Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

54:20542 Agar Corbinos, Lorenzo. International southern migration: the Chilean diaspora. [Migraciones internacionales australes: la diaspora chilota.] Instituto de Estudios Urbanos Documento de Trabajo, No. 147, Mar 1985. 65 pp. Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Instituto de Estudios Urbanos: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The author explores the processes of migration and colonization in the underpopulated southern area of Chile over the past century, with a focus on problems caused by the area's abundance of natural resources and the scarcity of labor. Trends in the migration of the labor force according to sex, type of activity, and areas of origin and destination are analyzed. The impact of increasing movement to urban areas is considered. The need to redirect migration flows in order to provide a labor force sufficient to utilize the area's resources is emphasized.
Correspondence: Instituto de Estudios Urbanos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 16002, Correo 9, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20543 Fergany, Nader. Differentials in labour migration, Egypt (1974-1984). CDC Occasional Paper, No. 4, 1987. 74 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate the main differentials in labour migration in Egypt on the basis of the first Egyptian Emigration Survey (EES) carried out under the auspices of the National Population Council (NPC). Preparation for the survey started in 1983. The reference period of the survey extended from the time of the 1973 'October War' to the time of the field work, around the beginning of 1985. The differentials covered in this paper are defined by rural-urban residence, educational status, and country of destination." Attention is given to migrant characteristics, the migration experience, and the impact of migration.
Correspondence: CDC, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20544 Goldscheider, Calvin. Migration and social structure: analytic issues and comparative perspectives in developing nations. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, Fall 1987. 674-96 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and social structure is analyzed. The author "focuses on several propositions that identify and illustrate the complexities of these [relationships] in developing nations and suggests some of the ways in which our understanding of social structure enhances the analysis of migration processes and vice versa." Issues considered include the relationship between migration and other demographic processes, the socioeconomic adjustment of migrants in urban areas, and individual and household perspectives in rural areas.
Correspondence: C. Goldscheider, Department of Sociology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20545 India. Office of the Registrar General (New Delhi, India). Proceedings of workshop on migration and urbanisation, March 10-28, 1986, New Delhi. Dec 1987. [xvi], 272 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop on migration and urbanization in India, held in New Delhi, March 10-28, 1986. The publication consists of 14 papers that deal with theoretical aspects of migration and practical examples concerning the situation in India. Topics covered include internal migration, rural-urban migration, female migration, and spatial distribution.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20546 Kearney, Michael. From the invisible hand to visible feet: anthropological studies of migration and development. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 15, 1986. 331-61 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature on the relationship between migration and development. Development-related topics considered include urbanization, industrialization, agricultural family structure, gender roles, and ideology. These topics are examined from an ethnographic perspective, with a focus on theoretical advances and their applications. Theoretical concepts considered include modernization, dependence, and articulation.
Correspondence: M. Kearney, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

54:20547 Krishnan, P.; Odynak, D. A generalization of Petersen's typology of migration. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1987. 385-97 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
A typology of migration is presented that extends the one originally developed by William Petersen, which was based on ecological push, migration policy, people's aspirations, and social momentum. The proposed typology considers both the migrant's state of mind and two points in time. Examples of 36 migrant types are provided using data for Canada and selected other countries.
For the study by Petersen, published in 1958, see 24:4020.
Correspondence: P. Krishnan, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20548 Lauby, Jennifer; Stark, Oded. Individual migration as a family strategy: young women in the Philippines. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 35, Dec 1987. 35 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Migration behavior by individuals, migration decisions and migration outcomes are not neutral to the needs and constraints facing the migrants' families who stay put. In this paper we present and analyze evidence from the Philippines suggesting that the choice of migrant members and migration destination are largely determined by familial characteristics....We find that the young age of migrants is explained by their greater amenability to familial income needs and familial manipulation. This amenability also seems to explain the preference for daughters over sons as migrants. Likewise, the initial labor market performance of migrants is accounted for...by familial needs which mandate participation in labor market activities that secure certain if low short run returns." The data are from the 1973 National Demographic Survey of 9,331 women and the 1976 Status of Women Survey of 1,997 adults.
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20549 Okeke, Barnabas I. Towards the verification of an inter-disciplinary theory of migration: the Nigerian and Israeli contexts. Pub. Order No. DA8716387. 1987. 178 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The aim of this research is twofold. The first is to show that by knowing the properties of the social structure and the psychological realities in the community of origin and in the community of destination, we can predict the conditions under which the decision to migrate (or not to migrate) is made, and their implications for the quality of life....The second is to show that migration results from the reorganisation of economic structures...." The author derives a series of hypotheses and applies them to the cases of Nigeria and Israel.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Temple University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:20550 Serow, William J. Why the elderly move: cross-national comparisons. Research on Aging, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1987. 582-97 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
The determinants of migration among the elderly are examined in a variety of developed countries. "An examination of data for nine countries (the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, West Germany, Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, and Poland) suggests considerable similarities both in terms of individual characteristics and desires that lead to migration among the elderly (such as retirement and widowhood) and characteristics of places that serve either to repel or attract older persons (such as climate and amenities)."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20551 Tassello, Graziano. A migration lexicon. [Lessico migratorio.] ISBN 88-85438-15-6. 1987. 224 pp. Centro Studi Emigrazione: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This lexicon consists of an alphabetical listing of some 80 terms used in the study of migration, together with an explanatory text of from one to several pages for each term. The texts, prepared by 16 prominent Italian scholars, are interdisciplinary in nature and focus on the relevance of the selected term to the study of migration in Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20552 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]. Population Statistics Division (London, England). Migration in 1986. Population Trends, No. 50, Winter 1987. 32-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This short article presents the latest annual statistics for international migration and for internal population movements in the United Kingdom." Data are for 1986, with comparative data for earlier years also included.
Correspondence: Population Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20553 Zhang, Wei-Bin. Population oscillations in a nonlinear migration model. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 156-75 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of Hopf bifurcations in Sheppard's generalized dynamic migration model. Hopf bifurcations appear as a result of structure changes in the system. First, we deal with the general case of H cities. Then, the case of two cities is dealt with."
For the study by Eric Sheppard, published in 1985, see 51:10492.
Correspondence: W.-B. Zhang, Department of Economics, University of Umea, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

54:20554 Aggarwal, R.; Khera, I. Exporting labor: the impact of expatriate workers on the home country. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1987. 415-25 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The economic impact of emigration on the source country is analyzed through a literature review and a discussion of costs, benefits, and public policy implications. It is noted that "information collected from different sources and settings is needed for cross-validation of assessments and conclusions. Second....the cost/benefit analysis of emigration should be undertaken on a case by case basis. Third...these costs and benefits must be assessed in a long-term framework that considers the socio-economic conditions and the goals of the country....Fourth, effective governmental policies...need to recognize that emigrants generally are highly motivated people [who] are adept at overcoming legal or other obstacles in their path."
Correspondence: R. Aggarwal, Mellen Professor of Finance, John Carroll University, Cleveland, OH 44118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20555 Atal, Yogesh; Dall'Oglio, Luca. Migration of talent: causes and consequences of brain drain. Three studies from Asia. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, No. 19, 1987. 241 pp. Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a collection of three studies by different authors on recent trends in the migration of talent, or brain drain, from the Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka. The editors provide a discussion of the brain drain phenomenon, and the difficulty of efficiently monitoring this movement. Three separate chapters outline the demography of skills migration for each country. Data are presented for occupational distribution, average income, level of education and field of study, and the numbers of registered emigrants by destination and occupation. Sections within the chapters present an overview of the factors promoting the outflow of highly skilled human resources and the effects of the out-migration of talent. Some interviews with migrating professionals are included. A selected bibliography is offered.
