Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

54:20129 Agyei, William K. A.; Nakintu-Kyeyune, Grace. Mortality estimates for South Kampala based on 1980 Uganda population census. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 245-52 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"An analysis of the 1980 Uganda Population Census for South Kampala through indirect techniques provided estimated [infant mortality rate] values of 0.0860, 0.0680 and 0.0774 for male infants, female infants and both sexes respectively. The estimated level of [child mortality] is 0.0491. The level of adult mortality, especially from age 5 to 19, is lower than infant and child mortality. There is a clear evidence of a sex differential in mortality, males experiencing higher mortality than females. Estimates of expectation of life at birth provided further evidence of sex differences in mortality. The estimated life expectation for males is 54.7 years, for females 59.3 years, and for both sexes 57.0 years."
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Makerere University, P.O. Box 1762, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20130 Baszanowski, Jan. Seasonal mortality during the plague in Gdansk in the seventeenth century and at the beginning of the eighteenth century. [Sezonowosc zgonow podczas wielkich epidemii dzumy w Gdansku w XVII i poczatku XVIII w.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 17, 1987. 57-87 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the seasonal character of mortality in Gdansk, Poland, during the plague epidemics of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The accuracy of death records is first examined, and data for epidemic periods are compared with data for other years. Sources include church, hospital, and cemetery records. Monthly patterns are noted and compared with the mortality experiences of selected other European cities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20131 Bjerregaard, Peter. Validity of Greenlandic mortality statistics. Arctic Medical Research, No. 42, 1986. 18-24 pp. Oulu, Finland. In Eng.
The reliability of official data concerning mortality in Greenland is evaluated. The data are for a random sample of 149 deaths occurring from natural causes between 1968 and 1981. The results indicate that some 23 percent of the diagnoses of causes of death required change.
Correspondence: P. Bjerregaard, Senior Advisor KEPI, P.O. Box 20781, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20132 Bouckaert, Andre; Lechat, Michel. Consequences of catastrophic mortality arising from epidemics and natural disasters for social structures and economic systems. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 19-42 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
Demographic and socioeconomic consequences of catastrophic mortality arising from natural or man-made disasters are examined. Included are problems involving the magnitude of disasters in the past and those posed by the extinction of populations, famines, epidemics, wars, and refugees. Attention is given to the identification of the affected population following a catastrophe, a process in which a genetic approach may be needed to supplement the demographic approach.
Correspondence: A. Bouckaert, Center for Medical Mathematics, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20133 Boulier, Bryan L.; Paqueo, Vicente B. On the theory and measurement of the determinants of mortality. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 249-63 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article develops a model of mortality that shows how biological, demographic, and environmental factors interact to affect an individual's probability of dying. To illustrate the usefulness of the model, we derive from it (as special cases) the Brass system of model life tables and the proportional-hazard mortality model and apply a logit version of the model to analyze the determinants of child mortality in Sri Lanka."
Correspondence: B. L. Boulier, Department of Economics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20134 D'Souza, Stan; Bhuiya, A.; Zimicki, Susan; Sheikh, K. Mortality and morbidity: the Matlab experience. Infant Mortality and Health Studies: Technical Study, No. 56e, ISBN 0-88936-501-6. 1988. 59 pp. International Development Research Centre [IDRC]: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to present examples from a field station set up by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B)...showing how mortality and morbidity processes can be studied within the context of 'small area' studies....This paper presents an updated and abbreviated version of existing documentation and aims at illustration rather than presentation of research results....This paper stresses the need for appropriate numbering systems to ensure that linkage is efficiently executed even on micros....To indicate that variations of the Matlab experience are in fact replicable, data from another field study in Bangladesh is presented briefly as comparison in terms of costs and registration coverage...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20135 Florez, Carmen E.; Morales, Argemiro. The existence of a Latin American mortality pattern: an analysis of the Colombian and Venezuelan cases. Documento CEDE, No. 081, LC 87-145922. Jul 1985. 153 pp. Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economia, Centro de Estudios sobre Desarrollo Economico [CEDE]: Bogota, Colombia. In Eng.
Data for Colombia and Venezuela from the 1950s to the early 1970s are used to test the validity of the Latin American mortality pattern estimated by the United Nations. The analysis is done using a non-stable population technique that can be used with any open and/or non-stable population. The results are compared with those for Chile and Argentina. The authors conclude that these data do not confirm the existence of a typical Latin American mortality pattern of this kind. "However, males and females in both countries, Colombia and Venezuela, show a particular pattern: high younger age death rates relative to older age death rates. This pattern is just the opposite to [that] observed for Chilean and Argentinian males identified as the U.N. Chilean pattern."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20136 Foigt, N. A. The study of the possibility of increasing the average duration of working life (the example of the Ukrainian SSR). [Ob izuchenii rezervov povysheniya srednei prodolzhitel'nosti predstoyashchei zhizni v trudosposobnom vozraste (na primere Ukrainskoi SSR).] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 11, 1987. 109-13 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the possible future impact of mortality decline in the Ukrainian SSR, with a focus on the effects on increased duration of working life.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20137 Forbes, John F.; McGregor, Alan. Male unemployment and cause-specific mortality in postwar Scotland. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1987. 233-40 pp. Farmingdale, New York. In Eng.
"This article reports a time-series analysis of male unemployment and mortality in postwar Scotland. The results provide little evidence to support the hypothesis that unemployment exerts a significant and consistent positive impact on mortality from all causes, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease."
Correspondence: J. F. Forbes, Social Paediatric and Obstetric Researhc Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LS, Scotland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20138 Imhof, Arthur E. Possible consequences of increasing life expectancy in Brazil. The perspective of a European historical demographer. Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 21, No. 5, Oct 1987. 447-65 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Eng. with sum. in Por.
Comparisons are made between the present mortality situations in Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany. The author notes that the lower life expectancy in Brazil is primarily due to high rates of infant mortality and that, in 1981, people over 65 years of age accounted for 34.4 percent of all deaths. The author concludes that current trends in Germany involving the increasing tendency to live alone and not reproduce indicate that humans are not such social animals as was once assumed. The author suggests that such trends may be increasingly relevant to the situation in Brazil.
Correspondence: A. E. Imhof, Division of Social History and Historical Demography, Freie Universitat Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, D-1000, Berlin-West 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20139 Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring. Changes in life expectancy of Koreans due to reduction in leading causes of death in 1985. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jul 1987. 24-36 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"This study examines potential gains in life expectancy of Korean males and females in 1985 when the three leading causes of death are totally eliminated. The greatest increase in life expectancy of Korean males would result from the elimination of malignant neoplasms (2.2 years at birth), whereas the life expectancy of Korean females would be lengthened the most (2.4 years) by elimination of cerebrovascular diseases. The implications of the results can provide useful information for the evaluation of the public health programs and health planning policy for [the Republic of Korea] in the future."
Correspondence: Y. S. Kim, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20140 Kunitz, Stephen J. Making a long story short: a note on men's height and mortality in England from the first through the nineteenth centuries. Medical History, Vol. 31, No. 3, Jul 1987. 269-80 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The use of data on height to examine the degree to which improvements in nutrition have contributed to the historical decline in mortality is explored. Specifically, the author uses a variety of archaeological and historical data to examine changes in height from the first to the nineteenth centuries in England. The analysis indicates that mortality began to decline at least half a century before the height data show a significant improvement in nutrition. The significance of the changes occurring in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries is stressed.
Correspondence: S. J. Kunitz, Department of Preventive, Family, and Rehabilitation Medicine, Box 644, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20141 Lloyd, O. L.; Williams, F. L. R.; Berry, W. G.; Florey, C. du V. An atlas of mortality in Scotland: including the geography of selected socio-economic characteristics. ISBN 0-7099-4122-6. 1987. 191 pp. Croom Helm: New York, New York/Beckenham, England. In Eng.
Mortality data for Scotland, taken from official sources, are presented in map form for three time periods: 1959-1963, 1969-1973, and 1979-1983. "The book consists of approximately 100 maps with accompanying text, with maps printed in two colours. They show mortality in Scotland by small burgh, large burgh, city and landward areas, totalling 234 small communities. Certain socio-economic variables are also shown." Data are included on sex ratio, social class, employment and unemployment, family and households, and age distribution. The mortality data focus on variations in causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20142 Ng, Shui Meng. Socio-economic correlates of mortality in Japan and ASEAN. ISBN 9971-988-21-6. LC 86-945167. 1986. xxi, 295 pp. National Institute for Research Advancement: Tokyo, Japan; Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore. In Eng.
This work consists of seven papers by different authors on the socioeconomic factors affecting mortality in Japan and the countries of Southeastern Asia. The first paper is a general introduction to the subject and includes a discussion of death rates, infant mortality, life expectancy, and causes of death. The next six papers are case studies of the countries concerned, namely, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Consideration is given to community-level socioeconomic factors, environmental conditions, and access to medical services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20143 Pollard, J. H. On the decomposition of changes in expectation of life and differentials in life expectancy. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 265-76 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The projection of mortality rates requires inter alia close examination of the mortality experience of a population over a long period of time and will usually also involve the analysis of mortality trends by cause of death. In two of the more important recent contributions, techniques were devised for explaining change in life expectancy in terms of mortality changes in particular age groups and by different causes of death. The approaches adopted by the authors differ, and the purpose of this article is to reconcile the two and tie the results in with those obtained by earlier writers. A new method for explaining the change in a life expectancy differential in terms of the observed changes in the mortality differentials and the observed change in overall mortality level is also described." Australian data are used to provide examples.
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia 2109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20144 Rogers, Richard G.; Hackenberg, Robert. Extending epidemiologic transition theory: a new stage. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 234-43 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The epidemiologic transition theory focuses on the changing patterns of morbidity and mortality and postulates that mortality by cause will evolve from a predominance of acute and infectious diseases to a predominance of chronic and degenerative diseases. The epidemiologic transition theory comprises three stages: the age of pestilence and famine (lasting until 1875), receding pandemics (from 1875 to 1930), and degenerative and man-made diseases (from 1930 to the present). Recent information suggests that developed societies have entered a new stage in the transition. This fourth stage, which we term the hybristic stage, is increasingly influenced by individual behaviors and life-styles. In this paper, we examine the epidemiologic transition theory, substantiate the need for a new stage, and discuss current cause-specific trends in mortality and the social and demographic implications of such trends." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 385).
