Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical to the modern, defined as being World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

54:20646 Boserup, Ester. Population and technology in preindustrial Europe. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 691-701, 764, 766 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Most of the production in preindustrial European villages and towns was organized in family enterprises. This organization and the marriage system in these families resulted in a fertility rate that was low enough and a rate of savings that was high enough to secure the amount of investment necessary to accommodate the increasing population. Concentration of specialized producers and the intellectual elite in towns facilitated technology transfer from more advanced regions and, later, the invention of new technologies. Because of these developments, the large demographic setbacks were not, as often assumed, subsistence crises due to population pressure on land; rather, they were the result of internecine warfare and epidemics, which were endemic in preindustrial Europe."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20647 Carbajo Isla, Maria F. The population of the city of Madrid: from the end of the sixteenth to the middle of the nineteenth century. [La poblacion de la villa de Madrid: desde finales del siglo XVI hasta mediados del siglo XIX.] Economia y Demografia, ISBN 84-323-0612-6. Nov 1987. xiv, 402 pp. Siglo Veintiuno de Espana Editores: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines demographic trends in Madrid, Spain, from the end of the sixteenth to the middle of the nineteenth century. Data sources are first described; these include parish records, censuses and surveys, and various documentary evidence on charities, food provision, epidemics, and grain prices. The first section of the book contains parish information on baptisms, marriages, deaths, and migration. The second section, on the estimation of the population, includes chapters on residents and church members from the end of the sixteenth to the end of the seventeenth century; surveys and population censuses in the eighteenth century; censuses and trends in the first half of the nineteenth century; and characteristics of the demographic evolution of Madrid. Tabular data on which the analysis is based are provided in appendixes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20648 Cordell, Dennis D.; Gregory, Joel W.; Piche, Victor. African historical demography: the search for a theoretical framework. Collection de Tires a Part, No. 227, [1987]. [19] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a collection of case studies concerning African historical demography. The focus is on theoretical interpretations that are distinct from demographic transition theory. Attention is given to materialist analysis, including Marxist theory, and to strategies for the production and reproduction of the labor force in Africa.
This paper is reprinted from "African Population and Capitalism: Historical Perspectives," Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1987, pp. 14-32.
Correspondence: Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20649 Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette. The single woman--an urban phenomenon. [Kobieta samotna--zjawisko miejskie.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 17, 1987. 207-19 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses data from church registers and from the census of 1802 to present a profile of single women in Rheims, France. The study involved 3,880 people in 1,000 households. Half of the adult females over age 20 were found to be married; the rest were "unmarried women, widows and divorcees, as well as abandoned women, either with or without children....For every four households, one was headed by a woman and every second one by an unmarried woman." Socioeconomic factors associated with the status of women are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20650 Gorna, Krystyna. A demographic analysis of Lower Silesian church records in the Rzasnik parish for the period 1794-1874. [Analiza demograficzna metryk Dolnoslaskiej parafii Rzasnik z lat 1794-1874.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 17, 1987. 185-205 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"This article is the first post-war attempt at a demographic analysis of Lower Silesian parish upon the basis of church records. The source material was examined using the method of reconstruction of families." Accounting for the years 1794-1874, the records provide information on marriage age and socioeconomic status, maternal age, illegitimate births, mortality, and infant mortality. Demographic characteristics of this Protestant community are compared with those of Catholic parishes of Upper Silesia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20651 Gorny, Marek. The significance of the status animarum of the parish of Szaradowo in 1766. [Wartosc zrodlowa status animarum parafii Szaradowo z 1766 r.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 17, 1987. 165-84 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
The status animarum, a document produced in Szaradowo, Poland, in 1766 and containing demographic data, is evaluated. Family reconstitution based on church registers for the years 1720-1800 is used to determine the document's accuracy. Data on age, sex, religious composition, nationality, and household characteristics are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20652 Husbands, Chris. Regional change in a pre-industrial economy: wealth and population in England in the sixteenth century and seventeenth century. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 13, No. 4, Oct 1987. 345-59 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author develops a method to analyze long-term trends in regional economic structure in England based on data from lay subsidy returns for the years 1524-1525 and hearth taxes from the 1660s. Two statistical indexes of redistribution are proposed. The author then analyzes the redistribution of wealth and population over the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with emphasis on urbanization and proto-industrialization. Some theoretical explanations of such spatial changes are presented.
Correspondence: C. Husbands, 17 Beatrice Road, Thorpe Hamlet, Norwich NR1 4BB, England. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20653 Janczak, Julian K. The statistics of the population of the Kingdom of Poland, 1845-1866. [Statystyka ludnosci krolestwa Polskiego, 1845-1866.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 17, 1987. 127-64 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"This article is the third part of a more general work which is intended to provide material for a basic revision and correction of official statistics in order to obtain the real population data for the Kingdom of Poland. The author presents the activity of the Statistical Department of the Government Commission of the Interior and the source basis of the work, the official statistics dating from the 1845-1866 period, ways of collecting data, reasons for population changes and the quality of statistics in the eyes of institutions especially established to gather data, [and] results obtained in the course of a general exchange of population records in 1865 and their publication as well as the statistics of the natural mobility of the population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20654 Litchfield, R. Burr. Single people in the nineteenth-century city: a comparative perspective on occupations and living situations. Continuity and Change, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1988. 6, 8, 83-100 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This essay presents some results of an investigation of the living situation and employment of single people in the nineteenth-century city." The data are from city censuses taken during the nineteenth century and concern Pisa, Italy (both town and country); Amiens, France; Stockport, England; and Providence, Rhode Island. The author concludes that "it was not until the twentieth century, with rising incomes and the change in family relationships that accompanied the fall of fertility, that single people began to fain the independence of living arrangements which they enjoy today."
Correspondence: R. B. Litchfield, Department of History, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