Correspondence: Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, GPO Box 1425, Bangkok 10500, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20556 Atchison, J. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 1, Mar 1988. 5-32 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author examines trends in immigration and immigration policies in Canada and Australia since the beginning of the twentieth century. A comparative analysis of federalism and the changing roles of provincial and federal governments in formulating and implementing migration policy is provided. Attention is also given to the Canadian and Australian responses to international pressures and refugee movements of the 1980s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20557 Bean, Frank D.; Telles, Edward E.; Lowell, B. Lindsay. Undocumented migration to the United States: perceptions and evidence. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 671-90, 764, 766 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"As the number of immigrants to the United States has risen over the past 20 years and as their national origins have shifted to Third World countries, the attention of the public and of policymakers has increasingly focused on the costs rather than the benefits associated with the arrival of newcomers. After a brief examination of the size of the undocumented population in the United States--most of whom are Mexican in origin--the article examines a variety of recent studies of the labor market impact of undocumented immigrants. The wages of such workers do not appear to be affected by their immigrant status per se, and the effects of immigrants (both legal and undocumented) on the wages and earnings of other labor force groups are either nonexistent or small (and sometimes positive). Such conclusions have important policy implications. They might incline one, for example, to be more favorably disposed toward legal employment programs."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 417).
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20558 Beauge, Gilbert; Bendiab, Aicha; Labib, Ali; Longuenesse, Elisabeth; Roussillon, Alain; Quiles, Jacqueline; Weyland, Petra. International migrations in the Middle East: 1975-1986. A bibliography. [Migrations internationales au Moyen-Orient: 1975-1986. Bibliographie.] Travaux et Documents de l'IREMAM, No. 2, ISBN 2-906-80900-4. 1987. 186 pp. Universites d'Aix-Marseille, Institut de Recherches et d'Etudes sur le Monde Arabe et Musulman: Aix-en-Provence, France; Freie Universitat Berlin, Forschungsgebietsschwerpunkt Ethnizitat und Gesellschaft: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Fre; Ger.
This bibliography is concerned with international migration within and to the Middle East from 1975 to 1986. The bibliography, which is unannotated, is organized alphabetically by author, and separately for items in European languages and in Arabic. Keyword, geographic, and author indexes are included. A separate German-Arabic edition is also available.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20559 Bedford, R. D. Restructuring the arrival card: review and prospect. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1987. 47-60 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This comment outlines factors which led to the decision to drop several questions from arrival and departure cards during the 1980s and contains a preliminary assessment of some implications which deletion of the birthplace question will have for the analysis of international migration to and from New Zealand. Proposals for further changes to the documentation completed by people entering and leaving New Zealand are summarized, and a plea is made for greater consultation between those responsible for administering this documentation and those who use the data for monitoring international migration and analysing its effects on New Zealand society and economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20560 Birrell, Robert. The demographic implications of changes in family reunion regulations. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 4, No. 2, Nov 1987. 151-6 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
Recent immigration trends in Australia are reviewed using data for the period 1983-1987. The focus is on the impact of changes made in 1982 to the country's immigration program, which is based primarily on the concept of family reunion. The author concludes that the results will include a continued swing toward migration from outside Europe and the rapid growth of non-European ethnic groups in Australia.
Correspondence: R. Birrell, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20561 Bogen, Elizabeth. Immigration in New York. ISBN 0-275-92199-9. LC 87-15073. 1987. xiv, 268 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This book attempts to gauge the effects of immigration in New York City today, with particular attention to those newcomers who arrived after 1965. In 1980 these more recent immigrants made up 56.5 percent of the city's foreign-born population. Particular attention is paid to the ways immigrants interact with the city's service system. The book looks at the demographic characteristics of the city's foreign-born: their countries of origin, their distribution in the city's residential neighborhoods, and their patterns of employment. It reviews the history of U.S. immigration law and its effects on immigration in New York City. It describes the use that immigrants make of the city's service system, and the adaptations that service agencies have made to these new clients. Finally, it explores the question of what immigrants cost the city in services and what they contribute in taxes. The book attempts to bring some balance to the question of illegal immigration." Data are based on interviews and the 1980 U.S. census.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20562 Bond, Eric W.; Chen, Tain-Jy. The welfare effects of illegal immigration. Journal of International Economics, Vol. 23, No. 3-4, Nov 1987. 315-28 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper extends the work of Ethier on illegal immigration by examining the optimal level of enforcement for the labor-importing country in a two-country model and by considering the effects of allowing capital mobility. We derive a formula for the optimal level of enforcement against firms that hire illegal workers, and show that the presence of enforcement costs makes the policy less efficient than a wage tax. With capital mobility, foreign workers gain from an increase in enforcement in the home country because capital is driven out of the home country."
For the related articles by Wilfred J. Ethier, published in 1986, see 52:10490 and 52:20504.
Correspondence: E. W. Bond, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20563 Boudahrain, Abdellah. The new international social order and migration within the framework of the Arab world and the Euro-Arab region. [Nouvel ordre social international et migrations dans le cadre du monde arabe et de l'espace euro-arabe.] Collection Recherches Universitaires et Migrations, ISBN 2-85802-549-2. 1985. 191 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France; CIEM: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author presents a general critique of the current legislative framework controlling international migration within the Arab world and between Arab countries and Europe. He makes the case for the development of a system of free circulation within the Arab world in which migrants would have the same economic, social, and political rights as citizens of the country in which they reside, along the lines of the European Community. The need to protect the rights of migrants around the world is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20564 Brosnan, P. A.; Poot, J. Economic and demographic aspects of trans-Tasman population exchange. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1987. 4-16 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
Past and present trends in migration between Australia and New Zealand are examined, and a simple model, based on recent studies, is developed. According to the authors, "it is possible to account for the trends and fluctuations in trans-Tasman migration by relatively simple combinations of economic and demographic variables. Migration is responsive to the proportion of the trans-Tasman population aged 15-29, to the cost of travel and to economic conditions. The direction of the flow is sensitive to relative employment opportunities. Relative earnings opportunities also appear important...." The significance of return migration and the similarity between the determinants of internal and international migration in these two countries are noted.
Correspondence: P. A. Brosnan, Department of Industrial Relations, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20565 Cohen, Robin. The new helots: migrants in the international division of labour. Research in Ethnic Relations Series, ISBN 0-566-00932-3. 1987. xiii, 290 pp. Avebury: Amersham, England. In Eng.
Economically motivated migration flows to the United States, northern Europe, and South Africa are examined, and three themes concerning factors underlying migration are developed. "The argument that a causal theory of international migration can only be advanced by examining the structural and political forces operating in the regional political economy as a whole is pursued primarily with respect to the U.S. and its neighbouring periphery....The issue of the reproduction of labour-power (and by extension the modes of production debate and some feminist debates) is considered when dealing with southern Africa....The third theme, on the postulated 'structural necessity' of migration to advanced capitalist countries (and the related debate on segmented labour markets) is discussed in relation to Europe...." Attention is given to the role of the state as a regulator of labor supply, the establishment of a new international division of labor, and the labor force structure on the periphery.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20566 Dekkers, A. J. M.; Kuijper, H. Continued increase of immigration in 1986. [Verdere stijging van de immigratie in 1986.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 11, Nov 1987. 14-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Immigration to the Netherlands in 1986 is reviewed using data from official sources. "In 1986, 87 thousand persons immigrated into the Netherlands, a 10% rise compared with 1985. Emigration numbered 55 thousand persons, just under 1% down on the preceding year." Information is provided on changes in country of origin of immigrants as compared with 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20567 Eggerickx, Thierry; Poulain, Michel. The context and demographic consequences of emigration from Brabant to the United States in the middle of the nineteenth century. [Le contexte et les consequences demographiques de l'emigration des Brabancons vers les Etats-Unis au milieu du XIXe siecle.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 137, ISBN 2-87085-129-4. Sep 1987. 32 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Conditions underlying the mid-nineteenth-century migration from the Brabant region of Belgium to the area around Green Bay, Wisconsin, are discussed. Attention is given to the characteristics of Belgian agriculture at the time, food crises between 1845 and 1856, industrialization in Belgium, and factors directly related to the emigration surge of 1855-1856 and the subsequent sharp decline. Demographic characteristics of the emigrants are examined, and the impact of their departure on the region of origin is assessed. In concluding, the authors offer an explanation of this movement in the context of Belgium's demographic transition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20568 Fergany, Nader. An Egyptian national survey on international labor migration (1974-1985). [Une enquete nationale egyptienne sur la migration internationale de travail (1974-1985).] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 1987. 115-29 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
International labor migration from Europe is analyzed based on data from the Egyptian Emigration Survey of 1985. "In all, roughly 2 million Egyptians emigrated, as workers or their dependents, between 1974 and 1985, and 1.5 million were abroad at the time of the survey....Emigrants tend to be unaccompanied males (average age 32 years), probably because of tight controls on dependents and difficult living conditions in the receiving countries. The majority are nevertheless married....Both workers and their dependents are increasingly well educated. Destinations have changed over the decade: Libya and Jordan have declined in importance, following political and economic upheavals respectively, while Kuwait and Saudi Arabia are now taking larger numbers of Egyptian workers. Emigration to Iraq seems to be more modest than sometimes reckoned (500,000), and almost entirely made up of single males." The impact of emigration on Egypt is also considered.