Correspondence: R. G. Rogers, Population Program, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20145 Rudin, Rolf; Eriksson, Henry; Ohlson, L.-O.; Larsson, Bo; Welin, Lennart; Tibblin, Gosta; Hallen, Olle; Svardsudd, Kurt. The mortality in an age cohort followed from birth to age 70. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, Vol. 5, No. 1, Feb 1987. 54-9 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The authors report on a study undertaken in Gothenburg, Sweden, involving a birth cohort of all males born alive in the city in 1913; in the study, the men were followed to age 70 to record residence, vital statistics, and cause of death. The results indicate that the men included in this study are representative of men in Sweden as a whole with regard to mortality. The data show that 25 percent of the cohort died by age 50 and 43 percent by age 70; they also illustrate high infant mortality rates and the impact of infectious diseases at the beginning of the century. "Special attention was paid to death from otitis media complications, congestive heart failure, and diabetes."
Correspondence: K. Svardsudd, Section for Preventive Medicine, Ostra Hospital, S-41685 Gothenburg, Sweden. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20146 Schooneveldt, M.; Songer, T.; Zimmet, P.; Thoma, K. Changing mortality patterns in Nauruans: an example of epidemiological transition. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 42, No. 1, Mar 1988. 89-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"An analysis of mortality data for the years 1982-5 was carried out for the Micronesian population (aged 15 years and over) of the central Pacific Island, Nauru. Among males, the most common causes of death were circulatory system disorders (33.3%), accidents (25.2%), and diabetes mellitus (12.1%)....Among females, neoplasms (almost all lung and cervix) (22.4%), circulatory system disorders (20.7%), and diabetes mellitus (17.2%) were the most common causes of death. When accidents are excluded, 59.4% of deaths were in persons with diabetes....Nauruan life expectancy (39.5 years for men and 48.5 years for women) is one of the lowest in the world. These data confirm the high mortality associated with diabetes mellitus in Nauruans as evidenced in earlier studies. Modernisation of this society through the affluence acquired by the mining of phosphate has led to serious public health problems relating to non-communicable diseases so that the mortality trends now mirror those of developed societies."
Correspondence: M. Schooneveldt, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus, Lions International Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20147 Strnad, Ladislav. Major trends in the evolution of mortality among the population of Czechoslovakia during the postwar period. [Hlavni vyvojove trendy umrtnosti obyvatel CSSR v povalecnem obdobi.] Ceskoslovenske Zdravotnictvi, Vol. 35, No. 4 and 5, Apr and May 1987. 145-57; 193-8 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality trends in Czechoslovakia since 1950 are analyzed in this two-part article. The analysis is presented separately for the two constituent republics and is based on data from official sources. Consideration is also given to probable developments in mortality up to 1990. The results indicate a slowing of the mortality decline since 1986, particularly for men, with no immediate reversal of this trend in sight.
Correspondence: L. Strnad, Ustav Vedeckych Informaci LFUK, Dlouha, 500 38 Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20148 Valkovics, Emil. Factor decomposition of the differences in life expectancy: a Hungarian method. [A varhato elettartamok kozotti kulonbseg tenyezokre bontasanak magyar modszere.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 66, No. 1, Jan 1988. 40-76 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author shows the Hungarian method of decomposition according to factors causing differences in life expectancies. He uses abridged mortality tables by causes of death of Hungary's male and female population in 1972-1973 and 1982....[The author explains that] the significant increase in the difference between males' and females' average life expectancies at birth can be explained primarily with the ever increasing differences in life expectancies of the victims of various causes of death shifted in favour of females."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20149 Vallin, Jacques; D'Souza, Stan; Palloni, Alberto. The measurement and analysis of mortality: some new approaches. [Mesure et analyse de la mortalite: nouvelles approches.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 119, ISBN 2-7332-0119-0. 1988. vii, 458 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of an international seminar held in Siena, Italy, July 2-12, 1987, organized by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) Committee on Comparative Mortality Changes in cooperation with the Institute of Statistics at the University of Siena. The focus of the seminar was on the state of the art concerning methods of mortality data collection and analysis. The seminar brought together some 40 researchers from a variety of disciplines. The proceedings include a selection of the papers presented, which are divided into chapters concerned with data collection, data analysis, and differential mortality and causes of death. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20150 Vaupel, James W.; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Manton, Kenneth G. Debilitation's aftermath: stochastic process models of mortality. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1988. 21-48, 123 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A stochastic differential equation model is developed to clarify the interaction of debilitation, recuperation, selection and aging. The model yields various insights about lingering mortality consequences of disasters such as wars, famines and epidemics that may weaken the survivors. A key result is that debilitation and selection are interdependent: debilitation that increases population heterogeneity will result in subsequent selection; selection, by altering the distribution of population heterogeneity, will influence the impact of debilitating events."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20151 Vaupel, James W. Inherited frailty and longevity. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 277-87 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The life spans of parents and children appear only weakly related, even though parents affect their children's longevity through both genetic and environmental influences. These influences can be summarized as a correlation between parents' and children's frailty. It is shown that even if children perfectly inherit their frailty from their parents, parents' life spans explain little of the variance in children's life spans, because the variance in life expectancies among people with different frailties is small compared with the variance in life spans among people at the same level of frailty. By interpreting frailty as a relative risk in a proportional-hazard model, longevity as a duration or waiting time, and inheritance as an invariance in relative risk over time, one can extend this result to repeatable events involving fertility, migration, marriage, unemployment, and so forth."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20152 Wilmoth, John R.; Caselli, Graziella. A simple model for the statistical analysis of large arrays of mortality data: rectangular vs. diagonal structure. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-87-58, Jun 1987. v, 21 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"A simple descriptive model is proposed for the analysis of large, non-additive mortality arrays. Similar in form to additive-plus-multiplicative models discussed by other authors, the model goes one step further by introducing a diagonal term. An exemplary application of the model to French male post-War mortality data [for the period 1946-1981] demonstrates three important characteristics of the data being analyzed: 1) the structure of the data matrix is largely additive; 2) some rectangular non-additivity exists, implying that mortality has declined with varying speed at different ages or, equivalently, that the shape of the age-curve of mortality has changed over time; and 3) residual non-additive diagonal structure exists, indicating that some 'peculiar' cohorts have had mortality experiences which deviate by as much as 2 or 3% from levels which would be expected considering only the age and period of death."
Correspondence: IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20153 Wu, Wanzhen. Analysis of potential years of life lost based on the mortality data of Suzhou (1973-1983). Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep 1986. 272-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
The indicator potential years of life lost is applied to data on mortality from five causes of death among residents of Suzhou, China, for the period 1973-1983. The advantages and limitations of the indicator are assessed. Among the leading causes of death in Suzhou are malignant tumors, diseases of the circulatory system, accidents, infectious diseases, and diseases of the respiratory system.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20154 Xu, Qin. An analysis on life expectancy of the world population and trend of increase in China's life expectancy. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr 1987. 32-40 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This is an overview of worldwide trends in life expectancy in this century, with particular emphasis on projections of life expectancy in China. The relationship between developments in per capita GNP and life expectancy in selected countries is discussed.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 4, 1986.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

54:20155 Bercovich, Alicia M.; Vellozo, Heitor C. Evaluation of data on stillbirths in the population census of 1980. [Avaliacao da informacao de nascidos mortos no censo demografico de 1980.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 47, No. 188, Oct-Dec 1986. 483-510 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Brazilian data on fetal deaths from the 1980 census are compared with similar data from earlier censuses back to 1940 and survey data for 1981. Factors considered include sex, region, and maternal age. Reasons for the differences in the stillbirth rates calculated from the various sources are discussed.
Correspondence: A. M. Bercovich, Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Av. Brasil, 15.671-Lucas, CEP 21241, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20156 Corman, Hope; Joyce, Theodore J.; Grossman, Michael. Birth outcome production function in the United States. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 22, No. 3, Summer 1987. 339-60 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper contains the first infant health production functions that simultaneously consider the effects of a variety of inputs on race-specific neonatal mortality rates [in the United States]. These inputs include the use of prenatal care, neonatal intensive care, abortion, federally subsidized organized family planning clinics, maternal and infant care projects, community health centers, and the WIC [Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children] program. We place major emphasis on two-stage least squares estimation. Our results underscore the qualitative and quantitative importance of abortion, prenatal care, neonatal intensive care, and the WIC program in black and white birth outcomes."
Correspondence: H. Corman, Manhattan College, Riverdale, Bronx, NY 10471. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

54:20157 Ahmed, Feroz. Infant mortality in Washington, D.C.: a study of risk factors among black residents. LC 87-83707. 1987. v, 92 pp. Howard University, Institute for Urban Affairs and Research [IUAR]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Determinants of the high level of infant mortality in Washington, D.C., are investigated. Data are from the city's vital registration system and concern 36,872 single-delivery births to blacks from 1980 to 1984 and the 762 infant deaths that occurred between 1980 and 1985. The main cause of the high level of mortality among black infants is attributed to poor birth weight distribution. The factors associated with low birth weight are analyzed.
Correspondence: F. Ahmed, Institute for Urban Affairs and Research, Howard University, 2400 Sixth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20059. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20158 Amin, Ruhul. Infant and child mortality in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 59-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Socioeconomic differences and trends in infant and child mortality in Bangladesh are examined using data from the 1975 World Fertility Survey and 1979 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. There is evidence of some recent decline in infant and child mortality. Logit analysis of infant and child mortality indicates that sociodemographic variables such as mother's education, recent [time] period, or higher birth orders, had significant independent effects upon the reduction of infant and child mortality." The effect of urban residence was also positive. The author concludes that "concentration on the supply of modern medical services may bring limited returns unless they are reinforced by appropriate social changes, in particular those affecting the socioeconomic status of women."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Institute for Urban Research, Morgan State University, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20159 Ballweg, John A.; Pagtolun-an, Imelda. A measurement scale for the parental underinvestment concept. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 16, No. 2, Autumn 1986. 291-305 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The concept of parental underinvestment was used by Scrimshaw (1978) to explain infant and childhood mortality where a biological explanation was lacking. This report describes an underinvestment scale developed and tested in the Philippines. No previous scale had been developed to test the underinvestment concept. Reliability and validity of the scale are reported along with recommendations for improvement of the scale and an expansion of the parental underinvestment concept to explain outcomes other than mortality."
