Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

54:20663 Basu, Alaka; Basu, Kaushik. The greying of populations: concepts and measurement. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 79-89 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Existing methods of measuring the aging of a population are evaluated. Attention is given first to the simple measure of the proportion of the population over age 65. Two other indexes are then developed in an effort to satisfy axioms concerning continuity and monotonicity and to take into account the age distribution of those over age 65. Data limitations involved in utilizing these measures are noted.
Correspondence: A. Basu, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Parisila Bhavan, 11, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi-110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20664 Boyer, Louise; Gauthier, Anne H. Who are the members of the Association of Demographers of Quebec? [Qui sont les membres de l'Association des demographes du Quebec?] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct 1987. 289-303 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Demographic characteristics of members of the Association of Demographers of Quebec (ADQ) are outlined. Attention is given to age and sex distribution, type and place of employment, income by sex, areas of interest and specialties, and professional memberships. The information provided is from 168 ADQ membership forms.
Correspondence: L. Boyer, Demography Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20665 Buttner, Thomas; Lutz, Wolfgang; Speigner, Wulfram. Some demographic aspects of aging in the German Democratic Republic. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-87-116, Nov 1987. v, 52 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Major aspects of demographic aging in the German Democratic Republic from the 1980s to the year 2010 are outlined. Attention is given to the current demographic situation, components of the aging process, and the application of a multi-state model to marital status changes. According to the analysis, "the aging process in the German Democratic Republic generally follows the pattern of most other central European countries. [As] in most of these countries the graphical representation of the aging process...is dominated by the strong birth cohorts that were born after World War II." Problems arising from this pattern of aging are examined.
Correspondence: IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20666 Cagiano, Raimondo. Population and development policies for youth, women and the aged. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 28-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Aspects of current and anticipated demographic developments worldwide are examined, focusing on growing proportions of young people; women's health, education, and occupations; and questions concerning demographic aging.
Correspondence: R. Cagiano, Department of Economics, University of Rome, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20667 Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR] (Quito, Ecuador). Ecuador: statistical compendium on women. [Ecuador: compendio estadistico sobre la mujer.] Jul 1985. 97 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
This is a compendium of statistical data on the social and demographic characteristics of women in Ecuador. Data for the period 1950-1982 are provided on population by sex, age, region, and sex ratio; mortality, including infant mortality; fertility rates and marital fertility; nuptiality; reproductive preferences and desired family size; contraceptive knowledge and use; breast-feeding; and maternal and infant health care. Other sections contain data on education, economic activity, social security, and vital statistics. Projections for the period 1980-2000 are included for total population by sex, female population by age group, and female school-age population by age.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

54:20668 Falbo, Toni; Ji, Guiping; Jiao, Shulan; Jing, Qicheng. Only children in China. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.023, 1986. 19, [5] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"A study (N=810) was conducted to evaluate the physical, academic, and personality characteristics of only children born before the one-child policy in China. The children ranged in age from 7-9 years and lived in Beijing, China. Teachers rated the personality attributes of their students in their classrooms and parents provided imformation about the height, weight, and most recent math and language achievement scores of their children. Two personality scales were constructed from the teachers' ratings: one measuring childrens' tractability and one measuring their classroom competence. The results indicated that only children were taller and weighed more and they scored higher on language achievement and tractability than their siblinged classmates. These results are explained in terms of greater attention and care given to only than siblinged children by their parents."
Correspondence: Texas Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20669 Guttman, David. European American elderly: an annotated bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in Gerontology, No. 6, ISBN 0-313-25583-0. LC 87-17809. 1987. xvii, 122 pp. Greenwood Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is an annotated bibliography of works concerning the elderly U.S. population of European origin. It includes 310 items published in the last 15 years. The target population is defined as those over age 65 of European origin, excluding the United Kingdom and Ireland. The bibliography is organized by subject, and author and subject indexes are included. The focus is on adjustment to American life, factors related to well-being, problems and needs, and use of available support systems.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20670 Kalache, Alexandre; Veras, Renato P.; Ramos, Luiz R. The aging of the world's population. A new challenge. [O envelhecimento da populacao mundial. Um desafio novo.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jun 1987. 200-10 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic aging as a worldwide phenomenon is described, with emphasis on the situation in Brazil up to the year 2025. The causes of demographic aging in developing countries are reviewed, and attention is given to the consequences, particularly for the provision of health services. The authors also examine concepts such as the quality of life in the context of demographic aging.