Correspondence: N. Fergany, c/o The Ridings, Stotaver, Headington, Oxford OX3 8TB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20569 Garcia, P. R.; Jutila, S. T. Socio-economic stratification generated by international migration loops. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 1, Mar 1988. 57-69 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The present paper analyzes the migration phenomenon within a framework that treats migratory movements as continuous loops, from the country of origin to the destination, and back. The focus will be on significant factors that occur at each stage of the migration loop process. A brief international overview will be provided, investigating such factors as why migration takes place, who migrates, who returns back to the native origin, and the nature of a 'self-feeding' driving mechanism that is characteristic of this looping process. This dynamic loop model is used to analyze the Mexico-U.S.-Mexico migration loop, and to explain the intensifying socio-economic stratification that produces serious divisions in once relatively homogenous rural social systems in Mexico." A variety of published sources concerning migration between the United States and Mexico since the early 1900s are used.
Correspondence: P. R. Garcia, Department of Management and Marketing, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20570 Gonzalez Suarez, Dominga. Spanish immigration in Cuba. [La inmigracion espanola en Cuba.] Economia y Desarrollo, Vol. 102, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 92-107 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.
Correspondence: D. Gonzalez Suarez, Instituto de Ciencias Historicas, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Capitolio Nacional, Havana 2, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20571 Hallwood, Paul. Labor migration and remittances between OPEC members and non-oil LDCs. Middle East Review, Vol. 19, No. 3, Spring 1987. 39-48 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
Labor migration between the non-oil-producing and oil-producing Arab countries is studied. The costs and benefits of this migration are discussed, with particular reference to the economic impact of remittances on the countries of origin.
Correspondence: P. Hallwood, Department of Political Economy, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20572 Hansen, L. O. The political and socioeconomic context of legal and illegal Mexican migration to the United States (1942-1984). International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 1, Mar 1988. 95-107 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Political and socioeconomic factors underlying legal and illegal migration from Mexico to the United States from 1942 to 1984 are discussed. Attention is given to the Bracero Program, the role of border patrols, intergovernmental relations between the two countries, socioeconomic conditions in Mexico and determinants of migration, and U.S. migration policy.
Correspondence: L. O. Hansen, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20573 Hornziel, Ijola M. The condition of the immigrant population in Italy: a report to the Ministry of Labor from the Institute for the Study of Social Services. [La condizione degli immigrati stranieri in Italia: rapporto al Ministero del Lavoro dell'Istituto per gli Studi sui Servizi Sociali.] La Societa, No. 113, 1986. 166 pp. Franco Angeli: Milan, Italy. In Ita.
Problems faced by immigrant workers in Italy are examined. The analysis is based on interviews with migrants from various countries and in selected trades. A review of the available sources of data on Italiam immigrants is included, and estimates of the current immigrant population are provided. A discussion of current and pending legislation concerning migrant labor is included.
Correspondence: Franco Angeli, Viale Monza 106, 20127 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20574 Ishikawa, Akira. A review of international migration statistics in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 180, Oct 1986. 57-65 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author summarizes the availability of Japanese official statistics concerning international migration. The paper is in three parts: the first describes the kinds of data available, the second analyzes changes in migration patterns before 1950, and the third deals with migration since 1950. The author notes that although the volume of international migration concerning Japan has historically been low, recent trends emphasize the need for better data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20575 Jensen, Leif. Poverty and immigration to the United States: 1960-1980. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-15, Jul 1987. 32, [8] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This is a study of poverty among immigrants to the United States during the period 1960-1980. Data are from 1960, 1970, and 1980 Public Use Samples of the U.S. census. The author focuses primarily on changes in ethnicity and economic status among the immigrant population, caused in part by the 1965 reforms in U.S. immigration policies. Descriptive tables present poverty rates for the years 1959, 1969, and 1979 for all families and for families of key nativity groups, and for recent immigrant families. Multivariable models are used to further test assertions addressed in the tables.
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, pp. 421-2).
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory, Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20576 Karn, Anil. Politics of population influx and labour problem: a case study of British immigration problem and its impact on external relations of Britain. 1986. xv, 348 pp. UDH Publishers: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study is concerned with international migration in the contemporary world and the problems it causes. The author first reviews the global situation. The study then concentrates on the history of immigration in the United Kingdom since World War II. Topics covered include changes in legislation governing immigration, the economic and social conditions of immigrants, the reaction of the British to immigrants, and the impact of immigration on the country's external relations. Selected documents are included on permanent migration, labor migration, illegal migration, and refugees.
Correspondence: UDH Publishers, Nai Sarak, Delhi 110 006, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20577 Kassim, Azizah. The unwelcome guests: Indonesian immigrants and Malaysian public responses. Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, Sep 1987. 265-78 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Eng.
The author examines attitudes among different sections of the Malaysian population toward the presence of immigrants from Indonesia, many of whom are illegal migrants. Data are from a review of Malaysian newspaper articles and from a survey conducted in 1985 in two squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur. The author concludes that in recent years, the mood of the general public has turned against Indonesian migrants.
Correspondence: A. Kassim, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20578 Lazaar, Mohamed. The consequences of emigration in the Central Rif (Morocco). [Consequences de l'emigration dans les montagnes du Rif Central (Maroc).] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 1987. 97-114 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The impact of increased international labor migration on Morocco's Central Rif region is examined. The importance for the local economy of remittances from workers living abroad is noted, although the bulk of such resources are devoted to housing construction rather than to developing local business. The impact of remittances on urbanization is also discussed.
Correspondence: M. Lazaar, U.A. Migrinter, Departement de Geographie, 95 Avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20579 Maino Prado, Valeria; Oehninger Greenwood, G. Jean. Italian migration to Chile: its geographical distribution and locational preference in the city of Santiago. [La migracion italiana en Chile, su distribucion geografica y su preferencia locacional en la ciudad de Santiago.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 2, No. 6-7, Aug-Dec 1987. 199-222 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Italian immigration to Chile from the nineteenth century to the present day is reviewed using a variety of data from official and other sources. An analysis of the residential characteristics of the population of Italian origin in the city of Santiago in 1983 is also included. It is found that Italians have settled primarily near the city's commercial axis, a settlement pattern in contrast with those of other foreign residents of similar economic levels.
Correspondence: V. Maino Prado, Instituto de Geografia de la Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20580 Mangiafico, Luciano. Contemporary American immigrants: patterns of Filipino, Korean, and Chinese settlement in the United States. ISBN 0-275-92726-1. LC 87-17752. 1988. xviii, 211 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The history of immigration to the United States from the Philippines, Korea, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong and the assimilation of these immigrant groups into U.S. culture are examined. "This study is divided into three parts. Part I briefly explores the history of the [U.S.] immigration debate...surveys the ebb and flow of immigration, and looks at the sociodemographic characteristics of immigrants living in the United States in 1980. Part II comprises a closer examination of the history of immigration to the United States from the Philippines, Korea, and China....[as well as] the sociodemographic characteristics of immigrants who were in the United States in 1980. Most of the statistical data in this part of the book have been extracted from the 'Special Tabulations on the Foreign-Born' prepared in 1984 by the U.S. Bureau of the Census from data collected in 1980. Part III of the book consists of an analysis of data collected through a survey of post-1980 immigrants from the Philippines, China, and Korea--now residing in a number of cities throughout the United States."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20581 Min, Man-Shik. Far East Asian immigration into Latin America. Korea and World Affairs, Vol. 11, No. 2, Summer 1987. 331-49 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This is a historical review of immigration to Latin America from Korea, Japan, and China. Differences in rates of adaptation and assimilation are considered by country of origin and of destination. Changes in immigration policy in the countries concerned are also examined.