For the article by S. C. M. Scrimshaw, published in 1978, see 45:2418.
Correspondence: J. A. Ballweg, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20160 Basu, Alaka M. Household influences on childhood mortality: evidence from historical and recent mortality trends. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 187-205 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Household influences on childhood mortality are analyzed. The analysis, which is done separately for developed and developing countries, uses data from a variety of secondary sources. "By examining differences in the age structure of mortality declines between the developed and the developing countries, and within these two groups, and reviewing the major influences on overall mortality declines in these two groups of countries, we attempt to link falls in childhood mortality with social changes, especially at the individual or behavioral level as measured by female education."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Parisila Bhavan, 11 Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20161 Beghin, I. Health and mortality of young children in developing countries: the lessons of a symposium. [Sante et mortalite aux jeunes ages dans les pays en developpement: les lecons d'un colloque.] Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale/Annales van de Belgische Vereniging voor Tropische Geneeskunde, Vol. 67, Suppl. 1, 1987. 129-36 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author summarizes the conclusions of a seminar on health and mortality among young children in developing countries, held December 12-14, 1985, in Antwerp, Belgium. The proceedings of the seminar appear in the special issue of the journal from which this article is cited. Selected papers from the seminar are cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: I. Beghin, Institut de Medecine Tropicale, Nationalestraat 155, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20162 Behm-Rosas, H. General panorama of mortality at young ages in developing countries: levels, trends, problems of measurement. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale/Annales van de Belgische Vereniging voor Tropische Geneeskunde, Vol. 67, Suppl. 1, 1987. 3-27 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
In this paper, which was presented as an introductory address at a seminar held in Antwerp, Belgium, December 12-14, 1985, the author reviews trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries. It is concluded that although significant progress has been made, countries with the political will to realize a more equitable distribution of available education and health services could accelerate the process of mortality decline at young ages. Comments by Eliwo Akoto and D. Tabutin are included (pp. 19-21 and 23-7).
Correspondence: H. Behm-Rosas, Apartado 293, San Pedro, Montes de Oca, Costa Rica. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20163 Bobadilla, Jose L. Report on the International Workshop, 1985, on Child Survival: Problems and Priorities. Working Paper/Documento de Trabajo, No. 20, Dec 1987. 26 pp. Population Council, Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office: Mexico City, Mexico. In Eng.
This is a summary of the principal conclusions and recommendations of a workshop on child survival, held August 22-24, 1985, in Teotihuacan, Mexico. "The general objective of the workshop was to contribute to the improvement of child health by facilitating the understanding of the biological and social determinants of child survival, and of the effectiveness and applicability of available interventions. The experiences of on-going programs oriented towards improving child survival were analyzed and new interventions were reviewed in order to evaluate their impact upon survival." Following an overview of the problem of child survival in Latin America, the information and methods for its study are described. Attention is given to determinants of child survival, including socioeconomic and cultural factors, nutrition and infectious diseases, and perinatal problems. The impact of primary health care services on child survival is discussed. Recommended health and research policies are outlined.
Correspondence: Population Council, Oficina Regional para Latinoamerica y el Caribe, Apartado Postal 105-152, Mexico City, DF, C.P. 11560, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20164 Brass, W. Problems in the measurement of child mortality where statistical systems are limited. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale/Annales van de Belgische Vereniging voor Tropische Geneeskunde, Vol. 67, Suppl. 1, 1987. 57-79 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The paper presents various methods for the measurement of mortality in early childhood and discusses their advantages and limitations. In developed countries, vital registration of births and deaths yield child death rates, and additional information can be obtained by record linkage. Defective registration in the developing countries has led to other methods of data collection. Sample registration schemes have been developed, and in a number of places vital statistics have been obtained by mixtures of registration and household survey. Single-round enquiries can include questions on maternity histories; if the recording of child deaths is also included, and if reporting is accurate, time-series can be reconstructed. Recall lapses and selection effects may however distort the results. Useful information can also be derived from questions on total births and the numbers surviving....Another approach gathers data on survival of the preceding birth at the time of a birth to the mother." Comments by J. P. Grangaud and G. Masuy-Stroobant are included (pp. 71-4 and 75-9).
Correspondence: W. Brass, Centre for Population Studies, 31 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3EL, England. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20165 Briend, Andre; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rowland, Michael G. M. Breast feeding, nutritional state, and child survival in rural Bangladesh. British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6626, Mar 26, 1988. 879-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The effect of breast feeding on nutritional state, morbidity, and child survival was examined prospectively in a community in rural Bangladesh. Every month for six months health workers inquired about breast feeding and illness and measured arm circumference in an average of 4,612 children aged 12-36 months. Data from children who died within one month of a visit were compared with those from children who survived. Roughly one third of the deaths in the age range 18-36 months were attributable to absence of breast feeding. Within this age range protection conferred by breast feeding was independent of age but was evident only in severely malnourished children. In communities with a high prevalence of malnutrition breast feeding may substantially enhance child survival up to 3 years of age."
Correspondence: A. Briend, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20166 Chen, A. J. Pattern of infant and childhood mortality in Singapore. Journal of the Singapore Paediatric Society, Vol. 29, Suppl. 1, 1987. 41-8 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Trends and causes of infant and child mortality in Singapore are reviewed. Consideration is given to mortality differentials by ethnic group and sex and to changes in causes of death over time. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: A. J. Chen, Director of Medical Services, Ministry of Health, 55 Cuppage Centre 09-00, Singapore 0922. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20167 Chidambaram, V. C.; McDonald, John W.; Bracher, Michael D. Childhood mortality. In: The World Fertility Survey: an assessment, edited by John Cleland, Chris Scott, and David Whitelegge. 1987. 862-81 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the World Fertility Survey's contribution to the study of infant and child mortality. The authors "first present a brief description of the type and coverage of data collected with special emphasis on their comparability. This will be followed by a discussion of the quality and limitations of the data. We then present a summary of the findings from the analyses so far completed to highlight the contribution of WFS to the study of levels, trends and differentials in infant and child mortality." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20168 de Meer, Kees. Mortality in children among the Aymara Indians of Southern Peru. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1988. 253-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"During the fieldwork on illness in children in an Aymara peasant community in Southern Peru, data [were] collected on child mortality. In 35 families surveyed in the village, the total child mortality rate was estimated diachronically at 380 per 1,000 live births. The majority of the child death in these families occurred in the first days after birth. These deaths were also counted as perinatal deaths, and thus the perinatal mortality rate was found to be high as well at 252 per 1,000 total births...." The author examines the evidence that infanticide was a major cause of mortality in this sample. "This hypothesis was supported by practices in the village concerning the baptism of dead children by which the cause of death was left unsanctioned. Infanticide could be important to curb recent and future population growth and the resulting pressure on the land."
Correspondence: K. de Meer, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Groningen, Oostersingel 59, 9713 EZ Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20169 Esrey, Steven A.; Habicht, Jean-Pierre. Maternal literacy modifies the effect of toilets and piped water on infant survival in Malaysia. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 127, No. 5, May 1988. 1,079-87 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The effect of toilets, piped water, and maternal literacy on infant mortality was analyzed using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey collected in 1976-1977. The effect of toilets and piped water on infant mortality was dependent on whether or not mothers were literate. The impact of having toilets was greater among the illiterate than among the literate, but the impact of piped water was greater among the literate than among the illiterate....The authors infer that literate mothers protect their infants especially in unsanitary environments lacking toilets, and that when piped water is introduced, they use it more effectively to practice better hygiene for their infants."
Correspondence: S. A. Esrey, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20170 Fagela-Domingo, Carmelita; Aguila, Felicitas; Gonzales, Gene G. Infant and child morbidity and mortality patterns: a report from the Philippines. Journal of the Singapore Paediatric Society, Vol. 29, Suppl. 1, 1987. 32-40 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Recent trends in infant and child mortality in the Philippines are discussed. Consideration is given to regional differences, the impact of government policies on health, and socioeconomic, cultural, and religious factors.
Correspondence: C. Fagela-Domingo, Department of Pediatrics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20171 Gajanayake, Indra. Infant mortality in Sri Lanka. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 79-88 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Infant mortality in Sri Lanka between 1961 and 1980 is studied with reference to its trend and associated factors. Between the periods 1961-65 and 1976-80 deaths from exogenous and endogenous causes have declined considerably and nearly equally. The probability of survival has increased most in the first week of life. National income or total food supply does not seem to be associated with infant mortality. Distribution of free supplementary food, increase of public health personnel, of immunization, and of institutional births appear to have initiated and sustained the transition of infant mortality during the period. Increasing levels of female education probably augmented these effects."
Correspondence: I. Gajanayake, Demographic Training and Research Unit, University of Colombo, 94 Cumaratunga Munidasa Mawatha, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20172 Greenwood, B. M.; Greenwood, Alice M.; Bradley, A. K.; Tulloch, S.; Hayes, R.; Oldfield, F. S. J. Deaths in infancy and early childhood in a well-vaccinated, rural, West African population. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1987. 91-9 pp. Bristol, England. In Eng.
Mortality under seven years of age in a rural population in the Gambia in 1982-1983 is analyzed. The population examined is one with a high level of infant immunization but poor access to health facilities. An infant mortality rate of 142 per 1,000 live births and a mortality rate for children aged 1-4 years of 43 per 1,000 are observed. Acute respiratory infections, malaria, and chronic diarrhea with marasmus are shown to be the major causes of death after the first month of life. The authors conclude that very little impact could be made on these rates by expanded immunization efforts.
Correspondence: B. M. Greenwood, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, Gambia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20173 Gubry, F.; Mfoulou, R.; Ngwe, E.; Ntitebirageza, E. Surveys of Infant and Child Mortality. Volume 2, Number 1: data collection and processing of the infant and juvenile mortality surveys of Yaounde. [Les Enquetes sur la Mortalite Infantile et Juvenile (EMIJ). Volume 2, Tome 1: bilan de la collecte et de l'exploitation de l'EMIJ de Yaounde.] ISBN 2-905327-03-0. Oct 1987. 151 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD]: Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
This is the second volume of a publication dealing with infant and child mortality surveys conducted in Yaounde, Cameroon, from January 1978 to January 1981. The report is divided into two parts. The first is concerned with the phase of data collection and is divided into chapters on methodology, administration, data samples, budgets, and evaluations. The second part contains detailed information on the data processing, which took place between October 1980 and February 1983. A section containing copies of the survey questionnaires is also included.

