Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

54:20047 Cambrezy, Luc. Environment and population density: resorting to history. [Environnement et densites de population: le recours a l'histoire.] Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, Vol. 26, No. 1-2; 101-102, 1986. 63-73, 287 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between environment and population density is explored using the examples of Rwanda and Burundi. The need to take locational data as well as historical precedent into account is noted.
Correspondence: L. Cambrezy, ORSTOM, Montpellier, France. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20048 Champion, A. G. Recent changes in the pace of population deconcentration in Britain. Geoforum, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1987. 379-401 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses the official annual population estimates to examine changes in the scale of urban-rural shift in the distribution of the British population since the 1960s. These reveal that the level of population deconcentration at regional and more local scales stood at its highest at the beginning of the 1970s and that since the mid 1970s the rate of population loss experienced by London and several other large cities has diminished markedly. An analysis of the components of population change reveals that trends in net migration have been primarily responsible, though generally reinforced by trends in natural change rates. It is concluded that...most of [the 1970s] featured the downwave of a longer cycle of decentralisation which had its origins at least as early as the first half of the 1960s."
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, Department of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20049 Glukhanova, G. L. Features of urban and rural population dynamics in the Ukrainian SSR. [Osobennosti Dinamiki gorodskogo i sel'skogo naseleniya Ukrainskoi SSR.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 11, 1987. 126-30 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Quantitative changes in the urban and rural populations of the Ukrainian SSR are analyzed, with a focus on the increased population in towns of various sizes during the period 1959-1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20050 Porosenkov, Yu. V. Changes in population distribution in the USSR, 1970-1981. [Osnovnye izmeneniya v razmeshchenii naseleniya SSSR za 1970-1981 gg.] Voprosy Geografii, Vol. 129, 1986. 40-52 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Regional differences in population distribution in the USSR and their consequences are reviewed. The author notes that the European part of the USSR has a diminishing natural resource base and more than two-thirds of the country's population, but still has problems finding a large enough labor force. The eastern region is rich in natural resources but short of population. The southern region has a rapidly growing population, but one that is reluctant to migrate to other regions, and the limited natural resources of the region are causing problems in developing suitable employment opportunities to meet the demand.
Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

54:20051 Vnukov, A. A. Population dynamics in the Ukrainian SSR (1959-1984). [Dinamika chislennosti naseleniya Ukrainskoi SSR (1959-1984 gg.).] Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 53-61 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Changes in the spatial distribution of the population of the Ukraine between 1959 and 1984 are analyzed. Attention is given to changes in the rural and urban population composition over time as well as to regional variations in population dynamics.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20052 Ying, Killian Ping-Hung. District population change in Hong Kong, 1961-1981: some policy implications. Urban Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 31-54 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Hong Kong's urban renewal schemes, public housing projects, and new towns development are evidence of an implicit population policy which aims at deconcentrating urban population to solve the problems of overcrowding and uneven population distribution. This paper uses the techniques of the Lorenz curve, the Gini coefficient, and a linear model relating population change to population density at the census district level in Hong Kong to analyze the trend in population concentration. The analyses show that these population programs are effective for spreading population from the old core to the new periphery and greatly affect small local area population change in Hong Kong."
Correspondence: K. P.-H. Ying, Department of Geography and Geology, Center of Urban Studies and Urban Planning, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:20053 Zaionchkovskaya, Zh. A. The demographic situation and settlement. [Demograficheskaya situatsiya i rasselenie.] Voprosy Geografii, Vol. 129, 1986. 52-62 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The impact of different rates of population growth on settlement patterns in the various republics of the USSR is examined. The focus is on regions with very low rates of population growth. The consequences of such low levels of growth include a decline in urban growth as the reservoirs of rural-urban migration are depleted and a failure to achieve satisfactory levels of socioeconomic development. Some areas situated far from urban centers are currently experiencing decreases in population.
Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

54:20054 Arriaga, Eduardo. Population and development policies aimed at distribution. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987. 23-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of population and development policies in developing countries aimed at influencing population distribution. Particular attention is given to urban population growth rates, rural-urban migration, and living conditions in urban squatter settlements. According to the author, "the urbanization process results in cities in the millions with huge disparities in income, in employment/unemployment, in occupations, in housing quality, and in opportunities for improving standards of living." The need to formulate policies to address this situation is emphasized.
Correspondence: E. Arriaga, Special Assistant for International Demographic Methods, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20055 Bremaeker, Francois E. J. de. Urban centers: 1950 to 1980. [Os centros urbanos: 1950 a 1980.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 47, No. 187, Jul-Sep 1986. 279-303 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Demographic trends in urban centers in Brazil with populations over 20,000 are analyzed using data from censuses from 1950 to 1980. Comparisons are made with trends for the country as a whole.
