of the global population crisis requires solutions that involve voluntary legal abortion as well as contraception. He asserts that the attack on the legality of abortion in the United States and elsewhere is directed primarily by the Catholic church and that this attack on abortion involves an implied attack on both the right to family planning and issues of individual freedom and national security in the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20793 Ogden, Philip. Immigration, cities and the geography of the National Front in France. In: Foreign minorities in continental European cities, edited by Gunther Glebe and John O'Loughlin. Erdkundliches Wissen, No. 84, 1987. 163-83 pp. Franz Steiner: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is, first, to outline recent trends in immigration to France and to pinpoint the role of the cities; and secondly, in the light of policy changes under Presidents Giscard d'Estaing and Mitterrand, to illustrate the strength of the urban immigrant issue by reference to the rise of the National Front and, in particular, its pattern of votes at the European Parliamentary elections in 1984."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20794 Peng, Xizhe. Demographic consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China's provinces. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 639-70, 763-4, 766 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the demographic consequences of China's Great Leap Forward--the massive and ultimately unsuccessful drive during 1958-62 to leap ahead in production by mobilizing society and reorganizing the peasantry into large-scale communes. Severe excess mortality and massive fertility shortfalls are documented, but with wide variations among provinces and between rural and urban areas. The demographic crisis was caused, in the first instance, by nationwide food shortages. However, these are attributable to declines in grain production, entitlement failure, and changes in consumption patterns, all of which are ultimately traceable to political and economic policies connected with the Great Leap."
Correspondence: X. Peng, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:20795 Brouard, Nicolas. AIDS: incubation period, growth rate, net reproduction rate. [SIDA: duree d'incubation, taux de croissance, taux de reproduction nette.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 797-818 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
An attempt is made to apply demographic analysis to the study of the AIDS epidemic. Specifically, an epidemiological model based on the classical concept of population replacement developed by Lotka is applied to the subpopulation represented by HIV-positive individuals. "Three parameters are involved in the theory: the virus's incubation period, its rate of growth and the average number of cases infected by a seropositive carrier. The first two can be and are calculated by an in-depth study, and the third can be deduced from them. Under certain assumptions relating to stability, particularly as regards the current growth rate, [an] HIV-positive carrier will infect 0.7 healthy individuals per year. The model suggested also focuses on new HIV-positive carriers who are approximately two times more numerous than the number of individuals infected n years earlier and who, generally unaware of the fact that they are carriers, continue to transmit the virus unknowingly. Any public health campaign must take this fact into account."
Correspondence: N. Brouard, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20796 Bui, Dang Ha Doan. The future of health and health care systems in the industrialized societies. ISBN 0-275-92491-2. LC 87-7292. 1988. x, 294 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by different authors on the future of health and health care systems in developed countries. The approach is interdisciplinary, and the contributors are from fields including demography, public administration, management, and health sciences. A section on the impact of demographic aging contains papers on the situation in Norway, the Federal Republic of Germany, and New Zealand.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20797 Gregory, Joel W.; Piche, Victor. Population, health, and development: conceptual framework, key variables, and methodological possibilities. [Population, sante et developpement: cadre conceptuel, variables cles et possibilites methodologiques.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 225, [1986]. [46] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Relationships between health and population developments are studied, with particular attention to causal relationships among population, health, and development in the Sahelian region of Western Africa. Three analytical frameworks for examining health in relation to mortality and morbidity are outlined, and significant variables are identified. The authors present a synthetic model that takes into account the interaction of a unified demographic system, involving fertility, mortality, and migration, with health factors. Related research conducted by the Institut du Sahel is reviewed, and the contributions of micro-level case studies are emphasized.
This paper is reprinted from "Les actes du seminaire methodologique sur les interrelations population, sante et developpement," Ottawa, Canada, 1986, pp. 33-78.
Correspondence: Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20798 Pharoah, P. O. D.; Alberman, E. D. Annual statistical review. Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol. 62, No. 7, Jul 1987. 745-51 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned annual series of reviews concerning national statistics on children in the United Kingdom. Topics to be covered include demographic trends, mortality, morbidity, behavior, and use of health and social services. "This first review introduces some of these data, their source, and recent trends."