54:20174 Habicht, Jean-Pierre; DaVanzo, Julie; Butz, William P. Does breastfeeding really save lives, or are apparent benefits due to biases? American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 123, No. 2, 1986. 279-90 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The relationship between breast-feeding and infant survival in Malaysia is examined using recall data from mothers interviewed in a probability survey in 1976-1977. The results indicate that breast-feeding up to six months of age improves the chances of infant survival during the first year of life. The problems of bias posed by inappropriate sample selection and inadequate control of confounding are discussed. The authors conclude that even when these biases are taken into account, unsupplemented breast-feeding is more beneficial for infants than supplemented breast-feeding.
Correspondence: J.-P. Habicht, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20175 Hakkert, Ralph. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between infant and child mortality and parental education. [Mecanismos subjacentes a relacao entre a mortalidade infanto-juvenil e a educacao dos pais.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 47-65 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between infant and child mortality and parental education is examined, with emphasis on the situation in Brazil. The analysis is based on a review of the literature and on data from the 1970 census and the 1984 National Investigation on Human Reproduction. The author concludes that educational status, particularly that of the mother, has a more consistent impact on child mortality than indicators of living conditions such as family income.
Correspondence: R. Hakkert, Visiting Professor, CEDEPLAR, Faculdade de Ciencias Economicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Cidade Universitaria, Pampulha, CP 1621, 1622, 30000 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20176 Hesse, Gertraud. An overview of the historical development of infant mortality. [Ein Beitrag zur historischen Entwicklung der Sauglingssterblichkeit.] Arztliche Jugendkunde, Vol. 78, No. 2, 1987. 136-45 pp. Leipzig, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Global trends concerning infant mortality are reviewed. The author notes that trends that started in the more developed countries some 100 years ago will continue in the developing world until the twenty-first century. The focus is on trends in Europe and Japan in the twentieth century. The factors affecting infant mortality are analyzed from a historical perspective.
Correspondence: G. Hesse, Jugendarztliche Beratungsstelle, Werner-Seelenbinder Strasse 41, Jena 6902, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20177 Holian, John. Community-level determinants of infant mortality in Mexico. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 67-77 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from pregnancy histories collected by the 1976-77 Mexican Fertility Survey show wide variations in infant mortality among a sample of 125 communities. There are also large infant mortality differentials by population size, economic status, access variables, utilities, medical facilities and schools. These community-level factors, which have been little used in previous studies, are highly correlated and do not appear to affect infant survival independently of population size. As such, community size serves as a summary measure of a locality's overall level of development and comparative risk of early death for its young inhabitants."
Correspondence: J. Holian, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus, 11000 Pleasant Valley Road, Cleveland, OH 44130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20178 Jain, Anrudh K.; Visaria, Pravin. Infant mortality in India: differentials and determinants. ISBN 0-8039-9545-8. LC 87-22486. 1988. 398 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This collection of essays by various authors on aspects of infant mortality in India is the product of a seminar held at the Indian Institute for Management in Ahmedabad in October 1984. Following a general overview, papers are presented on the determinants of infant mortality at national and regional levels. Three papers consider lessons from community health projects; the next six papers look at evidence from selected states; the final two papers deal with unresolved research issues. The editors argue that, in contrast to the common belief that infant mortality only began to decline after 1978, the level has declined more or less steadily since independence. The papers also indicate that the infant mortality rate can be reduced with the help of relatively simple and inexpensive technology. The importance of well-organized, efficient health services and prenatal care and immunization services is emphasized. Consideration is also given to the effect of female education on infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20179 Kasim, Mohd S.; Paramjothy, M. Morbidity and mortality patterns in Malaysian children. Journal of the Singapore Paediatric Society, Vol. 29, Suppl. 1, 1987. 24-31 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Data from official sources are used to analyze infant and child mortality and morbidity in Malaysia. "The paper looks at the infant and toddler mortality rates which are amongst the lowest in the region. It discusses the causes of deaths among children whether these are medically certified or not. Causes of morbidity and mortality amongst children admitted to hospitals are also looked at and analysed." The need for improved data is noted.
Correspondence: M. S. Kasim, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20180 Kermani, S.; Anane, T.; Laraba, A.; Grangaud, J. P. Child mortality in the Cheraga health sector. [La mortalite infantile dans le secteur sanitaire de Cheraga.] Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale/Annales van de Belgische Vereniging voor Tropische Geneeskunde, Vol. 67, Suppl. 1, 1987. 117-28 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in infant mortality in the Cheraga health region of Algeria since 1976 are analyzed. The role of health services and other factors in the decline in infant mortality that has occurred since 1976 are examined.
Correspondence: S. Kermani, Secteur Sanitaire et Universitaire, Ain Taya, Willaya de Boumerder, Algeria. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20181 Khanjanasthiti, Pensri. Pattern of mortality and morbidity in infancy and morbidity: country report from Thailand. Journal of the Singapore Paediatric Society, Vol. 29, Suppl. 1, 1987. 48-54 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Changes in infant mortality and morbidity in Thailand since World War II are reviewed, and factors contributing to their decline are discussed. Data are from official sources, including the Thai Public Health Statistics Report.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20182 Majumder, Abul K. Maternal factors and infant and child mortality in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 89-98 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Multivariate analysis of the effects of maternal age at birth, birth order and the preceding birth interval on mortality risks in early childhood, using data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey, 1975-76, confirms that the length of the preceding birth interval is the most influential single factor. But the lower mortality risks among infants and children of educated mothers are due neither to the age at which childbearing was initiated nor to the spacing between births."
Correspondence: A. K. Majumder, National Centre for Development Studies, Australian National University, POB 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20183 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Infant mortality, 1986: national and international differences. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 69, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1988. 2-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Global and U.S. differentials in infant mortality by race and state in 1986 are reviewed. Data are from official U.S. sources and from the United Nations.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20184 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). The determinants of infant mortality in Morocco. [Les determinants de la mortalite infantile au Maroc.] Nov 1987. 81 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Factors affecting infant mortality in Morocco are investigated using data from the 1982 census and recent surveys. Factors considered include demographic factors, economic activity, education, agriculture, housing, and health. The analysis, which is a simple form of spatial correlation, is performed separately for rural and urban areas. In rural areas, the major factors associated with lower infant mortality are age of woman at marriage, proportion of nonworking women, proportion of literate women, and land available to the household. In urban areas, the three factors so identified are proportion of literate women, proportion of urban population living in towns of over 10,000 inhabitants, and density of medical services.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, BP 178, Avenue Maa El Ainine, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20185 Mosley, W. Henry. The demographic impact of infant survival programs. Proposals for program strategy and policy. [El impacto demografico de los programas de sobrevivencia infantil. Propuestas para la politica y estrategia de los programas.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 84-92 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the strategies adopted in campaigns to reduce infant and child mortality in developing countries. He suggests that such efforts have taken a primarily technological approach to date and that future strategies should pay more attention to social factors and attitude changes. He also maintains that such a broad approach would not only be more successful in reducing infant and child mortality but would also be more cost-effective.
Correspondence: W. H. Mosley, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20186 Palloni, A. Theory, analytical frameworks and causal approach in the study of mortality at young ages in developing countries. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale/Annales van de Belgische Vereniging voor Tropische Geneeskunde, Vol. 67, Suppl. 1, 1987. 31-50 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper addresses the question of how knowledge about the determinants of early childhood mortality is produced, and examines the most important obstacles to the improvement of such knowledge. Firstly the interplay of theory, analytical frameworks and causal inferences regarding mortality is illustrated. The poverty of theory, and the weakness of representation of causal mechanisms are contrasted with comparative abundance of statistical models in the literature. Too often such statistical models lead to wrong causal inferences. Erroneous causal inference on the basis of such statistical models is shown to be due to faulty translation of theory into models, absence of theory or analytical framework, deficient auxiliary theories, etc. Recommendations are made to: (1) Enrich theory (2) Improve study design, and (3) Resolve problems due to endogenicity and heterogeneity." A comment by Ivan Beghin is included (pp. 47-50).
Correspondence: A. Palloni, Center for Studies in Demography, 1180 Observatory Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20187 Peterson, Christine; Yusof, Khairuddin; DaVanzo, Julie; Habicht, Jean-Pierre. Why were infant and child mortality rates highest in the poorest states of Peninsular Malaysia, 1941-75? Rand Note, No. N-2329-FF/RF/WFHF, Aug 1986. xi, 45 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
Reasons why infant and child mortality rates were higher in the poorest states of Peninsular Malaysia than in other states from 1941 to 1975 are explored. The study uses individual-level retrospective data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey. The results suggest that the higher average infant mortality rate in the four northern states can be explained by differences in family characteristics and environmental conditions. The major factor identified was differences in ethnic composition. However, the differences in mortality were somewhat mitigated by the prevalence of breast-feeding in the poorest states.
Correspondence: Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20188 Potter, Joseph E. Birthspacing and child survival: a cautionary note regarding the evidence from the WFS. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 87-6, Dec 1987. 20 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author examines "the influence of birthspacing on child survival, and points to two reasons why the statistical associations observed in the data collected by the World Fertility Survey may be, at least in part, spurious. Where reporting is poor, it is argued that errors may often be responsible for a substantial portion of the association between interval length and mortality, and also for the apparent influence of the death of one child on the survival prospects of a younger sibling. Where the reported dates of birth and death are reliable but contraceptive prevalence is high, there is the problem that contraceptive practice is apt to be closely associated with other behaviors likely to have a direct effect on mortality."
Correspondence: Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20189 Potter, Joseph E. How family planning reduces infant mortality rates: a look beyond age, parity and spacing effects. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 88-1, Mar 1988. 17 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The purpose of this note is to suggest that there are ways other than altering family building patterns in which family planning might affect child survival. The effects considered include "those that family planning may have on the social composition of birth cohorts, on the avoidance of high risk pregnancies, and on the affective relationships between mothers and children." The focus is on the situation in developing countries. The author contends that "increasing family planning practice has the potential to shape the composition of birth cohorts in ways that reduce infant mortality, and that it may also promote changes in ideas and processes that are conducive to better, more intensive maternal care."