For related studies by Veras et al. and Ramos et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: A. Kalache, Unit for the Epidemiology of Ageing, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20671 Kinsella, Kevin G. Aging in the third world. CIR Staff Paper, No. 35, Feb 1988. ix, 80 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Africa and Latin America Branch: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is twofold: to summarize detailed demographic and socioeconomic statistics that have been collected on older populations in 22 developing countries; and to suggest areas where additional information is needed for planning and development purposes." Data are primarily from the U.S. Bureau of the Census's International Data Base on Aging. The focus is on developments up to the year 2020. Topics covered include rural-urban differences, life expectancy and mortality, health and disability, gender and marital status, living arrangements and long-term care, literacy and educational status, labor force and occupations, and social support for the elderly.
Correspondence: Africa and Latin America Branch, CIR, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20672 Kuroda, Toshio. The aging of populations. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1987. 32-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Demographic aging in Asia is examined with particular emphasis on the situations in Japan and China. It is stressed that "the aged population cannot be viewed as a homogeneous group, but should be classified into several categories based on their general health, level of activity, morbidity and mortality rate. They should also be classified by age into groups consisting of people in their 60's, and 70's and 80's." The author presents policy recommendations concerning the age-dependency ratio, the increased socioeconomic burden due to population aging, and the need to consider the aged as an integral part of society.
Correspondence: T. Kuroda, Population Research Institute, Nihon University, 8-24 Kudan-Minani 4-chome, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20673 Lakiza-Sachuk, Natalija N. The transformation of the aging family in modern society. Demographic aspects. [Az oregedo csalad atalakulasa a modern tarsadalomban. Demografiai vonatkozasok.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1986. 64-70 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Trends in demographic aging in developed societies are reviewed, with particular attention to the situation in the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20674 Levy, Michel L. The imbalance between the sexes. [Le desequilibre des sexes.] Population et Societes, No. 221, Feb 1988. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Differences in the age distribution by sex of the unmarried population in France are summarized using official data for the population at January 1, 1986.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20675 Lowy, Louis. The implication of demographic trends as they affect the elderly. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1986. 149-74 pp. Madison, Connecticut. In Eng.
The demographic aging of the U.S. population is reviewed, with emphasis on the implications for the elderly population. The author states that society faces two radical alternatives: either to curtail present standards of living among the middle and higher income groups to pay for increased social security costs associated with demographic aging, or to cut such services to the elderly. The author assumes that the first alternative will be preferred and discusses its implications for the family, for the services required, and for those who will provide them.
Correspondence: L. Lowy, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20676 Marcil-Gratton, Nicole; Legare, Jacques. Being old today and tomorrow: a different proposition. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 237-41 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This is an outline of major issues concerning demographic aging in Canada and its socioeconomic implications. Among the subjects included are the predominance of women among the aged, old age security, the health of the aged, and geographic variations.
This is a translation of the French article in Futuribles (Paris, France), No. 110, 1987, pp. 3-21.
Correspondence: N. Marcil-Gratton, Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20677 Marcil-Gratton, Nicole; Legare, Jacques. Old age today and tomorrow. The same age, a different reality? [Vieillesse d'aujourd'hui et de demain. Un meme age, une autre realite?] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 232, [1987]. [19] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Selected characteristics of the population currently aged 60 and over are contrasted with anticipated factors pertaining to that age group in future years. The authors argue that, rather than constituting a burden due to increased social expenditures, future retirement-age individuals will enjoy greater autonomy and less social isolation as a result of developments involving female employment and changing marriage patterns. Data from selected countries worldwide are used to illustrate the argument.
This paper is reprinted from Futuribles (Paris, France), No. 110, May 1987, pp. 3-21.
Correspondence: Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20678 Ramos, Luiz R.; Veras, Renato P.; Kalache, Alexandre. The aging of population: the Brazilian scene. [Envelhecimento populacional: uma realidade brasileira.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jun 1987. 211-24 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic aging in Brazil up to the year 2025 is analyzed. The authors note that since 1940, the elderly have been the fastest-growing population group in the country and that by 2025, Brazil will have the sixth largest elderly population in the world. Comparisons are made with the situation in England. The authors conclude that Brazil is facing problems with regard to the provision of health and social services for the elderly similar to the problems confronting developed countries of the world.