Correspondence: F. E. J. de Bremaeker, Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas Urbanos, Instituto Brasileiro de Administracao Municipal, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20056 Camarano, Ana A. Migration and the structure of production: the example of the metropolitan regions of the northeast. [Migracao e estrutura produtiva: o caso das regioes metropolitanas nordestinas.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 23-46 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of the factors affecting the growth of the three major metropolitan centers of northeastern Brazil, namely, Fortaleza, Recife, and Salvador. The focus is on the relationship between migration and economic growth. It is suggested that Recife has been losing population as a result of its slower economic growth. "While Salvador has been exhibiting a greater expansion in the industrial sector, the Metropolitan Area of Fortaleza showed the highest net migration rates. The outcome directs the attention to the fact that the link between migration dynamics and economics is not so straightforward as might be expected. For good understanding of the phenomenon other factors must be considered besides the traditional expulsion and attraction factors."
Correspondence: A. A. Camarano, Fundacao SEADE, Av. Casper Libero, 464 3o Andar s/31, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20057 Chandler, Tertius. Four thousand years of urban growth: an historical census. ISBN 0-88946-207-0. LC 86-31122. 1987. xiii, 656 pp. St. David's University Press: Lewiston, New York. In Eng.
The author attempts to provide data on the population size of cities from earliest times up to 1975. The book is in three sections, which present continental tables and maps, data sheets for ancient cities, and tables and maps of the world's largest cities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20058 Csatari, Balint; Toth, Jozsef. Regional differences in urbanization. [Az urbanizalodas teruleti kulonbsegei.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 66, No. 3, Mar 1988. 244-58 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"Relying on population data of Hungary's town network, the authors review temporal and regional differences in urbanization. They trace back the data of 109 towns...[from] 1985 to the first official census of population, then they analyse by means of rank correlation the lags appearing in the concentration rate of urban population....The authors think that urbanization of small towns might be the key element in the spatial and structural extension of urbanization. In the authors' opinion the lasting regional differences of urbanization determine also the centres of gravity of future development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20059 Danta, Darrick R. Identifying urban turnaround in Hungary. Urban Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 1-13 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Changing levels of population concentration in the Hungarian urban system for the period 1870-1980 are investigated to test for the occurrence of urban turnaround: the switch in overall growth dynamics from agglomeration to deglomeration. The analysis, which uses a rank-size model 'expanded' into quadratics of time to account for nonlinear 'drift' in the parameter estimates, indicates that the Hungarian urban system experienced predominantly agglomerative trends until the mid-1970s; afterwards, deglomerative trends dominated."
Correspondence: D. R. Danta, Department of Geography, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:20060 Demko, George J. The Soviet settlement system--current issues and future prospects. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 10, Dec 1987. 707-17 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"A survey of current urban issues and trends in the Soviet Union sets the stage for an analysis of the problems of the urban system of the USSR and discussion of recent efforts at planning and policy development for a national settlement system. The General Scheme of Settlement, issued in 1975 and revised in 1982 to guide the development of such a national system, is examined as is the ensuing debate between two opposing schools of thought as to the best approach for restructuring the urban system."
Correspondence: G. J. Demko, Office of the Geographer, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20061 Desai, P. B. The explosive growth of Asia's cities. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1987. 15-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Rapid urban growth in Asia and policies to regulate it are discussed. Three types of policies currently under consideration by Asian governments are outlined: those designed to control metropolitan growth, those aimed at developing secondary and intermediate cities, and those concerned with rural and small-town development. The implementation of these policies is assessed, and recommendations are provided.
Correspondence: P. B. Desai, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi, University, New Delhi, 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20062 Dogan, Mattei; Kasarda, John D. The metropolis era. ISBN 0-8039-2602-2. LC 87-23247. 1988. 394; 322 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
This two-volume work is the product of a conference on the world's large cities, held in Barcelona, Spain, February 25-March 1, 1985. The main objective of the conference was to examine how huge urban conglomerates and metropolitan areas can confront and resolve the malfunctions that stem from their growth. The two volumes contain 28 studies by various authors from an interdisciplinary background. The first volume, subtitled A World of Giant Cities, contains 13 chapters that are mainly comparative in concept and that describe the major urban areas of the world. The second volume, subtitled Mega-Cities, presents case studies of four cities in developed countries and six in developing countries. The contributors define a new kind of city, "the region-dominating city. They analyze worldwide metropolitan trends and projections, and explore topics such as urban hierarchy and economic restructuring."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20063 Eberhardt, Piotr. The demographic development of Poland's agglomerations over the past 100 years. Geographica Polonica, No. 50, 1984. 41-53 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in Poland from 1868 to 1975 are examined using data from the official sources of the various national authorities that controlled Polish territory during this period. Changes in the rank order of the 16 major urban areas over time are described.