Correspondence: Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20190 Pratinidhi, A. K.; Shrotri, A. N.; Shah, U.; Chavan, H. H. Infant mortality in rural India: a strategy for reduction. Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1987. 619-25 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"[The] availability and accessibility of health care is in inverse proportion to its need in Indian rural areas. Risk approach strategy was applied to 47,000 population of Rural Training Centre, Sirur. Birth cohorts of 1981, 1982 and 1983 were followed for one year. Out of 3,960 infants, 'at risk' babies were identified through female Village Health Guides...and were given extra care through [the] existing health care delivery system. A significant reduction in infant mortality rate from 91.2 for birth cohort of 1981 to 67.3 for birth cohort of 1983 was observed."
Correspondence: A. K. Pratinidhi, Departments of Preventive and Social Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, BJ Medical College, Pune 411 001, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20191 Rose, Lionel. The massacre of the innocents: infanticide in Britain, 1800-1939. ISBN 0-7102-0339-X. LC 85-19596. 1986. vii, 215 pp. Routledge and Kegan Paul: Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The extent of infanticide in the United Kingdom from 1800 to 1939 is analyzed. The author describes the changes in attitude toward infanticide during that period and the measures that were taken to prevent its occurrence, with particular attention to the care of illegitimate children. The author concludes that "the death of 'surplus' or unwanted babies was a biological necessity at a time when birth control was scarcely understood, and it is only as the birth rate fell at the very end of the last century that the value of infant life correspondingly rose."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20192 Ryan, Michael. Infant mortality in the Soviet Union. British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6625, Mar 19, 1988. 850-1 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews recently released data on infant mortality in the USSR. The causes of the relatively high rates of infant mortality recorded during the 1980s are considered. It is noted that there is higher infant mortality in rural than in urban areas. Problems of data comparability and quality are also considered.
Correspondence: M. Ryan, Centre of Russian and East European Studies, University College of Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20193 Saad, Paulo M. Infant mortality by causes in the state of Sao Paulo in 1983: analysis under the perspective of multiple causes of death. [Mortalidade infantil por causas no estado de Sao Paulo (Brasil) em 1983: analise sob a perspectiva das causas multiplas de morte.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 20, No. 6, Dec 1986. 481-8 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Infant mortality in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is analyzed using official records of child deaths for 1983. The emphasis is on multiple causes of death. Distinct differences between causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality are noted. The importance of taking the underlying causes of death into account in the analysis of causes of death is stressed.
Correspondence: P. M. Saad, Grupo Especial de Analise Demografica, Fundacao Sistema de Analise de Dados, Av. Casper Libero 464, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20194 Santhanakrishnan, B. R.; Ramalingam, R. Risk factors for mortality in children with diarrhoeal disease in Madras, India. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1987. 36-9 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"Factors associated with the deaths of 64 out of 575 children with diarrhoea in Madras, India were examined. The information recorded included a clinical history, socio-economic details, the degree of dehydration and nutritional status. The factors found to be associated with mortality included a low weight at birth, malnutrition, an age less than 6 months, a concurrent infection and a large sized family. For children at risk of dying, intensive care is recommended during the acute illness and nutritional rehabilitation is essential."
Correspondence: B. R. Santhanakrishnan, Department of Paediatrics, Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Madras 600 008, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20195 Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. Child survival: anthropological perspectives on the treatment and maltreatment of children. Culture, Illness, and Healing, ISBN 1-55608-028-X. LC 87-23519. 1987. ix, 396 pp. D. Reidel: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The present volume evolved out of an invited symposium on the cultural, ecological, bio-ethical and applied dimensions of child treatment and survival held at the 1984 meeting of the American Anthropological Association. The goal of the session was the application of a variety of concepts, methods, theories and approaches to understanding cultural practices and individual behaviors that have an adverse effect on child survival....This volume...represents an attempt to situate reproduction, child treatment, and child survival within its broadest possible framework, one that takes into account bio-evolutionary, demographic, economic, moral, political, and ideological constraints on individual and collective behaviors toward children." The book is divided into five sections concerning population, fertility, and child survival; infanticide; the effects of social trauma on child treatment; child abuse and incest; and the problems and dilemmas involved in social intervention. Geographical areas covered include northern India, northeast Brazil, England, Argentina, the United States, and the Coral Sea islands of Papua New Guinea. Among the cultures examined are the Tarahumara of the Mexican Sierra Madre, the Navajo, the Masai, and the Inuit.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20196 Shariff, Abusaleh. Child survival: a village-level investigation of some cultural factors associated with morbidity and mortality in south India. Human Organization, Vol. 46, No. 4, Winter 1987. 348-55 pp. Wakefield, Rhode Island. In Eng.
Factors associated with infant and child morbidity and mortality in India are analyzed. The data are for 1981 and 1985 for four villages located near Bangalore and were collected using both survey and anthropological methods. The study focuses on the traditional factors affecting children's health that will need to be taken into account when developing effective modern health policies.
Correspondence: A. Shariff, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Nagarabhavi, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20197 Smedman, Lars; Sterky, Goran; Mellander, Lotta; Wall, Stig. Anthropometry and subsequent mortality in groups of children aged 6-59 months in Guinea-Bissau. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 46, No. 2, Aug 1987. 369-73 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
The importance of nutritional status for subsequent survival is analyzed using data on 2,228 children aged 6-59 months in Guinea-Bissau, who were followed up over an 8-12 month period. Problems of methodology involving age dependence are noted. Cox's regression technique was used to show that height was positively related to survival. "The number of children in the household was a better discrimination for death from measles than was nutritional status."
Correspondence: L. Smedman, S:t Gorans Barnklinik, S-112 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20198 Stockwell, Edward G.; Swanson, David A.; Wicks, Jerry W. The age-cause proxy relationship in infant mortality. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 249-53 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Data presented in this brief note show that one of the consequences of recent gains in the control of neonatal mortality has been an increase in the frequency of endogenous causes of death in the postneonatal period. This in turn has greatly diminished the validity of using the postneonatal death rate as a proxy for the level of exogenous mortality in infancy. Moreover, although there continues to be a very strong correlation between neonatal and endogenous mortality, the increasing dominance of the latter causes throughout infancy also weakens the value of the age-cause proxy relationship during the first month of life." The data are from the U.S. census and concern eight Ohio cities.
Correspondence: E. G. Stockwell, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20199 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Infant and childhood mortality and socio-economic factors in Africa (analysis of national World Fertility Survey data). [Mortalite infantile et juvenile et facteurs socio-economiques en Afrique (analyse des donnees nationales de l'Enquete Mondiale sur la Fecondite).] Pub. Order No. RAF/84/PO 7. 1987. vii, 273 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng; Fre.
This report is the product of a training project undertaken by the United Nations, in which training was provided to African nationals from countries that participated in the World Fertility Survey in order for them to carry out detailed studies of infant and child mortality relevant to policy development. "In this publication an attempt has been made to present concise and revised country analytical reports on analysis of infant and child mortality in eight countries in the region. The eight analytical reports are for Benin, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire [Ivory Coast], Kenya, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan." Details are presented on the data and methods of analysis employed. The individual country chapters are in English or French; the remainder of the report is in both languages.
Correspondence: United Nations, ECA, Population Division, P.O. Box 3005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20200 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Trends in years of potential life lost due to infant mortality and perinatal conditions, 1980-1983 and 1984-1985. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 37, No. 16, Apr 29, 1988. 249-56 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Recent trends in infant and perinatal mortality in the United States are analyzed using official data. "Between 1980-1983 and 1984-1985, the average annual YPLL [years of potential life lost] per 1,000 live births declined for all genders and races. Declines were greatest for white female infants (14%) and white male infants (13%). Black male infants and male infants of other races had a 12% decline, and black and other female infants had a 10% decline." Consideration is given to changes in causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20201 Vanlandingham, Mark J.; Buehler, James W.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Strauss, Lilo T. Birthweight-specific infant mortality for native Americans compared with whites, six states, 1980. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 5, May 1988. 499-503 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We used data from the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project to compare birthweights and birthweight-specific mortality risks among Native American and White infants [in six U.S. states]....Birthweight-specific neonatal mortality risks were similar for the two race groups, but birthweight-specific postneonatal mortality risks (PNMRs) were more than three times as high among Native Americans compared with Whites....PNMRs were elevated for most causes of death and for all categories for maternal age, educational attainment, trimester prenatal care began, and number of previous live births. Leading causes of postneonatal death among Native Americans...were sudden infant death syndrome and infections."
Correspondence: J. W. Buehler, Division of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20202 Watterson, Patricia A. Infant mortality by father's occupation from the 1911 census of England and Wales. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 289-306 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Infant mortality in England and Wales only began its secular decline at the beginning of this century, although mortality among those aged 1-4 began to decline earlier. The 1911 Census of Fertility provides the basis for estimates of infant mortality among occupational groups. A diagrammatic model of decline is elaborated, using fertility decline, social class, income, and urban/rural distribution as explanatory variables. Results of the analysis suggest that infant mortality decline, whose average value was 35 percent from a peak of 132 per 1,000, was increased by improvements in the urban environment and advanced by high or regular income, whereas fertility decline had only a small effect."