For related studies by Veras et al. and Kalache et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: L. R. Ramos, Departamento de Medicina Prevetiva da Escola Paulista de Medicina, Rua Botucatu 740, 04023 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20679 Solari, Aldo E. The aging of the Uruguayan population in the past 30 years: from "normal" aging to "perverse" aging. [El envejecimiento de la poblacion Uruguaya treinta anos despues: del envejecimiento "normal" al envejecimiento "perverso"] Cuadernos del CLAEH, Vol. 12, No. 43, Dec 1987. 7-26 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
Trends in aging in Uruguay over the past 30 years are analyzed, with a focus on the impact of economic, social, and political factors. The extent to which declining birth rates and increased immigration have contributed to the extensive changes in age distribution is considered. Regional and sex differentials are noted, and possible means of supporting an increasingly aging population are suggested. Data are from the censuses of 1963, 1975, and 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20680 Spencer, Gregory; Goldstein, Arnold A.; Taeuber, Cynthia M. America's centenarians: data from the 1980 census. Jun 1987. [144] pp. U.S. National Institute on Aging: Washington, D.C.; U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This publication was previously issued as part of the series Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies. Data from the 1980 U.S. census on American centenarians are provided by age, sex, ethnic group, living arrangement and marital status, income and poverty, educational status, ancestry, immigration, and language spoken. U.S. summary and state tables are included, and the reliability of the data is discussed.
For the Current Population Report, also published in 1987, see 54:10634.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20681 Stern, Claudio; Corona, Rodolfo. The effects of rural-urban migration on the age and sex composition of the population: the case of Mexico. [Efectos de la migracion rural-urbana sobre las composiciones por edad y sexo de la poblacion: el caso de Mexico.] Estudios Sociologicos, Vol. 3, No. 9, Sep-Dec 1985. 459-79 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors examine some consequences of internal migration for the age and sex structure of a developing country population, using the example of rural-urban migration in Mexico. They first review general demographic characteristics of the country's population during the twentieth century. They then trace the demographic development of the population from 1940 to 1970 in two study areas of Mexico: the Federal District and the state of Hidalgo. The impact of migration on family structure and the labor force is considered, and possible future trends are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20682 Switzerland. Service Cantonal de Statistique. Departement de l'Economie Publique (Geneva, Switzerland). Women in Geneva: a statistical portrait. [Les femmes a Geneve: portrait statistique.] Etudes et Documents, No. 11, Feb 1988. 76 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Fre.
This is a statistical portrait of the female population of the Swiss canton of Geneva. Sections are included on population characteristics, professional activity, fertility, and family structure.
Correspondence: Service Cantonal de Statistique, Departement de l'Economie Publique, Rue du 31-Decembre 8, Case Postale 36, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20683 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report. The survey of hill tribe population: 1986. Chiang Rai province. Pub. Order No. E-Sur-Hil-K No. 4-86. [1986?]. [vii], 51, 95 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is one in a series of reports presenting results from a demographic survey of the hill tribe populations of Thailand. The present report is concerned with the hill tribe population of Chiang Rai province. The survey covered such characteristics as age and sex distribution, marital status, marriage age, educational status, religion, language, fertility, family planning practice, occupation, and migration.
For a previous report concerning Phayao province, published in 1987, see 54:10631.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Bangkok Metropolis 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20684 Thompson, Jean. Ageing of the population: contemporary trends and issues. Population Trends, No. 50, Winter 1987. 18-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The contemporary demographic scene in Britain is marked by major changes in the age structure of the population, within a total size that is increasing at only a slow rate. This article shows how current and prospective trends give rise to important problems for the economic and social organisation of society; and how uncertainties in the assessment of future population prospects have to be borne in mind in considering policy-making."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20685 van Poppel, F. W. A.; van der Wijst, C. A. The demographic and socio-economic situation of the elderly in the Netherlands: an overview. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, Vol. 18, No. 2A, May 1987. 107-16 pp. Deventer, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
"This article aims to give a brief overview of the actual demographic and socio-economic situation of the elderly in the Netherlands. In view of the fact that the ageing process is still in a comparatively early phase, but will gain momentum during the course of the next century, attention is also paid to future developments. In addition, issues which are related to research on the elderly and on an ageing society, are discussed within the framework of Dutch research activities in the field of demography."
Correspondence: F. W. A. van Poppel, NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20686 Yamamoto, Chizuko. Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 181, Jan 1987. 44-53 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:20687 Brooks-Gunn, J.; Warren, Michelle P. Mother-daughter differences in menarcheal age in adolescent girls attending national dance company schools and non-dancers. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 35-43 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"To examine the possible differential influence of heredity and environmental factors on menarcheal age, 350 adolescent dancers and non-dancers and their mothers were surveyed. The dancers had a later age of menarche than did the comparison group; their mothers did not differ with respect to menarcheal age, suggesting that delayed menarche in athletes is not solely due to genetic selection as inferred by maternal menarcheal age. Maternal menarcheal age was the best predictor of menarcheal age in the comparison sample, while leanness was in the dance sample." The data concern 350 white U.S. girls attending national dance company schools or private day schools.