Correspondence: M.-S. Min, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 270 Imun-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20582 Mitra, S. An analysis of the consequences of certain patterns of immigration. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 109-18 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The effects of several patterns of immigration on age structure and the birth trajectory have been investigated in this paper....Two specific patterns of immigration have been looked into. In the first, the age-specific immigration rates, like the vital rates, remain invariant over time. In the second, a constant number of immigrants with unchanging age composition enter every year. In the first example, the contribution of the immigration component may be determined by comparing the difference it makes in the intrinsic rates of growth of the trajectory of births....In the second example, the long term effect of a constant stream of immigration on the host population turns out to be significant only when the net reproduction rate is below replacement level."
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Department of Sociology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20583 Mohieddin, Mohamed M. Peasant migration from an Egyptian village to the oil producing countries: its causes and consequences. Pub. Order No. DA8722326. 1987. 390 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation is based on extensive fieldwork and survey research in a village in Upper Egypt. It attempts to investigate the causes and consequences of peasant migration to the Arab oil producing countries on the sending community....It examines the role of national and international determinants of migration as well as individual, household, and village level variables in generating migration....Four issues that are related to emigration are thoroughly examined: remittances and their use, the village labour market and labour shortage, the land market in the village and attitudes toward women."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:20584 Mullan, B. P. Social mobility among migrants between Mexico and the U.S. and within the U.S. labor market. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 1, Mar 1988. 71-93 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Changes in the occupational status of Mexican immigrants to the United States are examined. Distinctions are made between first-time and repeat migrants. The analysis is developed in four stages. "First is a bivariate description of occupational patterns controlling for duration of stay. Second, occupational outflows are examined to determine which occupations gained or lost workers between Mexico and the U.S. and within the U.S....Third, this mobility table is analyzed statistically to uncover the patterns of immobility underlying the observed data and to determine in which occupational categories occupational immobility is greatest. Finally, multivariate analyses show the relative magnitude and importance of the various determinants of occupational change." The data are from a 1982-1983 study conducted in four Mexican sending communities and in the United States.
Correspondence: B. P. Mullan, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20585 Passaris, C. Canada's demographic outlook and multicultural immigration. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1987. 361-84 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author investigates the possible role of future immigration on Canada's demographic processes. It is suggested that immigration will have an important role in light of declines in the rate of natural increase as well as trends in demographic aging. The implications of future immigration for both migration and social policy are considered, with a focus on changes in the cultural and ethnic composition of the population resulting from immigration.
Correspondence: C. Passaris, Professor of Economics, University of New Brunswick, POB 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20586 Petras, Elizabeth M. Jamaican labor migration: white capital and black labor, 1850-1930. Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean, ISBN 0-8133-7456-1. LC 87-20139. 1988. x, 297 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The historical relationships between European and U.S. capital and Jamaican labor migration are examined from a political-economic perspective. "In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a complex network of cross-national movements of capital, commodities, and labor shaped the Caribbean and larger world economies, and Jamaica emerged as a country from which foreign entrepreneurs and enterprises repeatedly sought to procure immigrants....[The focus here is on] several specific factors influencing the international flow of labor, including variations in wage levels, state policies that defined the conditions for crossing national boundaries and legislated the terms for procuring immigrant labor, and the cyclical nature of the world economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20587 Safar, Hayssam. Labor migrants and the Arab brain drain in Europe: an international symposium organized at the Center for Arab Studies and Research, International Interpreters School, State University (B. Mons). [Travailleurs et cerveaux arabes immigres en Europe: symposium international organise au Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Arabes, Ecole d'Interpretes Internationaux de l'Universite de l'Etat (B. Mons).] ISBN 2-7068-0952-3. 1987. xii, 374 pp. Maisonneuve et Larose: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference on Arab migration to Europe, held in Mons, Belgium, in 1985. In the first substantive part, the economic and social roots of the immigration problem are examined, and the current situation concerning Arab migration to Europe is reviewed. The cultural aspects of this migration are then considered. The third section deals with racism and its origins, the fourth section is concerned with the legal position of Arab workers, and the fifth section is devoted to the role of Arab and European institutions.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:20588 Sassen, Saskia. The mobility of labor and capital: a study in international investment and labor flow. ISBN 0-521-32227-8. LC 87-14586. 1988. xi, 224 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The internationalization of production and its contribution to the formation and direction of labor migration is analyzed. The focus is on immigration to the United States from 1960 to 1985 and the factors affecting it, primarily U.S. economic activity abroad and foreign investment in the United States. The author's hypothesis is that the conditions that promote emigration and that foster a demand for foreign workers in the United States are both due to major processes in the reorganization of the world economy. The importance of the growth of major cities such as New York and Los Angeles as centers for global management and servicing and their impact on migration is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20589 Sassone, Susana M. Illegal migration and amnesty in Argentina. [Migraciones ilegales y amnistias en la Argentina.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 2, No. 6-7, Aug-Dec 1987. 249-90 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author notes that recent international migration to Argentina consists primarily of illegal migration from bordering countries. She identifies the oscillations of Argentinian policy concerning immigration as a major cause of this illegal migration. The five amnesty decrees adopted over the past 40 years have not led to major changes. The author stresses the need to develop policies to reduce illegal immigration and the consequent exploitation by employers of illegal immigrants.
Correspondence: S. M. Sassone, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20590 Stark, Oded; Taylor, J. Edward. Relative deprivation and international migration. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 36, Feb 1988. 28 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper provides theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence that international migration decisions are influenced by relative as well as absolute income considerations. While potential gains in absolute income through migration are likely to play an important role in households' migration decisions, international migration by household members who hold promise for success as labor migrants can also be an effective strategy to improve a household's income position relative to others in the household's reference group. The findings reported in this paper provide empirical support that relative deprivation plays a significant role in Mexico-to-U.S. migration decisions. The findings also suggest that Mexico-to-U.S. migration is an effective mechanism for achieving income gains in households that send migrants to the United States and that households wisely choose as migrants those of their members who are most likely to provide the household with net income gains." The data are from a 1983 survey of 61 households in two Mexican villages.
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20591 Tribalat, Michele. Chronicle of immigration. [Chronique de l'immigration.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 181-205 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is one in a series of annual reports on the situation concerning immigration to France. The present report is concerned with immigration in 1986 and presents an analysis of the various categories of legal immigrants by country of origin. Separate consideration is given to the fertility of the immigrant population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20592 van der Erf, R. F.; Tas, R. F. J. Aliens in the Netherlands on January 1, 1987. [Niet-Nederlanders op 1 januari 1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 12, Dec 1987. 18-26 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The alien population of the Netherlands, estimated at some 568,000 in 1987, is examined. Changes in the composition of the immigrant population by nationality since 1986 are detailed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

54:20593 Akor, Raymond I. O.; Mou, Daniel. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1986. 5-24 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.
Correspondence: R. I. O. Akor, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:20594 Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR] (Quito, Ecuador). Internal migration in Ecuador. [Migraciones internas en el Ecuador.] Jun 1986. 59 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
Trends in internal migration in Ecuador are analyzed. Chapters are included on general considerations regarding migration; the population of the country by place of birth; characteristics of migrants and natives by province of origin, age, educational level, and years of residence; migration to principal cities; and characteristics of migratory flows. Data are from the population censuses of 1962, 1974, and 1982 and from national and foreign secondary sources.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

54:20595 Champion, A. G.; Green, A. E.; Owen, D. W.; Ellin, D. J.; Coombes, M. G. Changing places: Britain's demographic, economic and social complexion. ISBN 0-7131-6498-0. 1987. xv, 144 pp. Edward Arnold: London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of labor force changes and residential mobility on population size and characteristics in regions of Great Britain. "Chapter 1 introduces the principal dimensions of socio-economic change which this study will be measuring, describes the basis of the Functional Regions perspective, and outlines the main features and applications of this approach which we will be using. The next six chapters examine in turn the most important demographic, economic and social characteristics which give places their distinctive complexion." Topics explored include changes in population distribution and structure, with a focus on increases in the elderly and ethnic minority populations and decreases in average household size; the evolution of the labor force; employment trends; unemployment, including long-term and youth unemployment; and selected other indicators of socioeconomic status. "Finally, Chapter 8 draws on a small selection of key criteria to construct an Index of Local Economic Prosperity which measures the recent dynamism of cities and towns in Britain...."