Correspondence: P. O. D. Pharoah, Department of Community Health, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20799 Ranuh, I. G. N. Gde. Pattern of child morbidity and mortality in Indonesia. Journal of the Singapore Paediatric Society, Vol. 29, Suppl. 1, 1987. 13-23 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Recent trends in child morbidity and mortality in Indonesia are reviewed. The focus is on efforts to develop a national program to provide adequate basic health services.
Correspondence: I. G. N. G. Ranuh, Indonesian Paediatric Association, Medical School, Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20800 Remennik, L. I. Reproductive behavior and cancer in women. [Reproduktivnoe povedenie i onkologicheskie zabolevaniya u zhenshchin.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 157-70, 201 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The author states some causal associations between fertility decline and prevalence of cancer in women. It is shown how [a] small number of children [ever] born, postponement of childbearing to later ages and other characteristics of modern reproductive behavior become cancer risk factors. [The author also considers] how historic fluctuations of marriage and childbearing patterns of...Soviet women affect current and future cancer incidence trends in the USSR."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20801 Sawyer, Donald R.; Sawyer, Diana R. T. O. Malaria on the Amazon frontier: economic and social aspects of transmission and control. CEDEPLAR Relatorio de Pesquisa, Mar 1987. 84, [27] pp. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional [CEDEPLAR]: Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In Eng. with sum. in Por.
This report provides preliminary results from a 1985 survey concerning malaria transmission and control in the Machadinho settlement in Ariquemes, Rondonia, Brazil. The survey covered 1,777 individuals in 358 households. The results show a high prevalence of malaria but low mortality. The implications for programs of malaria prevention and control are stressed.
Correspondence: CEDEPLAR, Rua Curitiba 832, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20802 Tsui, Amy O.; DeClerque, Julia; Mangani, Nlandu. Maternal and sociodemographic correlates of child morbidity in Bas Zaire: the effects of maternal reporting. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1988. 701-13 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Cross-sectional survey data, collected in Bas Zaire [in 1983 and 1984] from the mothers of 1,200 urban and 1,670 rural children born in the last 5 years, are used to assess variations in diarrheal, malarial, helminthic, and other child morbidities by selected household, maternal and child factors. In a multivariate analysis, we focus on maternal age and birth order as determinants of recent illnesses to observe any parallels in their effects on child mortality. These relationships are found after adjusting for bias from differential maternal perceptions of illnesses."
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

54:20803 Allen, Gordon; Redekop, Calvin W. Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico: migration and inbreeding. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 166-79 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This report presents migration and surname data from a human isolate and attempts to explain the inbreeding inferred from surnames in terms of numerical history and recent migration patterns." The data, from church records and a 1967 survey, concern Old Colony Mennonites who migrated to Mexico in the 1920s.
Correspondence: G. Allen, National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20804 Betzig, Laura; Mulder, Monique B.; Turke, Paul. Human reproductive behaviour: a Darwinian perspective. Cambridge Studies in Biological Anthropology, ISBN 0-521-32738-5. LC 87-6629. 1987. vii, 363 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Human mating and parenting behaviors are examined from a Darwinian perspective in this collection of 20 papers by anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists. The emphasis is on studies using quantitative data. The first part includes 9 studies on mating and marriage patterns in different societies. The second part has 10 studies on parenting and reproduction and the factors affecting them. There is no specific geographic or time period focus. A detailed subject index to the entire volume is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20805 Betzig, Laura L. Despotism and differential reproduction: a Darwinian view of history. ISBN 0-202-01171-2. LC 85-20010. 1986. xi, 171 pp. Aldine: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author critically examines the Darwinian hypothesis that power is exploited by despots in order to favor and increase their reproduction of offspring. Ethnographic and historical data for a sample of over 100 societies around the world are used to explore when and how men and women have abused their power to resolve conflicts in their own interest. The author then reviews methods by which successful men have increased their reproductive advantage, including harems, polygyny, and claustration.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20806 Imaizumi, Yoko. Parental consanguinity in two generations in Japan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 235-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A survey of consanguineous marriages in Japan in couples and their parents was conducted in 1983 through questionnaires. The total number of couples studied was 9,225; they were chosen from six widely different areas of the country. The kinship coefficient between parents did not decrease with the year of birth. Thus, the recent decline in the frequency of consanguineous marriages in Japan seems to be largely a post-World War II phenomenon. The kinship decreases with marital distance in the parental generation, and socioeconomic class (level of education and occupation) effects are small by comparison with those of the present generation. The rate of consanguinity is significantly higher in the older generation for almost all areas. The kinship between spouses is less than a half of that in parents for the whole of Japan. Geographical variation in the rate of consanguinity is more remarkable in spouses than parental couples."