Correspondence: J. Brooks-Gunn, Division of Educational Policy Research and Services, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20688 Frisch, Rose E. Comment on "Female reproductive development: a hazards model analysis," by Andrew Foster, Jane Menken, Aladdin Chowdhury and James Trussell. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 254-5 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent article by Andrew Foster et al. concerning the application of hazards modeling to the study of menarche and adolescent sub-fecundity using data from Bangladesh.
For the article by Foster et al., published in 1986, see 53:10655.
Correspondence: R. E. Frisch, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20689 James, William H. The human sex ratio. Part 2: a hypothesis and a program of research. Human Biology, Vol. 59, No. 6, Dec 1987. 873-900 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
This is the second of a two-part study on the human sex ratio. "It is hypothesised that hormone levels of both parents at the time of conception affect the probability of a male birth, high levels of estrogen and testosterone increasing this probability, and high levels of gonadotropin decreasing it." The author discusses how such a hypothesis accommodates observed variations of sex ratio and outlines two methods of testing the hypothesis in future research.
For Part 1, also published in 1987, see 54:10637.
Correspondence: W. H. James, Medical Research Council Mammalian Development Unit, Wolfson House, University College London, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20690 Liu, Shuang. A brief discussion on the differences in the sex ratio at birth of China's population. Population Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, Jul 1986. 46-7, 45 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author examines the sex ratio at birth in China using data from a 10 percent sample of the 1982 census and the 1-in-1,000 national fertility survey. Differences in sex ratio are identified by region, ethnic group, rural and urban area, and parity. Reasons for the country's high sex ratio are discussed.
This is a translation of the Chinese article published in 1985 and cited in 52:30655.
Correspondence: S. Liu, Department of Demography, People's University of China, 39 Hai Dian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20691 Muhsam, Helmuth V. A note on the state of the art of preselection of the sex of children. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 133-9 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper the author presents the state of the art of preselection of the sex of children. To this purpose attempts to control the sex of offspring are classified into four categories: 1) selective conception; 2) treatment of ova or embryos, 3) presexing of embryos; and 4) selection of sperma. The nature and the availability of the different approaches are described as well as the various socio-medical aspects involved. In spite of the general impression that, at present, no reliable technique with clearly known probabilities of success and failure is available, this goal seems to be at close reach and sex selection of children will certainly become accessible in a not very remote future."
Correspondence: H. V. Muhsam, Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20692 Prakasam, C. P.; Upadhyay, R. B. Trend in sex ratio by age of mother in Greater Bombay. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 70-8 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Trends in sex ratio at birth in Greater Bombay, India, are investigated in relation to age of mother, using official data for the years 1964-1980. "For each age group of mothers (<15, 15-19,...45+) [the] average proportion of male births for the period 1964-1980 has been calculated....This masculinity ratio was high when the age of the mother [was] less than 15 years (.5206), reached a peak in the age group 15-19 and then declined up to [the] 30-34 age group. Later a slight increase followed for higher age groups."
Correspondence: C. P. Prakasam, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay-400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20693 Randhawa, I.; Premi, H. K.; Gupta, T. The age at menopause in the women of Himachal Pradesh, and the factors affecting the menopause. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 40-9 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Results of a study on age at menopause in India and the factors affecting it are presented. Data concern 500 post-menopausal women forming a representative sample of the population of Himachal Pradesh. The mean age at menopause was 43.55 years. Rural or urban residence and parity had no discernible effect on age at menopause. However, women of higher socioeconomic status and those living at lower altitudes had later onset of menopause.
Correspondence: I. Randhawa, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, H. P. Medical College, Kamla Nehru Hospital, Shimla 171 001, Himachal Pradesh, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20694 Singh, S. P.; Malhotra, P. Secular shift in menarcheal age of Patiala (India) schoolgirls between 1974 and 1986. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 77-80 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The secular shift between 1974 and 1986 in the menarcheal age of Patiala [India] schoolgirls has been explored. A total of 946 girls of higher and lower social classes (type of school being the criterion) were surveyed...." A decline in age at menarche among girls in both social classes is established; it is noted that differences in age at menarche by social class have decreased.
Correspondence: S. P. Singh, Department of Human Biology, Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20695 Stanford, Janet L.; Hartge, Patricia; Brinton, Louise A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Brookmeyer, Ronald. Factors influencing the age at natural menopause. Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 40, No. 11, 1987. 995-1,002 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To examine sociodemographic, menstrual, reproductive, and other factors which may influence the age at natural menopause, the authors analyzed data from a large series of women participating in a [U.S.] nationwide breast cancer screening program conducted between 1973 and 1980. Standard life table techniques permitted assessment of factors suspected of varying the time to menstrual cessation among 983 premenopausal women, 1,091 surgically menopausal women, and 1,423 naturally menopausal women. The median age at natural menopause was 51.1 years. Multivariate analysis indicated that parity, irregularity of menstrual cycles before age 25 or first livebirth, and high socioeconomic status were significantly related to menopausal age. These data provide evidence for the hypothesis that certain environmental and hormonal factors which affect ovulation during reproductive years may ultimately postpone the menopause."