Location: Princeton University Library.

54:20596 Chandra, Aditiawan. The family migration process in Peninsular Malaysia. Pub. Order No. DA8527264. 1985. 316 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The determinants of family migration in Malaysia are examined using data from the 1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey. "The objectives are twofold: (1) to analyze internal migration and migration differentials between migrant and non-migrant families; and (2) to analyze the influence of individual, household, and community-level characteristics on the family migration decision....The study found that migrant families in Peninsular Malaysia differ from non-migrant families with respect to age, education, labor force participation, occupational structure, housing conditions and ownership, and family income. Ethnicity as well as size of settlement class affect the pattern of differentials. At the macro-level, we described the intentions and influence of selected government policies on population distribution and migration patterns."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(1).

54:20597 Congdon, Peter. The interdependence of geographical migration with job and housing mobility in London. Regional Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1988. 81-93 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A multinomial logit model is developed to analyse the association between residential migration within and from London with employment and tenure mobility. Migration is shown to interact more strongly with tenure change than career shifts, and with changes of workplace as against changes in occupation in general....While occupational mobility and job-linked migration are higher among lower income workers, they are positively related to educational resources, confirming human capital models of job search."
Correspondence: P. Congdon, Population and Statistics Group, London Research Centre, County Hall, London SE1 7PB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:20598 Cotlear, D.; Martinez, H.; Leon, J.; Portugal, J. Peru: the migrant population. [Peru: la poblacion migrante.] AMIDEP Serie Investigacion, No. 3, 1987. 283 pp. Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This work contains four separate studies concerning migrants in Peru. Topics considered include a quantitative estimation of the size of the rural population, the impact of inequality on internal migration, migration and mental health, and entry into the labor force in Lima between 1967 and 1984.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:20599 Ervin, Delbert J. The ecological theory of migration: reconceptualizing indigenous labor force. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 4, Dec 1987. 866-75 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The relationship of occupational integration of women and minorities to net migration rates for [U.S.] metropolitan areas is examined. It is shown that integration of minority individuals is negatively related to migration, but that integration of women is positively related. Explanations of these findings are drawn from human ecological theory."
Correspondence: D. J. Ervin, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20600 Freitez Landaeta, Anitza. Internal migration in Venezuela, 1920-1981: an analysis of three periods. [La migracion interna en Venezuela (1920-1981): tres periodos para su analisis.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 33, Jan 1988. [xi], 172 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Trends in internal migration in Venezuela are analyzed for the periods 1920-1950, 1950-1971, and 1971-1981 using data from national censuses and surveys on migration. An overview of selected regions in Venezuela is offered, and the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the migrants are discussed. A bibliography and an extensive appendix of tabular data are also included.
Correspondence: Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, Urb. Montalban, La Vega, Apartado 29068, Caracas, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20601 Gabriel, Stuart A.; Justman, Moshe; Levy, Amnon. A simultaneous-equations analysis of urban development: migration and industrial growth in Israel's new towns. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 21, No. 3, May 1987. 364-77 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
A simultaneous-equations econometric model is used to analyze the recent development of new towns in Israel. The focus is on the relationships among migration, industrial investment, employment, and other structural and policy variables affecting urban development. "Our results affirm the importance of economic opportunity, agglomeration effects, population socioeconomic and ethnic composition, and access in determining migration flows. At the same time, unemployment and investment indices are affected by local labor-market conditions, government incentives, and regional development effects as well as by population composition and migration flows. Policy implications of the analysis are considered."
Correspondence: S. A. Gabriel, Division of Research and Statistics, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, D.C. 20551. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20602 Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney. Varieties of population mobility in relation to development in China. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 22, No. 4, Winter 1987-1988. 101-24 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper will first briefly review the urbanization situation in China as necessary background for the discussion of population movement. It will next turn to a discussion of migration and temporary mobility, and then assess the interrelations between the new economic policies and population movement, including temporary movement. The analysis is based in part on discussions and interviews with officials, policy makers, and scholars and on personal observations in various urban and rural locations during 1983 and 1984. These sources are augmented by data from the 1982 Census of China and by other more recently published materials."
Correspondence: A. Goldstein, Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20603 Harrigan, Frank J.; Jenkins, Iain; McGregor, Peter G. A behavioural model of migration: an evaluation of neoclassical and Keynesian alternatives. Fraser of Allander Institute Discussion Paper, No. 42, Dec 1986. 49, [9] pp. University of Strathclyde, Fraser of Allander Institute: Glasgow, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper provides an explicit microeconomic framework in terms of which the nature of migration decisions may be understood. It is shown that the factors which impact on the migration decision differ under contrasting regional labour market regimes. In particular, a distinction is drawn between Keynesian and neoclassical models. These models are then rigourously tested on time-series data on net migration flows between Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom. At an aggregate level the results favour a 'neoclassical' specification but it is argued that selectivity in migration may mean that this result, in itself, is insufficient to establish a role for migration as an equilibrating mechanism in regional labour markets."
Correspondence: Fraser of Allander Institute, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 OLN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20604 Haurin, Donald R.; Haurin, R. Jean. Net migration, unemployment, and the business cycle. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 1988. 239-54 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"An empirical test of the effects of exogenous shocks upon a region's population size is conducted in the framework of an equilibrium locational model. The model emphasizes the separation of endogenous from exogenous factors, a point omitted in most empirical studies of aggregate migration. Exogenous changes are manifested in the local relative cost of living and the local relative unemployment rate. Hypotheses are tested using a national sample of youth, in addition to census, data [for the United States]. Surprisingly, a simple measure of the size of shock to a regional economy has the greatest explanatory power compared to more sophisticated measures based on prior business cycles."
Correspondence: D. R. Haurin, Department of Economics, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:20605 Hiscott, Robert D. Recent migration from Ontario to Atlantic Canada: a comparison of returning and non-return migrants. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Vol. 24, No. 4, Nov 1987. 586-99 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
1981 census data on internal migration are used to analyze recent movements between Ontario and the Atlantic provinces of Canada. In particular, the characteristics of returning and non-returning migrants are differentiated. The results indicate that returning migrants of both sexes are found in greater proportions in marginal, more traditional Atlantic Canada industries such as fishing and fish product industries.
Correspondence: R. D. Hiscott, Institute for Market and Social Analysis, Toronto, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20606 Krumm, Ronald; Kelly, Austin. Multiperiod migration patterns: the timing and frequency of household responses. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 1988. 255-70 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"The structure of intertemporal patterns of household migration responses is empirically examined. The findings indicate that migration decisions are often related to changes in household conditions in both prior as well as following periods, are dependent on the duration of household status characteristics (e.g., marital status) and not just their presence at any point in time, and finally that migration response in any particular period very often differs among households as a result of differences in the underlying structure of migration frequency behavior. These findings suggest that inferences based on comparisons of household migration responses over only a single period of time are incomplete, possibly to the point of being misleading." The study is based on a calculation of "the distribution of migration patterns between 1976 and 1979 for a sample of 4,739 households in the [U.S.] Michigan Panel Survey on Income Dynamics (PSIC)."
Correspondence: R. Krumm, Committee on Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago, 5801 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:20607 Lezama, Jose L. Migration and oil in Tabasco. [Migracion y petroleo en Tabasco.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 2, No. 2, May-Aug 1987. 231-56, 381-2 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"At the beginning of the seventies, important economic investments aimed at developing and commercializing the newly discovered oilwells were made in the state of Tabasco [Mexico]. As a result of this, the distribution and the social growth of the population in this state changed. This paper analyses the general characteristics of these changes, particularly those related to migration....Generally speaking, the most important migratory movements which took place in this state during the oil boom were from one municipality to another and not from other states to Tabasco, as was thought at first....This paper also describes the direction of the migratory flows and provides information about the sex of the migrants and about their insertion within the sphere of employment."