54:20655 Ogden, P. E. Historical demography. In: Historical geography: progress and prospect, edited by Michael Pacione. 1987. 217-49 pp. Croom Helm: Wolfeboro, New Hampshire/London, England. In Eng.
A general introduction to the discipline of historical demography is presented in the form of a review of the relevant literature, with emphasis on its relationship to historical geographic studies. Topics covered include Malthus, fertility, and marriage; the demographic transition; family and household; and migration. The author stresses the development of sophisticated methodology, the broad relevance of demographic factors to the study of many historical questions, and the importance of geographical variations. The primary geographical focus is on the United Kingdom, but examples from around the world are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20656 Peck, Thomas R. The demographic history of an English coal mining parish: Houghton-le-Spring County Durham, 1660-1820. Pub. Order No. DA8726709. 1987. 294 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Population growth between 1660 and 1820 in Houghton-le-Spring, a coal-mining parish in England, is studied. Evidence is presented of an increase in marital fertility, a decrease in age at marriage, and positive net migration into the area. An increase in the mortality level and a decline in life expectancy during this period, particularly among coal miners, are also observed. Economic and historical explanations of factors influencing population growth are outlined.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(9).

54:20657 Saignes, Thierry. New sources on the demographic history of the Southern Andes (sixteenth to eighteenth centuries). [Nuevas fuentes para la historia demografica del Sur Andino (siglo XVI a XVIII).] Latin American Population History Newsletter, No. 13, Fall 1987. 16-21 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Spa.
The author describes and evaluates some little-known sources of data on the Southern Andes for the period from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century.
Correspondence: T. Saignes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Hautes Etudes de Amerique Latines, 28 Rue Saint-Guillaume, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20658 Sulowski, Zygmunt. An assessment of nineteenth-century demographic statistics for the Lublin region. 1. The schematic descriptions of the Roman Catholic diocese of Lublin in the years between 1823 and 1874. [Ocena XIX-wiecznych statystyk demograficznych Lubelszczyzny. 1. Schematyzmy rzymskokatolickiej diecezji Lubelskiej z lat 1823-1874.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 17, 1987. 89-125 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"This report is conceived as a contribution to the verification of demographic statistics of the Polish territories in the course of the nineteenth century." The author uses the example of the Roman Catholic diocese of Lublin to demonstrate the availability and reliability of demographic data for the years 1823-1874. The detection of misinformation and subsequent corrections are discussed, and the improvement of record keeping over time is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past in order to obtain further demographic information. Relevant items are coded here and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models if of more general interest than to historical demography alone.

54:20659 Bideau, Alain. Orphans and adult mortality: the French case from 1740 to 1829. [Os orfaos e a mortalidade dos adultos: o exemplo frances de 1740 a 1829.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 1-21 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes an indirect method of estimating adult mortality that is based on data from marriage records and whether parents were alive at the time of the child's marriage. The focus of the present article is on adult mortality as estimated from data on orphan brides and grooms in France between 1740 and 1829. The analysis emphasizes the importance of data quality and the value of indirect methods to estimate mortality.
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20660 Bouchard, Gerard; Roy, Raymond; Casgrain, Bernard. The automatic reconstitution of families: the SOREP system. [Reconstitution automatique des familles: le systeme SOREP.] SOREP Dossier, No. 2, ISBN 2-920803-01-8. 1985. xxiv, 521; iv, 224 pp. Centre Universitaire de Recherches sur les Populations [SOREP]: Chicoutimi, Canada. In Fre.
The system of automatic family reconstitution using computers developed by the SOREP team in Canada is described. The system of matching names in historical parish records is characterized by the extent of its automation, its unique system of matching similarities in names, its method of dealing with problem matches, its critical evaluation of data and matches, and a concern with performance in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The report is in two volumes. The first volume describes the present stage of research, introduces the data for the population of Saguenay, and details the methodology. The second volume consists of appendixes, mostly illustrating the product of the system.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20661 Nault, Francois; Desjardins, Bertrand. Recent advances in computerized population registers. Historical Methods, Vol. 21, No. 1, Winter 1988. 29-33 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the present methodology of computerized population registers and on the possible next generation of such systems. For these registers to survive their founders and serve multiple purposes, they must be designed as evolving (as opposed to static) entities; the central element of such an approach would be a dynamic updating facility. In our view, this poses a major challenge to both demographers and computer scientists." The paper is based on experience with the reconstitution of the Quebec population from 1608-1760, which was undertaken by the Research Program in Historical Demography at the University of Montreal.
Correspondence: F. Nault, Department of Demography, University of Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20662 Steckel, Richard H. Census matching and migration: a research strategy. Historical Methods, Vol. 21, No. 2, Spring 1988. 52-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The need for adequate historical migration data in order to examine the economic, social, political, and demographic development of the United States is discussed. The author "explains an approach to the data problem that links families sampled from manuscript schedules of the 1860 census with the 1850 census by means of state-level indexes of household heads....The approach proposed in this paper has the following advantages: widespread coverage of the population; inclusion of socioeconomic information from the manuscript schedules of the federal census; geographic resolution of origin and destination at the county level; geographic coverage of all regions; and measurement of gross as well as net flows." Limitations of the proposed method are outlined.
Correspondence: R. H. Steckel, Economics Department, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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