Correspondence: J. L. Stanford, Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Landow Building, Room 3C06, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

54:20696 Blackburn, McKinley L.; Bloom, David E. Earnings and income inequality in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 575-609, 763, 765 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article explores the relationship between technological change and income inequality in the United States since the late 1960s. The analysis focuses primarily on patterns and trends in the dispersion of various distributions of earnings and income during this recent period of rapid technological progress. The authors review relevant literature and perform several empirical analyses using microdata from the March Current Population Surveys from 1968 to 1986. They find little empirical evidence that earnings inequality, measured across individual workers, has increased since the late 1960s, and even less evidence that any changes that have occurred have resulted from the effect of technological change on the demand for labor. On the other hand, they find evidence of an increase since the late 1960s in the inequality of total family income, measured across families. Moreover, much of this increase appears to be due to changes in family composition and labor supply behavior, suggesting that the main effects of recent technological change on inequality have been supply-side in nature."
Correspondence: M. L. Blackburn, Department of Economics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20697 Kono, Shigemi. Well-being among children and the aged in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 184, Oct 1987. 1-18 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author applies concepts developed by Samuel Preston concerning the comparative well-being of children and the elderly to the situation in Japan. Specifically, data on cash expenditures among Japanese households are analyzed in order to identify trends in relative expenditures for the benefit of different age groups. Data are from the national Social Surveys carried out in 1975, 1980, and 1985. The results indicate that the Japanese data support the Preston hypothesis that increases in the size of the elderly population have been accompanied by an improvement in their economic well-being.
Correspondence: S. Kono, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20698 Le Bourdais, Celine; Desrosiers, Helene. Changes in women's socioeconomic status: the interaction between demographic developments and labor market changes. [Modifications de la situation socio-economique des femmes: l'interaction entre l'evolution demographique et les changements dans le marche du travail.] Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 147-69 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"On the basis of a literature survey, this paper advocates an integrated framework for the study of the professional and demographic trajectories of women; such an approach is essential if a better understanding of women's socio-economic conditions is to be achieved. The first two sections review studies separately treating the links between socio-economic condition, on the one hand, and 1) family situation and 2) labour market position, on the other hand. The third section of the paper examines recent works that attempt to integrate these two research frameworks. Having examined these issues, it is concluded that there is considerable reason for concern regarding the socio-economic situation of women towards the end of the century." The geographical focus is on Canada.
Correspondence: C. Le Bourdais, Insititut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Urbanisation, Universite du Quebec, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20699 Le Bourdais, Celine. One is poor: is one born poor or does one become poor? An essay on the importance of longitudinal data in the analysis of poverty. [On est pauvre: on nait pauvre ou on le devient? Essai sur l'importance des donnees longitudinales dans l'analyse de la pauvrete.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct 1987. 269-88 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The importance of collecting and analyzing longitudinal as opposed to cross-sectional data in order to formulate policy aimed at alleviating poverty is discussed, with an emphasis on research and policies in the United States and Canada. Findings from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics are noted, and attention is given to the economic mobility of families and individuals and to determinants of poverty. The implications for selected economic and social policies of the findings of longitudinal studies concerning poverty are outlined.
Correspondence: C. Le Bourdais, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-Urbanisation), Universite du Quebec, 3465 Rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20700 Levine, Phillip B.; Mitchell, Olivia S. The baby boom's legacy: relative wages in the twenty-first century. American Economic Review, Vol. 78, No. 2, May 1988. 66-9 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The authors assess the baby boom generation's impact on relative wages in the United States in the year 2020. Time series data for the period 1955-1984 from the MIT-Penn-SSRC data bank are used. An econometric model of the demand for workers in eight age-sex categories is estimated. "The simulation results indicate that wages of prime-age workers will not deteriorate in relation to older workers as a result of the aging of the baby boom cohort. Conclusions for teens cannot be drawn. The general result does not hold for women, however. Prime-age women are predicted to lose in comparison with older workers and with men, increasing rather than reducing wage differentials by sex, ceteris paribus."