Correspondence: J. L. Lezama, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, El Colegio de Mexico City, Camino Al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20608 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Ledent, Jacques. Nested logit model and maximum quasi-likelihood method: a flexible methodology for analyzing interregional migration patterns. Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, Feb 1987. 67-88 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A flexible methodology for explaining interregional migration in terms of relevant socioeconomic variables is set forth in this paper. Concerned with setting observation against theory, it makes use of (1) the nested logit model as a theoretical substratum, and (2) the maximum quasi-likelihood method as a method for parameter estimation and statistical inference. Application to interprovincial migration data over a 22-year period (1961-1962 to 1982-1983) shows that, in Canada, migration does not appear to serve well as an equalizer of economic opportunities."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20609 Limanonda, Bhassorn; Tirasawat, Penporn. Population mobility and development issues: Thailand. ASEAN Population Programme, Population Mobility and Urbanization Project, ISBN 974-568-565-8. 1987. xiv, 80 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The relationship between spatial mobility and development issues in Thailand is analyzed. The main objectives are "1) to examine individual migration behavior against the different types of development settings; 2) to evaluate the effects of social and economic development plans as they influence the migration process; 3) to explore a range of socioeconomic and demographic factors which govern the population movement; and 4) to assess the implications of migration for future development policies in Thailand....[The authors examine] various aspects of population mobility and development, including patterns of population movement and particularly migration and population redistribution within the country during the past three decades." Data are primarily from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses of population and housing, supplemented with data from phases I and II of a continuing project on population mobility and urbanization conducted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20610 Maxwell, Nan L. Economic returns to migration: marital status and gender differences. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 1, Mar 1988. 108-21 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This research explores the relationship between economic returns to migration and gender and marital status. Using a matched group of migrants and nonmigrants, results indicate that migration returns associate with marital status. Men separating from their wives and never married women experience positive migration returns. Married women, as tied movers or stayers, have reduced earnings constrained by familial situations. Nonmigrating men separating from their wives, with reduced earnings, appear to be 'tied' to a labor market." Data are from the young men's and women's panels of the U.S. National Longitudinal Surveys of Work Experience; they cover the 12-year periods from 1966 to 1978 for the men and from 1968 to 1980 for the women.
Correspondence: N. L. Maxwell, Department of Economics, California State University, Hayward, CA 94542. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20611 McHugh, Kevin E. Determinants of black interstate migration, 1965-70 and 1975-80. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1988. 36-48 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper presents and tests a regression-based model of black interstate migration. Explanatory variables include characteristics of origins and destinations, distance, and two migrant stock measures. The model is tested using black interstate migration flows published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for 1965-70 and 1975-80." The emphasis is on the determinants of black migration, particularly for the period 1975-1980.
Correspondence: K. E. McHugh, Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20612 Mukomel', V. Migration and family: stages of the life cycle. [Migratsiya i sem'ya: etapy zhiznennogo tsikla.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 213-40 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Migration trends in the USSR at various stages of the family life cycle are investigated. Phases considered include the formation of a family, the reproductive period, family dissolution, and old age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20613 Nair, P. S. Internal migration data in India: state of the art. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1987. 24-32 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
The availability and content of official data on internal migration in India are reviewed. The primary data sources described are the census and the National Sample Survey. Problems concerning these data are discussed.
Correspondence: P. S. Nair, Population Research Centre, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20614 Nair, P. S. Internal migration in India in the seventies: a demo-economic analysis. Journal of Institute of Economic Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1986. 10-23 pp. Dharwad, India. In Eng.
"This paper is aimed to address mainly the following three aspects of spatial mobility within India during the last inter-censal decade of 1971-1981: (i) Levels of inmigration, outmigration and net migration in the major states (ii) estimates of state-to-state migration flows and (iii) some insights on the socio-economic determinants of internal migration."
Correspondence: P. S. Nair, Population Research Centre, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20615 Nelson, Kathryn P. Gentrification and distressed cities: an assessment of trends in intrametropolitan migration. Social Demography, ISBN 0-299-11160-1. LC 87-40370. 1988. xiii, 187 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin/London, England. In Eng.
Intra-city migration in the United States during the past 25 years is examined, with a focus on the implications of the gentrification movement of upper-income Americans into renovated central city housing. Published literature and available migration data are reviewed to examine the relevance of migration to urban deterioration and revitalization. Attention is given to failed efforts to fight urban decline, factors influencing residential selection within metropolitan areas, and migration to and from cities since the 1960s. It is found that "through 1981, migration to cities had not increased sufficiently to revive many, if any, distressed cities. It is thus unlikely that many cities gained financial resources from higher-income households to ease fiscal strains or improve city services. But...migration increases were related to neighborhood gentrification within cities." The author identifies gentrifying areas and assesses the effect of gentrification on the relocation of the poor population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20616 Nguiagain, Titus. Trends and patterns of internal migration in the Philippines, 1970-80. Philippine Economic Journal, Vol. 24, No. 4; 60, 1985. 234-62 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
Recent trends in internal migration in the Philippines are analyzed using data from the 1975 and 1980 censuses. The emphasis is on the volume and direction of regional migration streams. "The paper starts with the definitions of some migration-related terms. The second section discusses data and methodology. The third portion of the ensuing study deals with the trends and patterns of internal migration, while the last part is devoted to some considerations about population policies."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20617 Otomo, Atsushi. Some aspects of household migration in Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 10, May 1987. 25-32 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
Aspects of household migration, as distinct from individual migration, in Japan are discussed using data from the 1980 census and the 1978 and 1983 housing surveys. The author compares household residential mobility with that of individuals and of the population as a whole. The results show greater residential mobility the smaller the household size and an overall decline in household residential mobility in recent years. Evidence also indicates that nearly half of the households moved in order to find new housing.
Correspondence: A. Otomo, Utsunomiya University, 350 Mine-machi, Utsunomiya-shi, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20618 Prothero, R. Mansell. Populations on the move. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 4, Oct 1987. 1,282-310 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article sets out the broad nature of population movements and changes in distribution which are taking place in the major continental areas of the Third World, while making comparisons and contrasts. It outlines the differing approaches to these movements, and the interpretations of varying ideological and disciplinary points of view. It describes contemporary practical problems and indicates possible future developments." The primary focus is on internal migration.
Correspondence: R. M. Prothero, Professor of Geography, University of Liverpool, POB 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20619 Rogers, Andrei; Watkins, John. General versus elderly interstate migration and population redistribution in the United States. Research on Aging, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1987. 483-529 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"This article describes recent patterns of interstate migration in the United States for the general population and contrasts them with those of the elderly population. An analysis of age-specific migration rates, of multiregional life tables, and of population projections illuminates the process of interregional redistribution of both populations and supports the findings of studies of elderly migration that have identified the remarkably dominant position held by the three retirement destination states of Florida, California, and Arizona."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309.

54:20620 Rybakovskii, L. L. Contemporary migration issues. [Sovremennye problemy migratsii.] Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, LC 86-164833. 1985. 110 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on aspects of contemporary migration patterns within the USSR. Topics covered include migration concepts and definitions, adaptation of migrants, the impact of migration on areas of origin, migration in areas of rapid population growth, migration and natural increase, migration and socioeconomic development, and rural-urban migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20621 Selier, Frits; Karim, Mehtab S. Migration in Pakistan: theories and facts. 1986. [viii], 193 pp. Vanguard Books: Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
This is a collection of nine articles by various authors, some of which have been published elsewhere, on aspects of internal migration in Pakistan. Topics covered include rural-urban migration, age selectivity in migration, migration and employment, circular migration, and residential mobility.
Correspondence: Vanguard Books, 8 Davis Road, Lahore, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20622 Stevanovic, Radoslav. Internal migration. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1987. 25-40 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
Postwar internal migration trends in Yugoslavia are reviewed. The data are presented separately by republic and autonomous region. The age and sex characteristics and ethnic status of migrants are analyzed.