Correspondence: Y. Imaizumi, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20807 Kaupen-Haas, Heidrun. The grip on the population: the actuality and continuity of Nazi population policy. [Der Griff nach der Bevolkerung: Aktualitat und Kontinuitat nazistischer Bevolkerungspolitik.] Schriften der Hamburger Stiftung fur Sozialgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vol. 1, ISBN 3-89190-952-7. 1986. 179 pp. Franz Greno: Nordlingen, Germany, Federal Republic of; Delphi Politik: Nordlingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a collection of articles on the relationship between eugenics and racial policy in Nazi Germany on the one hand and modern-day genetic and reproductive technology on the other. Topics considered include classical genetics and its effects on population biology in the Third Reich; fertility regulation and human economy: the conferences on sexual reform, 1921-1930; the mission of the evangelical church and its population policy program; population planners as specialists in population and racial policy; Hans Wilhelm Jurgens, a representative of West German population research; and human betterment, forced sterilization, and test-tube babies. It is argued that genetics and reproductive technology are not new sciences and that they laid the foundation for population policy not only in Nazi Germany but at an international level.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:20808 Masaki, Motofumi; Koizumi, Akira. Demographic characteristics and their genetic implications in a small island. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 225-34 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The family registration records from a village population in a small island of Japan are used to assess the effect of demographic differentiation within a population on genetic measures. When the couples studied are classified by birth cohorts and origins, wives of the couples where one spouse came from elsewhere were older at marriage and had a shorter duration of marriage or registration than wives where both spouses were natives of the village. The mean number of offspring is statistically smaller in the former except for the latest cohort, due mainly to out-migration during the reproductive ages which also resulted in low rates of marriage among the offspring within the village. This leads to a small effective population size and an increased likelihood of genetic drift in the overall population." The data are for the period from 1890 through the 1970s.
Correspondence: M. Masaki, Department of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20809 Moore, Mary J. Inbreeding and reproductive parameters among Mennonites in Kansas. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 180-6 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The relationship between inbreeding and certain reproductive parameters was studied by analyzing the reproductive history questionnaires collected from 194 women who attended a research clinic in the Mennonite community of Goessel, Kansas [in 1980 using data from local Mennonite sources]....Five reproductive parameters, age of menarche, age of menopause, length of reproductive span, number of children, and fetal wastage, were compared in inbred and noninbred women. There is no consistent evidence that absence of inbreeding or degree of inbreeding...significantly affects these reproductive parameters in this sample of Mennonite women."
Correspondence: M. J. Moore, Department of Anthropology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20810 Relethford, John H. Heterogeneity of long-distance migration in studies of genetic structure. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 55-63 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The purpose of this paper is to use historical demographic data to assess variation in rates of long-distance migration, variation in the origin of long-distance migrants, and expected genetic effects of heterogeneity of long-distance migrants." The data are from marriage records of four towns in Massachusetts for the period 1800-1849. "Surname analysis shows that in spite of the violation of the assumption of long-distance migrant homogeneity, there is little effect on the degree and pattern of within-group and among-group variation....This lack of effect seems related to genetic homogeneity of the long distance migrants."
Correspondence: J. H. Relethford, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York College of Oneonta, Oneonta, NY 13820-1370. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20811 Tavare, Simon. The birth process with immigration, and the genealogical structure of large populations. Journal of Mathematical Biology, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1987. 161-8 pp. Heidelberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper studies a version of the birth and immigration process in which families are followed in the order of their appearance. This age structure is related to a number of results from population genetics, in particular the genealogical structure of the infinitely-many neutral alleles model. The asymptotic behavior of this genealogy is an easy consequence of the structure of the age-ordered family size process."
Correspondence: S. Tavare, Mathematics Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.