Correspondence: P. B. Levine, Department of Economics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20701 McGranahan, David A.; Hession, John C.; Hines, Fred K.; Jordan, Max F. Social and economic characteristics of the population in metro and nonmetro counties, 1970-80. Rural Development Research Report, No. 58, LC 86-602790. Sep 1986. iv, 70 pp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Rapid growth in manufacturing, increasing numbers of working women with children, and a steep rise in single-parent families were leading changes in the economic and social profile of [U.S.] rural counties during the 1970's. This report documents changes in the economic and social characteristics of both metro and nonmetro residents from 1970-80. Although median family income in nonmetro areas continued to improve compared with metro areas, nonmetro median income was only 79 percent of metro income in 1979, compared with 69 percent in 1959."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20702 Nakosteen, Robert A.; Zimmer, Michael A. Marital status and earnings of young men: a model with endogenous selection. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring 1987. 248-68 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"It is a matter of course in applied labor economics to presume that marital status is a predetermined contributor to earnings among young males. We find no evidence to support that proposition. We estimate a model of earnings determination that permits endogenous selection of marital status. Our estimates are based on a sample of young employed males from the Michigan Panel Survey of Income Dynamics. They indicate that marital status, viewed in this manner, does not significantly shift the mean earnings profile. Our sensitivity tests indicate that this conclusion is robust with respect to a variety of alternative specifications."
Correspondence: R. A. Nakosteen, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:20703 Ross, Christine M.; Danziger, Sheldon; Smolensky, Eugene. Interpreting changes in the economic status of the elderly, 1949-1979. Contemporary Policy Issues, Vol. 5, No. 2, Apr 1987. 98-112 pp. Long Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes changes in the economic well-being of the elderly using data from the [U.S.] Decennial Censuses of 1950 through 1980. We find that the economic status of each elderly cohort is higher on average than that of the preceding cohort. Certain events associated with age--retirement for both men and women and widowhood for women--are associated with declining incomes. Controlling for sex, labor force participation, and marital status, however, the economic well-being of elderly cohorts generally increases with age."
Correspondence: C. M. Ross, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20704 Slyusar, L. I. A demo-economic analysis of changes in population structure in the Ukrainian SSR according to means of livelihood. [Demoekonomicheskii analiz izmeneniya struktury naseleniya Ukrainskoi SSR po istochnikam sredstv sushchestvovaniya.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 11, 1987. 113-8 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents a demographic-economic analysis of changes in the population structure in the Ukrainian SSR, according to income and means of livelihood.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20705 Smeeding, Timothy; Torrey, Barbara B.; Rein, Martin. Comparative well-being of children and elderly. Contemporary Policy Issues, Vol. 5, No. 2, Apr 1987. 57-72 pp. Long Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper compares the economic well-being of children and the elderly to each other in the United States and across six industrialized countries. Using the Luxembourg Income Study database, we find that U.S. children--whose economic status is measured by their family income--are generally worse off than U.S. elderly in terms of both poverty and adjusted mean income. Moreover, U.S. children are worse off in terms of higher poverty rates than are the children in any of the other countries studied. The paper presents a variety of explanations for these differences."
Correspondence: T. Smeeding, Department of Economics, Buo-314, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20706 Teo, Peggy C.-C. The dimensions of poverty and their relationship to fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. Pub. Order No. DA8705422. 1986. 265 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis investigates the nature and the spatial distribution of poverty in Peninsular Malaysia using district-level data. It uses a factor analytic approach to deal with the collinearity in the data, after which the factor scores are employed in the regression exercise to determine the association between poverty and fertility. A further analysis of cohort poverty and fertility is provided....The main finding is that in Malaysia, absolute and relative poverty, at the district level of spatial resolution, cannot be separated. Instead, a rural-urban dichotomy and a Malay-Chinese distinction of poverty was discerned."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(11).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

54:20707 Batalina, T. S. Demography in literature and art. [Demografiya v literature i iskusstve.] Populyarnaya Demografiya, 1986. 92 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author explores demographic trends as depicted in literature and the arts in the USSR. Topics considered include marriage and family as presented in the works of Tolstoy and Chekhov; Soviet literature, drama, and cinema concerning the family; and domestic themes in the works of foreign authors. Some statistical information on family size and characteristics in the USSR is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20708 Dufourcq, Elisabeth. A demographic approach to the spread of women's religious orders of French origin outside Europe. [Approche demographique de l'implantation hors d'Europe des congregations religieuses feminines d'origine francaise.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 45-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines the global geographical distribution in 1985 of Catholic women's religious orders of French origin. "At present they contain a population of 190,000 women, of whom only one-third live in France, another third in other European countries and one-third overseas. Their geographical locations are not related to the distribution of the French language or to France's former colonial empire. In Europe, the largest number of these congregations is found in Spain....Italy takes second place....Outside Europe, it might have been expected that there were many congregations in Africa. However, they are much more numerous in North and South America....An epidemiological approach can be used to study this geographical distribution throughout the world."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20709 Jain, Santosh; Malhan, S. Measurement of household socio-economic status. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 150-8 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors develop an index of socioeconomic status for the household as a unit, giving differential weights to per capita income, caste, and average educational status of household members over the age of 15. The index is applied to a sample of 493 households drawn from urban and rural areas in India.