Correspondence: P. A. Watterson, Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

54:20203 Duleep, Harriet O. Measuring the effect of income on adult mortality using longitudinal administrative record data. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 21, No. 2, Spring 1986. 238-51 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study enhances the 1973 CPS-IRS-SSA Exact Match File with more complete Social Security mortality data for 1973-1978 and with updated Social Security earnings and disability data. It uses the resulting data set to examine the effect of income, controlling for education, on the mortality of white married men aged 35-65. It finds that low income continues to have a large and significant effect on mortality risk, controlling for disability, and on the probability of death through its effect on disability."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1121 Vermont Ave NW, Washington, D.C. 20425. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:20204 Kaneko, Ryuichi. Development of new relational models for the age pattern of mortality. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 183, Jul 1987. 1-22 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
After a discussion of the Brass logit model of age-specific mortality, the author proposes five new relational models of the age pattern of mortality. These models and related mathematical extensions of the conventional logit model are assessed as to "their applicability as model life table systems and projection tools of age patterns of mortality in time series. The results indicate that [the] relational models serve as useful demographic tools for estimation and projection besides [their] original use in analytical studies of aging and mortality processes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20205 Sakai, Hiromichi. A study of the socioeconomic correlates of Japanese life expectancy at 60 years and over. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 180, Oct 1986. 46-51 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Factors affecting mortality differentials among the population over age 60 in Japan are analyzed using official data for 1985. Factors considered include households with resident elderly people, income, medical care, and ratio of social workers to population over age 60. The factors identified as affecting regional mortality differentials are the ratio of medical doctors to population and the ratio of old-age residential facilities to elderly population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

54:20206 Blum, Alain; Pressat, Roland. A new life table for the USSR (1984-1985). [Une nouvelle table de mortalite pour l'URSS (1984-1985).] Population, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 843-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors comment on recently published official life tables for the USSR for 1984-1985. They draw attention to problems of interpretation, particularly concerning the high rate of mortality during the second year of life recorded. "In addition to these peculiarities, changes in mortality during these 30 years can be summarized under three main headings: falls in mortality from infancy to young adult ages, the deterioration of mortality at older ages, particularly from the age of 45 upwards, and an unusually high excess mortality rate among men, which extends over a longer period of life than is commonly found elsewhere." Comparisons are made with Poland, where similar rates of excess mortality among males have been reported.
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20207 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Life tables 1986. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamislukuja 1986/Dodlighets- och livslangdstal 1986.] Tilastotiedotus/Statistisk Rapport, No. VA 1988:2, 1988. 14 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Fin; Swe.
Life tables for Finland for 1986 are presented. In 1986 life expectancy was 70.5 years for males and 78.7 for females. Data are also included on infant mortality. The data are presented for Finland as a whole and for each province.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PB 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20208 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Mortality: life tables 1981-85. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamistauluja 1981-85/Dodlighets- och livslangdstabeller 1981-85.] ISBN 951-47-1071-1. 1987. 69 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Fin; Swe.
Life tables for Finland for the period 1981-1985, calculated on the basis of population register data, are presented. Figures are provided by urban or rural residence, sex, and province. Selected comparisons with earlier periods are included. "As a general conclusion of the results, it can be noted that total mortality has continued to fall and life expectancy...has continued to rise similarly as before....Concerning the period 1981-85 the life expectancy for males was 70.1 years and for females 78.4 years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20209 Holland, Bart. On the adequacy of Mitra's model of the life table: a technical note. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 159-61 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author points out limitations of Mitra's model life tables and suggests improvements in the way the model is tested.
For the article by S. Mitra, published in 1983, see 50:20193.
Correspondence: B. Holland, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20210 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 3. Geographical mortality differentials in Hungary, 1986 (complete and abridged life tables). 1988. 90 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is the fourth in a series of annual publications presenting life tables for Hungary by sex. Abridged life tables are included for towns, villages, Budapest, and counties. The data are for 1986.
For a report for 1985, published in 1987, see 54:10190.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20211 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 39th abridged life tables (April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986). Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 242, Dec 17, 1986. 25 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
These abridged life tables are the latest in a series published annually since 1947. The tables are based on official estimates and census data.
For a previous set of life tables in this series, published in 1985, see 52:20210.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20212 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hoofdafdeling Bevolkingsstatistieken (Voorburg, Netherlands). Life tables by sex and age, 1981-1985. [Overlevingstafels naar geslacht en leeftijd, 1981-1985.] ISBN 90-357-0894-6. 1987. 60 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Life tables for the Netherlands for the period 1981-1985 are presented by age and sex. The methodology used in preparing the tables is described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20213 Speirs, Richard. The use of cubic spline functions in the derivation of the 1980-82 New Zealand life tables. Demographic Trends Bulletin, Vol. 28, 1986. 12-8 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The use of cubic spline functions to construct the 1980-1982 official life tables for New Zealand is described. The author concludes that "cubic splines proved to be superior to other methods used in recent years for graduating central death rates. This is because the flexibility of the algorithm allows for almost complete adherence to data; it gives a very smooth graduation of the rates (provided the knots are sufficiently spaced) and it can be used for the whole life span."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20214 Wade, Alice. Actuarial tables based on the U.S. life tables: 1979-81. Actuarial Study, No. 96, Pub. Order No. 11-11543. Aug 1986. 134 pp. U.S. Social Security Administration, Office of the Actuary: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This publication contains actuarial tables based on official U.S. life tables for the period 1979-1981. The tables are presented for selected interest rates from 1-12 for the total population; for males and females; and for whites, the population other than white, and blacks.
Correspondence: Office of the Actuary, Room 700, Altmeyer Building, Baltimore, MD 21235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20215 Waters, H. R.; Wilkie, A. D. A short note on the construction of life tables and multiple decrement tables. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 114, Pt. 3, No. 458, 1987. 569-80 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this short note is to explain a simple method of constructing a life table, given an explicit function for the force of mortality....A similar method can be applied to the construction of multiple decrement tables, given explicit functions for the separate forces of transition...from one 'active' status...to various 'dead' statuses...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

54:20216 Antoine, Bernard; Vincent-Genod, Agnes. Mortality of doctors. [La mortalite des medecins.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 349-99 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Mortality among selected groups of doctors in France during the years 1977-1983 is analyzed. The data concern non-salaried doctors, doctors working in Paris hospitals, and members of the Academy of Medicine. Comparisons are made between the mortality of French doctors and that of the rest of the French population and between the mortality of French doctors and that of doctors in other countries.
Correspondence: B. Antoine, Faculte de Medecine Necker-Enfants Malades, Hopital Necker, 149 Rue de Sevres, 75743 Paris Cedex 15, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20217 Chevalier, A.; Leclerc, A.; Blanc, C.; Goldberg, M. Social and occupational inequalities in mortality rates among employees of Electricite et Gaz de France. [Disparites sociales et professionnelles de la mortalite des travailleurs d'Electricite et Gaz de France.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 863-79 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A comparison of mortality rates among employees of the French electricity and gas industries aged 20 to 64, resident in France, shows lower mortality rates than in the general male population of these ages. Age-standardized mortality rates in these groups were only 60 per cent of those for the French male population as a whole. Mortality rates were lower from all main causes of death: malignant neoplasms, cardio-vascular diseases, accidents and alcoholism. Significant differences were found between mortality rates of gas and electricity workers, which depended on family status, socio-occupational group, and occupation within the industry. These inequalities were of the same order of magnitude as were found in the general population. The results indicate the presence of certain occupational hazards which could not be identified from the present data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20218 Ewbank, Douglas C. History of black mortality and health before 1940. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 65, Suppl. 1, 1987. 100-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in black mortality and health in the United States before 1940 are reviewed using data from a variety of sources, including birth and death registration, slave records, and the census. The results indicate that "urban-rural and regional differences have diminished for all--but especially for whites--with sanitary, nutritional, and medical care improvements. By 1940 blacks in all parts of the country were experiencing mortality rates comparable to those that whites had experienced 20 years earlier. Persistent black-white mortality differentials undoubtedly relate to unequal educational, employment, and income determinants of access."
Correspondence: D. C. Ewbank, Population Studies Center, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20219 Fox, A. J. Socio-demographic mortality differentials: new longitudinal perspectives. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1987. 20-7 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author describes how data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study, which covered a one-percent sample of the population of England and Wales, are being used to examine trends in mortality differentials by social class. Both the advantages and disadvantages of the OPCS Longitudinal Survey's approach are considered.
Correspondence: A. J. Fox, Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, London EC1V OHB, England. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20220 Kaneko, Takeharu. Trends in regional differences in age-specific mortality rates. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 184, Oct 1987. 39-51 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Regional mortality differentials in Japan are analyzed by age using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients. The results indicate that such differentials have declined for those aged 0-4, are insignificant for those aged 5-19 and for women aged 20-64, and remain significant for those over age 65 and for males aged 45-64.
Correspondence: T. Kaneko, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20221 Kisker, Ellen E.; Goldman, Noreen. Perils of single life and benefits of marriage. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 135-52 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"It has long been observed that married persons experience more favorable mortality than unmarried persons. Hypotheses about possible explanations for mortality differentials by marital status fall into three general categories: (1) hypotheses regarding errors in the data, (2) hypotheses related to the selection of persons into and out of marital states, and (3) hypotheses regarding environmental and behavioral factors associated with various marital states. In this paper the authors investigate the extent to which mortality differences by marital status are similar across populations and assess the importance of selection factors in producing the excess mortality of the single populations." Data are primarily from censuses and concern developed countries.
Correspondence: E. E. Kisker, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20222 MacCormack, Carol P. Health and the social power of women. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1988. 677-83 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between women's social status and the survival chances of their children is explained and illustrated with examples. When women (and girls) have low status, relatively little social investment is made in them, and this is reflected in girls' and boys' differential mortality rates. Several health-related social investment indicators are given, and matched against children's mortality patterns by ecological regions of Africa and Asia. The cultural propensity to invest in girls (nutrition, education, etc.) and their resultant survival chances, are explained by ecology which in past centuries has largely determined agricultural economies that either had a high demand for female labour or did not....Policy implications of planning and implementing primary health care in these different types of societies are explored."
Correspondence: C. P. MacCormack, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20223 Manton, Kenneth G.; Patrick, Clifford H.; Johnson, Katrina W. Health differentials between blacks and whites: recent trends in mortality and morbidity. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 65, Suppl. 1, 1987. 129-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Black Americans continue to have large numbers of premature and excess deaths, measured against white experience, from seven major causes. Major differences in chronic disease, disability and case fatality rates persist despite similarities in the amount of health care received; the nature and quality of care is likely to be dissimilar. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests various strategies to reduce these differentials through well-designed public health efforts at prevention. These will have to deal with harsh realities of sociocultural, economic, and political contexts."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20224 Moser, Kath A.; Pugh, Helena S.; Goldblatt, Peter O. Inequalities in women's health: looking at mortality differentials using an alternative approach. British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6631, Apr 30, 1988. 1,221-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data obtained from follow up of the 1971 census sample in the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys longitudinal study of England and Wales were used to look at women's mortality differentials at ages 15-59. Women were grouped by combining information on marital state, own occupation, husband's occupation (if married), economic activity, and indicators of household wealth (housing tenure and access to a car). Large groups were found with considerable differences in mortality. High mortality was associated with working in manual occupations and living in rented housing with no car in the household. In contrast, low mortality was associated with non-manual occupations and living in owner occupied housing with a car."