Correspondence: R. Stevanovic, Centre for Demographic Research, Institute for Social Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20623 Tabuchi, Takatoshi. Interregional income differentials and migration: their interrelationships. Regional Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1, Feb 1988. 1-10 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate that interregional income differential is exogenous to interregional net migration, but not conversely. Utilizing Japanese prefectural-based data for 1954-82, we conduct the following three kinds of analyses to confirm this statement. Firstly, a simple comparison of the crests of interregional time-series plots was made to see which occurred first. Secondly, Sims', 1972, test of causality was done to investigate causation between urban/rural income differential and net migration. Finally, per capita income and population share were examined by two-dimensional phase diagram for nine regions."
Correspondence: T. Tabuchi, Institute of Socio-Economic Planning, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:20624 Taschner, Suzana P.; Bogus, Lucia M. M. The spatial mobility of the Brazilian population: aspects and trends. [Mobilidade espacial da populacao brasileira: aspectos e tendencias.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 87-111 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the censuses of 1960, 1970, and 1980 are analyzed to study the spatial redistribution of the Brazilian population during the two decades 1960-1970 and 1970-1980. Migrations to and from the northern, northeastern, southeastern, southern, and west central regions are compared. A high level of mobility and increasing urbanization and metropolitanization, especially in the northern and southeastern regions, are noted. The four other regions studied show negative migration balances. Patterns of urbanization are examined for the nine major metropolitan areas, that is, the areas around Belem, Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre.
Correspondence: S. P. Taschner, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, CP 8191, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20625 Uchino, Sumiko. Elderly migration in Japan--a newly emerging trend and its analysis. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 184, Oct 1987. 19-38 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in migration among Japan's elderly are examined using data from the 1980 census. The analysis is presented by prefecture and for five age groups over 65 years of age. Comparisons are made with migration trends for the population as a whole and with elderly migration in other developed countries.
Correspondence: S. Uchino, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20626 Vergoossen, Dick; Willekens, Frans. Migration of the elderly in the Netherlands. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 73, Dec 1987. iii, 65 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
Demographic aging in the Netherlands is analyzed, with particular reference to the impact of migration on regional differences in age distribution. The first section describes the process of demographic aging, and the second section deals with regional differences in the distribution of the aged. "Sections 4 and 5 look into migration among the aged, and the report is concluded with a section on the multiregional life table and population projections."
Correspondence: NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, Lange Houtstraat 19, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20627 Vitali, Ornello. Population and occupations in the coastal communes, 1951-1981. [Popolazione e occupazione nei comuni costieri: 1951-81.] Rassegna Economica, Vol. 51, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 695-715 pp. Naples, Italy. In Ita.
Recent trends in Italian migration affecting the coastal regions during the period 1951-1981 are analyzed using census data. The second part of the article focuses on changes in occupations during the decade 1971-1981. Consideration is given to regional differences and to differences between the occupational structure of the coastal region and the interior.
Correspondence: O. Vitali, Universita La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20628 Zimmer, Laura J. The losing game--exchange, migration, and inequality among the Gende people of Papua New Guinea. Pub. Order No. DA8605263. 1985. 497 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author reports on a case study conducted in 1982 and 1983 focusing on "the effects of migration and inequality on one community in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Through participant observation and quantitative surveys, I discovered that income differences generated by urban remittances and local underdevelopment have reduced the effectiveness of many Gende's participation in the system of reciprocal and competitive exchange which organizes virtually every aspect of their lives...and resulted in an increasing number of 'losers' who migrate in order to find means to increase their income or, having defaulted on their exchange obligations too often, are no longer welcome in the village....My main conclusions are that it is only by looking at the particular combination of economic, social, cultural, and temporal factors that one can understand migration at the local level, and that more general models of migration must incorporate these variables...."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Bryn Mawr College.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(1).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

54:20629 Frantzioch, Marion. Refugees: obstacles, driving forces, and means of their integration into the Federal Republic of Germany. With an annotated bibliography. [Die Vertriebenen: Hemmnisse, Antriebskrafte und Wege ihrer Integration in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Mit einer kommentierten Bibliographie.] ISBN 3-496-00909-8. 1987. 426 pp. Dietrich Reimer: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The author examines the integration of refugees from East Germany, Sudetenland, and other areas settled by Germans into the Federal Republic of Germany since 1945, with a focus on factors that promoted or inhibited their assimilation. The history of the settlement of lands east of West Germany is traced, and trends in refugee movement and forced migration in the twentieth century are discussed, with attention to the role of refugees as the bearers of change and renewal in West Germany. The obstacles to integration, the impact of refugees on culture and society, and other areas affected by their presence are considered. The author also comments on emotional integration.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:20630 Fuks, L. P. Ways of improving settlement in West Siberia. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 10, Dec 1987. 756-76 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"[This] paper devoted to the settlement system and the problem of rural population loss in that portion of West Siberia having a significant agricultural base takes issue with some implicit assumptions incorporated within the General Scheme of Settlement within the USSR. More specifically, policies calling for the deliberate, i.e., forced, resettlement of rural population in selected villages in order to provide economies of scale in rural services provision are criticized on two major counts: (1) that such 'enlarged' settlements will still be too small to be allocated the necessary range of functions according to standard city-planning formulae, and (2) that they accelerate rural depopulation by serving as spring-boards for migration to still larger centers."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya (Moscow, USSR), No. 1, 1987, pp. 64-78.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20631 Merchaytis, A. A.; Vaitekunas, S. K. Development of the settlement system in the Lithuanian SSR: results, problems, and prospects. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 10, Dec 1987. 742-55 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors analyze the factors, results, problems, and prospects of the development of a system of settlement in the Lithuanian SSR, a laboratory of sorts for settlement policy in the Soviet Union. Particular attention is devoted to the formation of an inter-rayon settlement system integrating urban and rural settlements. Several methodological and conceptual approaches to the study of settlement systems are examined in this context."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya (Moscow, USSR), No. 1, 1986, pp. 59-68.
Correspondence: S. K. Vaitekunas, Vilnius V. Kapsukas State University, 232734 Vilnius, Universiteto 3, Lithuanian SSR, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20632 Oberai, A. S. Land settlement policies and population redistribution in developing countries: achievements, problems and prospects. ISBN 0-275-92799-7. LC 87-15837. 1988. xiv, 395 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This volume contains 11 papers by various authors on aspects of schemes to resettle populations in developing countries. The countries covered include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Somalia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Brazil, and Peru. In addition, land settlement experiences in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Costa Rica are discussed. The major focus is on the identification of factors that have contributed to the success or failure of such resettlement schemes from the point of view of the populations concerned and relative to development objectives other than population redistribution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20633 Ruiz, Hiram A. Beyond the headlines: refugees in the Horn of Africa. U.S. Committee for Refugees Issue Paper, Jan 1988. 44 pp. American Council for Nationalities Service: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the refugee problem in the Horn of Africa, primarily considering Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and the Sudan. To better understand the refugee problem, the history of the Horn and the reasons for the refugees' out-migration are explored. According to this report, "internal developments in Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian government's policies and actions, are--directly or indirectly--responsible for the flight of most of these refugees." The author offers several recommendations designed to relieve the refugees' plight.
Correspondence: U.S. Committee for Refugees, 815 15th Street NW, Suite 610, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

54:20634 Abella, Manolo I.; Atal, Yogesh. Middle East interlude: Asian workers abroad. A comparative study of four countries. RUSHSAP Series on Monographs and Occasional Papers, No. 15, 1986. 360 pp. Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of labor migration to the Middle East from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The focus is on the impact on the sending countries. The aim of the report is "to describe the changes at the macro level of the society as also at the micro level of the community and family of the migrant in the spheres of economy, polity, culture, and social structure." For each of the four countries studied, information is included on macroeconomic factors, families with and without migrants at the microlevel, and return migrants.
Correspondence: Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, P.O. Box 1425, General Post Office, Bangkok 10500, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20635 Burkner, Hans-Joachim; Heller, Wilfried; Unrau, Jens. Pressures to return and motive structures of Turkish migrants: on the problem of the voluntariness of return migration decisions. [Ruckkehrzwange und Motivstrukturen turkischer Migranten: zum Problem der Freiwilligkeit von Remigrationsentscheidungen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1987. 451-72 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors examine the decision-making process related to the return migration of Turks in the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a discussion of motivation and return migration as a field of research, the author examines the characteristics of the Turkish migrants and their reasons for desiring to either return to Turkey or remain in West Germany. Reasons examined include expectations about future economic and social conditions in the two countries as well as actual and perceived pressures to move. It is noted that "the increased pressure of the coercive forces to return exerted by the receiving society seem to bring about the desired result."