Correspondence: S. Jain, Institute of Home Economics, NDSE-I, New Delhi-110 049, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20710 Krein, Sheila F.; Beller, Andrea H. Educational attainment of children from single-parent families: differences by exposure, gender, and race. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 221-34 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article examines the effect of living in a single-parent family on educational attainment by gender and race [in the United States]. According to household production theory, the reduction in parental resources for human capital investment in children living in a single-parent family should lower their educational attainment. Using matched mother-daughter and mother-son samples from the National Longitudinal Surveys, we constructed precise measures of the age and length of time a child lived in a single-parent family. Empirical findings show that the negative effect of living in a single-parent family (1) increases with the number of years spent in this type of family, (2) is greatest during the preschool years, and (3) is larger for boys than girls."
Correspondence: S. F. Krein, Division of Family and Consumer Economics, School of Human Resources and Family Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20711 Ma, Shuluan. A comparative analysis of China's Population Quality Life Index. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 1987. 1-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Regional differences in the quality of life in China are explored using the Population Quality Life Index, which includes indicators of infant mortality, life expectancy, literacy, and income.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 3, 1986.
Correspondence: S. Ma, Population Research Office, Nanjing University, 11 Hankou Road, Nanjing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20712 McLaughlin, Steven D.; Manninen, Diane L.; Winges, Linda D. Do adolescents who relinquish their children fare better or worse than those who raise them? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 25-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The research reported here provides a description of the outcomes experienced by [U.S.] adolescents who relinquish their children for adoption. In addition, we compare the outcomes for such women with those for adolescents who rear their children....Data for our analysis were obtained from questionnaires filled out in 1985 by former clients of Options for Pregnancy, a pregnancy-counseling program affiliated with a large adoption agency in the Pacific Northwest that promotes 'open adoption.'" It is found that "when background and other characteristics are controlled for, older adolescents who rear their children are as likely as those who place them for adoption to complete high school. However, relinquishers are more likely to complete vocational training and have higher educational aspirations. Further, relinquishers are more likely to delay marriage, to be employed six and 12 months after the birth and to live in higher income households than are child rearers. Child rearers are more likely to become pregnant again sooner and to resolve subsequent pregnancies by abortion."
Correspondence: S. D. McLaughlin, Battelle Health and Population Research Center, Seattle, WA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

54:20713 Bromlei, Yu. V. Ethnic processes in the contemporary world. [Etnicheskie protsessy v sovremennom mire.] 1987. 447 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of papers by different authors concerning ethnic processes in the contemporary world. Section 1, on principal factors and common features of contemporary ethnic processes, contains papers on the investigation of ethnic processes, preconditions of such processes, the role of language and religion, and racial factors. Section 2 is a regional examination of ethnic processes and includes papers on the USSR, Europe and Asia (excluding the USSR), Africa, America, and Australia and Oceania. Section 3 provides an overview and summary of current world ethno-demographic processes.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20714 De Rham-Azimi, Nassrine. Soviet Muslim populations. Demographic and labour imbalances: domestic perspective 1970-1983. LC 87-131408. 1986. 109 pp. Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
A demographic analysis of the Muslim populations of the USSR is presented. Recent demographic trends and the policy responses of the government to these trends are first reviewed using data from Soviet sources and Western secondary sources. Related problems concerning regional differences in the labor force are examined next. The relationship between Islamic and Marxist values is the subject of the final chapter.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20715 Farley, Reynolds. The quality of life for black Americans twenty years after the civil rights revolution. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 65, Suppl. 1, 1987. 9-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The United States has an extensive statistical system that generates hundreds of indicators of the health and economic status of its population components. Yet, there is no consensus about how different indicators should be weighted and interpreted to judge the absolute and relative progress of black Americans. Neither a 'melting pot' nor a 'polarization' model adequately describes the conflicting areas of gain, pervasive stagnation, and substantial loss in racial equality of life."
Correspondence: R. Farley, Sociology Department, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20716 Gratton, Brian; Rosales, F. Arturo; DeBano, Hans. A sample of the Mexican-American population in 1940. Historical Methods, Vol. 21, No. 2, Spring 1988. 80-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors describe a sample of Mexican Americans living in the United States in 1940, using census data and techniques including ethnic identification and collection of household records. Advantages and limitations of the sampling methodology used are outlined. "The sample data permit multivariate analysis for Mexican Americans as a whole, for the Mexican born versus the American born, and for regional subgroups."