Correspondence: K. A. Moser, Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20225 Park, Kyung Ae. Sex differences in mortality. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jul 1987. 55-71 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"Patterns and trends of sex differences in mortality in developed and developing countries are briefly described with a special attention to those of [the Republic of] Korea. Various explanatory approaches that have been used to account for those differences are then reviewed and evaluated." Consideration is given to both biological factors and behavioral factors. The need for a more complex explanatory model that integrates both kinds of factors is noted.
Correspondence: K. A. Park, Department of Sociology, Chungbuk National University, 48 Gaesin-dong, Cheongiu, Chungbuk 310, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20226 Rip, M. R.; Epstein, L.; Disler, P. B.; Taylor, S. P.; Whittaker, S.; Derry, C. W.; Sayed, A. R.; Bourne, D. E.; Klopper, J. M. L. Variations in mortality of the Coloured, white and Asian population groups in the RSA, 1978-1982. Part 1. All causes. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 72, No. 6, Sep 19, 1987. 404-7 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
The authors examine differences in mortality among whites, Coloureds, and Asians in South Africa for the period 1978-1982 using official South African data on causes of death and data from the 1980 census. "Annual age- and sex-specific mortality rates were higher for coloureds than for whites or Asians, the differences being most marked in childhood. There appears to have been little change in total standardised mortality rates among whites over the 5-year period, while increases have occurred among coloureds of both sexes and among Asian males. Analysis of proportional mortality stresses the relatively large proportion of deaths accounted for by external causes and infections among coloureds and by cardiovascular diseases among whites and Asians."
Correspondence: M. R. Rip, Department of Community Health, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20227 Tsutakawa, Robert K. Mixed model for analyzing geographic variability in mortality rates. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 83, No. 401, Mar 1988. 37-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A mixed model is proposed for the analysis of geographic variability in mortality rates. In addition to demographic parameters and random geographic parameters, the model includes additional random-effects parameters to adjust for extra-Poisson variability. The model uses a gamma-Poisson distribution with a random scale parameter having an inverse gamma prior. An empirical Bayes approach is used to estimate relative risks for geographic regions and annual rates for demographic groups within each region. Lung cancer in Missouri is used to motivate and illustrate the procedure."
Correspondence: R. K. Tsutakawa, Department of Statistics, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:20228 Verbrugge, Lois M.; Wingard, Deborah L. Sex differentials in health and mortality. Women and Health, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1987. 103-45 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze sex differentials in health and mortality in the United States. The emphasis is on determining why, if women's health generally seems to be worse than men's, women generally live longer than men. The authors conclude that although men are probably in fact less healthy than women, women are more likely to seek health care in response to feelings of ill health.
Correspondence: L. M. Verbrugge, Institute of Gerontology, 300 North Ingalls, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: New York Public Library.

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

54:20229 Aaby, Peter; Bukh, Jette; Lisse, Ida M.; Da Silva, Maria C. Decline in measles mortality: nutrition, age at infection, or exposure? British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6631, Apr 30, 1988. 1,225-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The mortality from measles was studied in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau one year before and five years after the introduction of a vaccination programme. The years after the introduction of immunisation saw a decline in mortality among unvaccinated children with measles. This decline occurred despite a lower age at infection and an increasing prevalence of malnourished children." The authors suggest that "as measles vaccination increases herd immunity and diminishes clustering of cases, it may reduce mortality even among unvaccinated children who contract the disease."
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, 1220 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20230 Andreasson, Sven; Allebeck, Peter; Romelsjo, Anders. Alcohol and mortality among young men: longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6628, Apr 9, 1988. 1,021-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The association between alcohol consumption and 15 year mortality was studied in a cohort of 49,464 Swedish conscripts, mostly aged 18-19." The data are from a survey originally conducted in 1969-1970. Emphasis is given to the influence of social background factors in relation to alcohol consumption and mortality. The results show a strong association, with the major causes of death being violent death, particulary from suicide. "The reported U shaped curve for total mortality was not confirmed, though when violent deaths were excluded a U shaped curve was suggested for other causes of death."
Correspondence: S. Andreasson, Department of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20231 Biraben, Jean-Noel. The plague epidemic in Europe and in the countries of the Mediterranean basin, 1644-1657. [La epidemia de peste en Europa y en los paises de la cuenca del Mediterraneo, 1644-1657.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1987. 64-83 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author traces the course of the plague epidemic in Europe and the countries of the Mediterranean basin from 1644 to 1657. Sources of data and studies of plague mortality are described and evaluated.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20232 Cisneros de Cardenas, M. Teresa; Espinosa Romero, Raquel; Pineda Corona, Blanca E.; Gonzalez Caamano, Angel. Cancer mortality among Mexican women. [Mortalidad por cancer de la mujer mexicana.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 29, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 299-312 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
A statistical analysis of female cancer mortality in Mexico from 1967 to 1981 is presented based on official vital statistics data. The results are provided separately for major cancer sites and age groups.
Correspondence: M. T. Cisneros de Cardenas, Subdireccion de Prevencion y Control de Cancer, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20233 Davis, Devra L.; Schwartz, Joel. Trends in cancer mortality: U.S. white males and females, 1968-83. Lancet, No. 8586, Mar 19, 1988. 633-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
Trends in cancer mortality among whites in the United States are analyzed for the period 1968-1983 by age and sex. "From 1968 to 1983, age-specific cancer mortality for all cancers fell by 2.1% annually for men and women aged 35-44 and rose by 1.1% annually for men and 0.3% for women aged 75-84. In the 75-84 age group brain cancer mortality rose by 8% annually and multiple myeloma by 2.75%. Lung cancer mortality rose in men and women aged 45-84 (by 8.2% annually in 65-74 year-old women) but fell by over 3% annually in men aged 35-44. Stomach cancer declined by 4% annually in 75-84 year-olds and about 3% annually in 55-74 year-olds. These trends do not support the hypothesis that recent increases in specific cancers in the elderly chiefly reflect improved diagnosis of cases that would formerly have been misrepresented or miscoded."
Correspondence: D. L. Davis, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20234 Devesa, Susan S.; Silverman, Debra T.; Young, John L.; Pollack, Earl S.; Brown, Charles C.; Horm, John W.; Percy, Constance L.; Myers, Max H.; McKay, Frank W.; Fraumeni, Joseph F. Cancer incidence and mortality trends among whites in the United States, 1947-84. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 79, No. 4, Oct 1987. 701-70 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"Cancer incidence trends from the late 1940s to 1983-84 were assessed among white [U.S.] residents of five geographic areas (Atlanta, Connecticut, Detroit, Iowa, San Francisco-Oakland) by means of data derived from several National Cancer Institute surveys, the Connecticut Tumor Registry, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Incidence trends were compared with mortality trends for the entire United States and for the same five study areas."
Correspondence: S. S. Devesa, Landow Building, Room 3B04, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20235 Groves, Frank D.; Zavala, Diego E.; Correa, Pelayo. Variation in international cancer mortality: factor and cluster analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1987. 501-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality rates for cancers of 13 sites in 34 countries were analysed using two data reduction techniques, factor and cluster analysis. Factor analysis identified two independent underlying factors which appear to influence cancer mortality patterns. The first factor, which appears to be related to affluence, may represent the combined effects of high fat diets and cigarette smoking common in developed countries. The second factor may reflect the common consumption of beverages of a high tannin content such as tea, red wine and 'mate' as well as the smoking or chewing of black tobacco. Two factor scores were computed for each country, and the countries were were then ranked according to their scores on each factor. Cluster analysis aggregated countries into seven distinct groups using these factor scores as the clustering criteria. Each of the groups thus defined displays a distinctive profile of site-specific cancer mortality rates. This methodology shows promise as a means of summarizing large sets of data on morbidity and mortality from a variety of cancers (and possibly other chronic diseases as well) in diverse populations."
Correspondence: P. Correa, Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Medicine, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20236 Guatemala. Secretaria General del Consejo Nacional de Planificacion Economica (Guatemala City, Guatemala). Causes of death in Guatemala, 1960-1979. [Causas de muerte en Guatemala, 1960-1979.] CELADE Serie OI, No. 1001, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM./CR/G.17. Nov 1987. 76 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Trends in causes of death in Guatemala for the period 1960-1979 are analyzed based on official data. Chapters are included on data sources, general mortality and causes of death, classification of causes of death, the contribution of causes of death to changes in life expectancy, and the effect of eliminating specific causes of death on life expectancy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20237 Helsing, K. J.; Sandler, D. P.; Comstock, G. W.; Chee, E. Heart disease mortality in nonsmokers living with smokers. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 127, No. 5, May 1988. 915-22 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from a private census conducted in 1963 and other records available in Washington County, Maryland, were used to evaluate the heart disease risk associated with household smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults....This 12-year study of a nonsmoking population of white men and women aged 25 and over suggests that nonsmokers who live with smokers are at a higher risk of death from arteriosclerotic heart disease than those who live with nonsmokers. It seems reasonable to suppose that tobacco smoke is a factor in the increased risk."
Correspondence: K. J. Helsing, Johns Hopkins Training Center for Public Health Research, Washington County Health Department, P.O. Box 2067, Hagerstown, MD 21740. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20238 Koenig, Michael A.; Fauveau, Vincent; Chowdhury, A. I.; Chakraborty, J.; Khan, M. A. Maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: 1976-85. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 69-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reports findings from a study of maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh during the 1976-85 period. The study employed a multiple-step procedure to identify maternity-related deaths to all reproductive-aged women within the study area during this period. A total of 387 maternal deaths were identified, resulting in an overall maternal mortality ratio of 5.5 per 1,000 live births. The introduction of a family planning program in half of the Matlab study area led to a moderate but significant reduction in maternal mortality rates, relative to the comparison area. This appears to have been primarily due to a reduction in the overall number of pregnancies in the treatment area, since among women who became pregnant, mortality risks remained high. The results of this study underscore the need for a broad-based service strategy that includes but is not limited solely to family planning, in order to achieve significant reductions in maternal mortality levels in settings such as rural Bangladesh."