Correspondence: H.-J. Burkner, Geographisches Institut der Universitat Gottingen, Abt. Kultur- und Sozialgeographie, Goldschmidtstrasse 5, 3400 Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20636 Filina, V. N. The influence of local commuting patterns on urban settlement systems. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 10, Dec 1987. 728-41 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"A large body of empirical data on the dynamics of local travel in the USSR is surveyed to illustrate the influence of commuter movement on the formation and spatial interaction of settlement systems. Correlations are established between commuting patterns and the population levels of cities of different size categories."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya (Moscow, USSR), No. 4, 1986, pp. 37-46.
Correspondence: V. N. Filina, Institute of Geography, Staromonetny per. 29, Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20637 Gmelch, George. Work, innovation, and investment: the impact of return migrants in Barbados. Human Organization, Vol. 46, No. 2, Summer 1987. 131-40 pp. Wakefield, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This article examines return migration to both urban and rural settings in the eastern Caribbean island of Barbados. It compares the impact of student migrants--that is, migrants who were college educated or received technical training abroad--with that of worker migrants. The results show that returning student-migrants, most of whom enter professional or other white collar occupations at home, often introduce new ideas and techniques into the workplace. The returning worker migrants have little impact: they are often employed at jobs that do not make use of their overseas work experience and they generally lack the position or authority to introduce changes in the workplace. Also treated is the role of return migrants in introducing new ideas outside the workplace. Finally, the paper examines how return migrants invest their overseas earnings at home and possible benefits of their investments to the home society. The study concludes that return migration to Barbados, involving the transfer of ideas, attitudes, work skills and capital, does contribute to the nation's development."
Correspondence: G. Gmelch, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

54:20638 Arroyo Alejandre, Jesus; Winnie, William W.; Velazquez Gutierrez, Luis A. Migration to urban centers in a region of strong emigration--the case of western Mexico. [Migracion a centros urbanos en una region de fuerte emigracion--el caso del occidente de Mexico.] ISBN 968-895-039-4. 1986. 314 pp. Universidad de Guadalajara, Facultad de Economia, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales y Economicas: Guadalajara, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors analyze trends in migration to urban centers in western Mexico. In the first chapter, they describe and evaluate the state of the art in migration studies. Chapter 2, on Mexican migration and urban structures in the country's western region, contains sections on general historical migration patterns, regional characteristics and urbanization, urbanization in the state of Jalisco, occupational structures and migration, and rural emigration. Chapter 3 is concerned with principal patterns of migration in the West, including migration to Guadalajara, trends up to 1980, and migration and urbanization at the regional level. In Chapter 4, the authors investigate the characteristics of migration to Guadalajara and six smaller cities in Jalisco, with a focus on causes of and motivations for migration, demographic characteristics of migrants, fertility, schooling, and labor. In the concluding chapter, they discuss theoretical implications and possible applications for the formulation of urban and regional development policies. A statistical appendix is included. Data are primarily from national censuses since 1940 and from national and household surveys, sampling studies, and community surveys for the 1970s.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20639 Danesh, Abol H. Rural exodus and squatter settlements in the third world: case of Iran. ISBN 0-8191-6443-7. LC 87-10627. 1987. xii, 168 pp. University Press of America: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The goal of this work is to address the interrelated questions of urbanization, industrialization, rural-urban migration, and squatter settlements in contemporary developing countries. Emphasis is put on the structural causes of irregular rural-urban migration in Iran during 1900-1983, and these causes have been analyzed and examined at the economic, social, and cultural levels. A necessary comparison between contemporary developing countries and today's developed nations has also been formulated to identify the major divergencies of urbanization and migration in the course of industrialization....Throughout this research divergent data resources have been utilized to substantiate the theoretical statements and argumentation. The data are primarily extracted from the following sources: historical data, two field projects conducted by the author in 1983 and 1984 in Iran, restructured census materials from before and after the Iranian revolution, Persian publications not available to the non-Persian speaking audience and social scientists, personal observations, and discussions with Iranian and Latin American experts and leaders."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20640 Funatsu, Hideki. A note on the stability of the Harris-Todaro model with capital mobility. Economica, Vol. 55, No. 217, Feb 1988. 119-21 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author assesses a 1981 study by J. P. Neary of the stability of the Harris-Todaro model of rural-urban migration in developing countries. "The present note derives the exact stability condition for the Harris-Todaro model with intersectoral capital mobility where land is explicitly included as a third scarce factor in agriculture. While the previous study by Neary states the difficulty of deriving a clear-cut result in such a case, this note demonstrates that if capital and land are never technologically substitutes in the agriculture production, Neary's condition that the urban sector is more capital abundant than the rural sector becomes a sufficient condition for local stability."
Correspondence: H. Funatsu, Otaru University of Commerce, 3-5-21 Midori, Otaru, Hokkaido 047, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20641 Irfan, Mohammad. Migration and development in Pakistan: some selected issues. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, Winter 1986. 743-55 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Utilizing various sources of cross-sectional data, some of the interrelationships between migration and development, particularly the effects on the labour-exporting rural areas of Pakistan, are discussed...." Attention is given to human resource flows, remittances, and income distribution and fertility effects of migration. "Some limited evidence on Pakistan suggests that rural-urban migration syphons off the young and the better-educated workers, which fact, in turn, may have negative effects on productivity levels in agriculture and rural areas in general. Remittances sent back yield a very low rate of return on the investment embodied in the out-migrants. In addition, the remittances may worsen income distribution."
Correspondence: M. Irfan, Chief of Research, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20642 Luo, Maochu; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Qingxu; Liu, Hongyi; Liu, Hongbin. Understanding the phenomenon of population flow in a comprehensive way, selecting the way to deal with it carefully--a survey of population flow in Beijing. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, May 29, 1986. 2-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The rapid increase in population movement into metropolitan areas has become a significant phenomenon in China since the economic reform. In this article, the authors study the case of Beijing using 1985 survey data for migrants to Beijing. Causes of migration and demographic characteristics of migrants are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20643 Neary, Peter. Stability of the mobile-capital Harris-Todaro model: some further results. Economica, Vol. 55, No. 217, Feb 1988. 123-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A necessary and sufficient condition for stability is derived for the mobile-capital Harris-Todaro model of rural-to-urban migration in developing countries when land is a scarce factor in agriculture. The stability condition when land is ignored--that the urban sector (comprising manufacturing industry and the urban unemployed) be more capital abundant--is no longer either necessary or sufficient for stability. Nevertheless, this condition always enhances stability and it is sufficient (though not necessary) for stability in many circumstances (e.g. when land is separable in production from labour and capital). Intuitive explanations of these conditions are provided."
A related study by Hideki Funatsu, also published in 1988, is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: P. Neary, University College, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20644 Pitie, Jean. Man and his environment: the rural exodus in France from the sixteenth century to the present day. An annotated bibliography: generalizations, regions, and overseas departments. [L'homme et son espace: l'exode rural en France du XVIe siecle a nos jours. Bibliographie annotee: generalites, regions, departements d'Outre-Mer.] ISBN 2-222-03973-8. 1987. 662 pp. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an introduction to the study of the rural exodus in France from the sixteenth century to the present day. It consists primarily of an annotated bibliography, supplemented by notes, analyses, maps, and selected texts. The first part provides a general introduction to the subject. The second part is primarily bibliographical and examines the rural exodus since the sixteenth century. The third part is concerned with regional studies.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:20645 Rakowski, Witold. Rural migration in Poland. [Migracje ludnosci wiejskiej w Polsce.] Wies Wspolczesna, Vol. 29, No. 8, 1985. 64-75 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Migration of the rural population in Poland from 1946 to 1983 is analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Consideration is given to regional variations in migration patterns, the causes of migration, and the impact of migration on areas of origin.
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.