Correspondence: B. Gratton, Department of History, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20717 Hammel, E. A. A glimpse into the demography of the Ainu. American Anthropologist, Vol. 90, No. 1, Mar 1988. 25-41 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Seven unpublished household censuses of Ainu populations on Hokkaido and Sakhalin [Japan] between 1803 and 1853 are analyzed to show evidence of population decline well before the Meiji period. These populations show substantial diversity in household composition and community size, and complex household organization is pervasive, suggesting elaborate patron-client relationships not obviously based on kinship. Ecological differences may underlie this diversity and complexity, with Japanese influence and inclusion in long distance trading networks a strong possibility as a basic cause."
Correspondence: E. A. Hammel, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20718 Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary C. The location of ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, Fall 1987. 780-810 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The distinctive regional and urban locational patterns of thirty-three ethnic groups in the United States are analyzed....This paper examines the 1980 spatial patterns for each group and each area, showing their historical roots, and then goes on to consider the long-term implications of recent internal migration rates for each ethnic and racial group. We start by describing the different geographical patterns of various ethnic groups in the United States. What we find are geographical variations that are best explained, we believe, by an underlying demographic perspective and by sociological concepts. The [location] of different ethnic groups in the United States....is best understood as in no small way a manifestation of the continued effects of the initial distribution of immigrants in earlier periods, reflecting the structure of economic and political opportunities and the laws governing immigration that these immigrants faced." Data are from the 1980 census.
Correspondence: S. Lieberson, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20719 O'Hare, William P. Black demographic trends in the 1980s. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 65, Suppl. 1, 1987. 35-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Most of the black demographic trends [in the United States] of the 1970s have continued into the 1980s, but the pace has quickened in some areas and slowed in others. While the black population is becoming proportionately larger--especially among the very young and the very old--the actual rate of increase is declining. Migration and residential patterns continue to move in lines parallel to those of whites, but more slowly; central cities have become increasingly black. Combined complex trends of fertility, marriage, and family structure are leaving an ever-larger share of black children in poverty."
Correspondence: W. P. O'Hare, Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20720 Poston, Dudley L.; Shu, Jing. The demographic and socioeconomic composition of China's ethnic minorities. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 703-22, 764, 766-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In 1982 the population of each of the 15 largest minority groups in China exceeded one million. Based on indicators of socioeconomic and demographic composition derived largely from the 1982 census, the analysis suggests that the major minority groups show varying levels of similarity with the Han majority. The groups that are geographically most segregated from the Han are also, by and large, the most differentiated in terms of education, occupation, industry, fertility, and age. Moreover, as predicted by assimilationist theory, the groups that are less differentiated from the Han tend to be better off socioeconomically and demographically."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20721 Roudi, Nazy. The demography of Islam. Population Today, Vol. 16, No. 3, Mar 1988. 6-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A brief review of the demography of the world's Muslim population is presented. Consideration is given to family planning and other factors affecting fertility and family size in Muslim populations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20722 Sternlieb, George; Hughes, James W. Black households. American Demographics, Vol. 10, No. 4, Apr 1988. 34-7 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Demographic and economic characteristics of black U.S. households are examined using data from the 1987 Current Population Survey. Projections to the year 1995 are also included.
Correspondence: G. Sternlieb, Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, P.O. Box 2101, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20723 Tepper, Elliot L. Demographic change and pluralism. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 223-35 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author presents an overview of ethnic diversity in Canada, its impact on public life, and prospects for the future. "This paper addresses the implications of demographic change for pluralism in Canada. It will outline the dimensions and directions of diversity and the impact on public life. It includes identification of areas which require research in order to prepare Canada for the next century."
Correspondence: E. L. Tepper, Department of Political Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20724 Venezuela. Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica (Caracas, Venezuela). Indigenous census of Venezuela. Nomenclature of communities and collectives. [Censo indigena de Venezuela. Nomenclador de comunidades y colectividades.] Pub. Order No. 10-80107. ISBN 980-280-000-7. 1985. 521 pp. Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
These are the results of the 1982 indigenous census of Venezuela concerning communities and collectives with indigenous populations. Maps of the country and selected regions indicate the geographical location of the native populations. Tables include data on each community by location (federal entity, district, and municipality or department) and by ethnic group. A second section of tables contains data on communities by federal entity, form of settlement, land tenancy, availability of educational and medical services, missionary activity, and predominant ethnic group. Information is presented alphabetically by name of community, by federal entity, and by code numbers assigned to each community.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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