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20239 Kuroishi, Tetsuo; Hirose, Kaoru; Tominaga, Suketami. Geographical distribution of cancer in Japan--mortality of cancer in prefectures in Japan, 1978-1982. Nippon Rinsho/Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 10, Oct 1985. 2,207-26 pp. Osaka, Japan. In Jpn.
Trends in mortality from cancer by prefecture in Japan are analyzed using official data for the period 1978-1982. The authors use indirect methods to estimate years of life lost from cancers of different sites.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20240 La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano. Cancer mortality in Italy: temporal trends and geographical distribution. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, Vol. 22, No. 12, Dec 1986. 1,425-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in cancer mortality in Italy are reviewed using official data from 1955 to 1978. The focus is on changes in types of cancer mortality over time and on geographical differences in cancer mortality.
Correspondence: C. La Vecchia, Mario Negri Institute, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20241 Landers, John; Mouzas, Anastasia. Burial seasonality and causes of death in London 1670-1819. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1, Mar 1988. 59-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Recent discussions of urban mortality in early modern Europe have concentrated on mortality levels to the relative exclusion of cause-of-death patterns. These, it is often assumed, were dictated by certain characteristics of the urban environment, in particular the problems of waste disposal and water supply, and were thus dominated by water- and food-borne gastric diseases. The present study is based on an analysis of burial seasonality in the weekly London Bills of Mortality 1670-1819. Contrary to expectation substantial changes were observed in the seasonality of burials over this period. An initial pattern of excess summer mortality characteristic of gastric infection gave way, during the eighteenth century, to a winter peak of the kind generally associated with respiratory conditions and typhus, and similar to that observed in England as a whole. Some implications of this finding are considered, together with some possible explanations."
Correspondence: J. Landers, Department of Biological Anthropology, University College, Gower Street, London WC1N 1AX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20242 Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano; Randriamiharisoa, Alex. Effects of age, birth cohort and period of death on Swiss cancer mortality, 1951-1984. International Journal of Cancer/Journal International du Cancer, Vol. 40, No. 4, Oct 15, 1987. 439-49 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Swiss death certification data over the period 1951-1984 for total cancer mortality and 30 major cancer sites in the population aged 25 to 74 years were analysed using a log-linear Poisson model with arbitrary constraints on the parameters to isolate the effects of birth cohort, calendar period of death and age. The overall pattern of total cancer mortality in males was stable for period values and showed some moderate decreases in cohort values restricted to the generations born after 1930. Cancer mortality trends were more favourable in females, with steady, though moderate, declines in both cohort and period values." Trends in mortality from various types of cancer are noted.
Correspondence: F. Levi, Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, CHUV BH-06, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20243 Loevinsohn, Michael E. Insecticide use and increased mortality in rural Central Luzon, Philippines. Lancet, No. 8546, Jun 13, 1987. 1,359-62 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"In a major rice-growing area of the Philippines, widespread adoption of insecticides by farmers on smallholdings was followed by a 27% increase in mortality from causes other than trauma among economically active men. Several factors suggest a causal link: highly toxic chemicals have been used unsafely; mortality has increased only in the age and sex class occupationally exposed; mortality has decreased among unexposed urban men; specific mortality rates have increased for those conditions likely to be confused with insecticide poisoning and have decreased for others; and, both within and between years, the pattern of mortality among men has reflected that of insecticide use. The results suggest that the currently accepted figure of 10,000 deaths annually worldwide due to accidental intoxication with insecticides is a substantial underestimate."
Correspondence: M. E. Loevinsohn, Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Sciences Division, International Development Research Centre, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa K1G 3H9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20244 McCormick, Anna. Trends in mortality statistics in England and Wales with particular reference to AIDS from 1984 to April 1987. British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6632, May 7, 1988. 1,289-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Mortality statistics with reference to AIDS in England and Wales were completed from death certificates. Increases in deaths from selected causes likely to be associated with AIDS or HIV infection suggested that in some patients with HIV infection, AIDS was not stated on the death certificate or subsequently notified by the doctor who signed the certificate. From calculations of excess deaths between the beginning of 1985 and the end of April 1987, compared with 1984 at least 495 deaths possibly associated with HIV infection were estimated to have occurred among men aged 15-54 during that period. In 261 AIDS or HIV infection was stated on the original or amended death entry as the cause of death, and of these 198 were included in the estimated number of excess deaths."
Correspondence: A. McCormick, Medical Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:20245 Meng, Kwang-ho; Cho, Ae Jeo; Kong, Sae Kwon. A case-control study on risk factors for the major cardiovascular deaths in Korean men: hypertensive disease and cerebrovascular disease. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jul 1987. 3-23 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
A case-control study to identify risk factors associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Republic of Korea is presented. Data concern 455 men aged 35-65 who died in 1982-1983, with a recorded cause of death as hypertensive disease or non-traumatic cerebrovascular disease, and 455 matched controls. Cardiovascular mortality was associated with higher levels of education, Christianity, and administrative or management jobs. Other significant factors included frequent alcohol consumption; a diet high in meat; obesity; a history of hypertension, diabetes, or heart disease; parental history of cardiovascular mortality; and lack of exercise.
Correspondence: K.-H. Meng, Catholic Medical College, 505 Banpodong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20246 Ng, Eddie; Krishnan, P. Gains in life expectancy in Canada on elimination of certain causes of death, 1978-1983. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 49, Nov 1987. 10 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"Estimates of gains in life expectancy at birth and selected ages for Canadian males and females are presented on the assumption of complete elimination of the major causes of death. The study period is 1978-1983. The results presented here are an update of an earlier study by Cheung, Kapoor, Ng, Lalu and Krishnan for 1975-1977. These results show that heart diseases have dwindled in their importance relative to cancer over this period, even though heart diseases are still the biggest killers with cancer ranking next. While the life expectancy at birth increases by some eight to ten years on the elimination of cardiac diseases, the elimination of cancer adds only three more years to the expectancy at birth."
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20247 Nieto Lluis, Maria; Gran Alvarez, Miriam; Macias Menendez, Zoila. Accident death rate. Some data on its behavior in Cuba. [Mortalidad por accidentes. Algunos datos sobre su comportamiento en Cuba.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 13, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 479-87 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"An analysis of the behavior of accident death rates in Cuba in the last few years and its distribution by sex, age, place of residence, and different causes, is made [in an attempt] to understand its behavior and implement efficient preventive methods. This analysis demonstrates that accident death risks increase with advanced age. Accident frequency of occurrence varies significantly with sex, but males show rates twice as high. Also some differences are noted concerning the major causes of accident for both sexes. At the same time, the significance of these causes varies for each age group and sex, with younger age brackets showing a prevalence of traffic accidents and advanced age a prevalence in accidental falls."
Correspondence: M. Nieto Lluis, Direccion Nacional de Estadisticas, Calle 23 entre N y O, Vedado, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20248 Okada, Masahiko; Okada, Mihoko. Simulation study of age-specific mortality rate from cancer. Iyodenshi to Seitai Kogaku/Japanese Journal of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1987. 29-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
A simulation model of age-specific mortality from cancer in Japan is presented. "Correlation coefficients between observed mortality rates and simulated values were evaluated for lung cancer, gastric cancer and esophageal cancer. The results were 0.993, 0.997, [and] 0.987, respectively." The results indicate that the level of carcinogenic factors in the environment increased in the past, has peaked, and is now declining. Differences in cancer mortality by site, age, and sex are examined.
Correspondence: M. Okada, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata, Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20249 Park, Kyung Ae; Clifford, William B. Sex differentials in cardiovascular mortality: spatial variations in the United States. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 153-65 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The nature and extent of spatial variations in sex-specific cardiovascular mortality rates and sex mortality ratios are examined at the county level for the United States. The southeastern United States has the highest mortality rates for both males and females, while the central United States has the highest sex mortality ratios." Data are for the period 1970-1980 and are from the National Center for Health Statistics. The impact of urbanization and migration on the observed variations is considered.
Correspondence: K. A. Park, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20250 Rose, David P.; Boyar, Andrea P.; Wynder, Ernst L. International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer, Vol. 58, No. 11, 1986. 2,363-71 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The relationship between mortality rates for selected cancers and per capita food consumption is investigated using 1978-1979 cancer mortality rates for some 30 countries and 1979-1981 food availability data published by the United Nations. The specific cancers studied are cancers of the breast, prostate, ovary, and colon. "The observed positive correlations between the four cancer mortality rates and caloric intake from animal sources, but negative correlations for vegetable-derived calories, suggest that, of the two, animal fat and not energy is the major dietary influence on cancer risk."
Correspondence: D. P. Rose, Division of Nutrition and Endocrinology, Naylor Dana Institute, Valhalla, NY 10595. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20251 Shai, Donna; Rosenwaike, Ira. Violent deaths among Mexican-, Puerto Rican- and Cuban-born migrants in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1988. 269-76 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes nationwide and regional mortality rates for violent causes of death among persons born in Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba, living in the continental United States. The Mexican-born had the highest death rates from accidents, the Puerto Rican-born from homicide and the Cuban-born from suicide. In each case of excess mortality in an Hispanic nativity group, the death rates for men by cause were higher than the comparative rates for white and blacks both nationally and regionally....Contributing factors to violent causes of death include the interaction of socioeconomic, behavioral, cultural and psychological factors."
Correspondence: D. Shai, Department of Sociology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20252 Trovato, Frank. Suicide in Canada: a further look at the effects of age, period and cohort. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 79, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 37-44 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study extends the analysis of Reed, Camus, and Last (1985), concerning suicide in Canada from 1921-25 to 1981-85. Their data are re-analyzed with the use of multivariate techniques appropriate for the separation of age, period and cohort effects on suicide." Factors identified as significantly affecting suicide include divorce, urban residence, and being male. A rejoinder by John M. Last is included (p. 44).
For the study by Janie Reed et al., published in 1985, see 53:30233.
Correspondence: F. Trovato, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20253 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978: the reconstitution of a coherent statistical series. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1978: reconstitution de series statistiques coherentes.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 297-319 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors attempt to reconstruct a coherent series of statistics on causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. The focus is on statistics that take into account changing definitions of causes of death over time.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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