Correspondence: P. Eberhardt, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20064 Hastaoglou, Vithleem; Hadjimichalis, Costis; Kalogirou, Nicos; Papamichos, Nicos. Urbanisation, crisis and urban policy in Greece. Antipode, Vol. 19, No. 2, Sep 1987. 154-77 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Urbanization trends in Greece since the 1950s are reviewed, with particular reference to the problems that arose in the 1970s. The authors examine the two major attempts at state intervention in urban planning during this period. They conclude with an overview of possible policy interventions that could resolve some of the problems related to urbanization.
Correspondence: V. Hastaoglou, Department of Architecture, University of Thessalonike, Division of Urban and Regional Planning, Thessalonike, Greece. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20065 Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Mills, Edwin S. Korean development and urbanization: prospects and problems. World Development, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan 1988. 157-67 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper is about [the Republic of] Korea's urban problems and prospects. It starts with a brief review of Korea's urbanization during its period of rapid growth and makes some comparisons with other countries. Then, likely trends of urban growth during the remainder of the century are identified. The bulk of the paper analyzes several closely related urban problems that Koreans must solve during the years ahead." Issues considered include housing, land supply, and transportation.
Correspondence: K.-H. Kim, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20066 Lappo, G. M. Cities and their ways in the future. [Goroda na puti v budushchee.] 1987. 237 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author examines the evolution and characteristics of cities and urban areas and discusses possible future development trends. Sections are included on network and settlement systems; geographical and socioeconomic features; the definition, nature, and basic characteristics of urban agglomerations; strategies and goals of improving settlements; and regional characteristics of settlements. The primary geographical focus is on the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library.

54:20067 Matwijiw, Peter; Bamford, Errol. Atlas of the aged in Australia, 1981: maps and tables from the 1981 census showing the distribution in major Australian cities of aged persons according to birthplace. ISBN 0-949890-37-5. 1986. 115 pp. Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"The Atlas examines the geographic distribution of ethnic aged people in Australia's five largest cities." Data are primarily from the 1981 census and are presented in both tables and maps.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20068 Morrill, Richard L. Intra metropolitan demographic structure: a Seattle example. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1988. 1-16 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
"Internal urban variation in demographic character (births, deaths, fertility, natural increase, net migration) is analyzed in relation to age of persons, age of housing, ownership, distance from the CBD [central business district], race, household type and size. A descriptive analysis of maps of these characteristics is followed by simple statistical tests of relations among the variables, in particular distance from the city center. Predictable and strong patterns of spatial structure are consonant with expectations from economic, social, geographic and political urban theory." Data concern King County, Washington, for the period 1980-1985, (the city of Seattle) and are from local sources, including the Puget Sound Council of Governments.
Correspondence: R. L. Morrill, Department of Geography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20069 Ness, Gayl D. Medium-sized cities in Asia: new areas of concern in population and development planning. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1987. 46-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a summary of the proceedings of the August 1987 Asian Conference on Population and Development in Medium-sized Cities, sponsored by UNFPA, the city of Kobe, Japan, and Nihon University's Population Research Institute. Problems specific to medium-sized cities are outlined, and the particular role these cities might play in local and regional development is emphasized. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: G. D. Ness, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20070 Okpala, Don C. I. Received concepts and theories in African urbanisation studies and urban management strategies: a critique. Urban Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1987. 137-50 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
"Concepts and theories employed in today's African urban studies have often been transfers from Western urbanisation studies which have embodied transfers of cultural values....The uncritical transfer and application of such concepts has led to prescriptions and recommendations for urban management policies and programmes that have proved largely ineffective, and involved much misdirection and misapplication of limited resources. The consequence has been the continued exacerbation and compounding of urban problems. It is argued that effective policy responses can only be derived from a more realistic evaluation of African urban problems, based not only on Western European analytical perspectives, but also on the analysis of economic, historical socio-cultural factors indigenous to Africa itself."
Correspondence: D. C. I. Okpala, U.N. Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT), P.O. Box 60040, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:20071 Polyan, P. M. Nodal elements of regional support frameworks for settlement. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 10, Dec 1987. 718-28 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The author extends his earlier work on the concept of a support framework for settlement (i.e., interconnected linear and nodal elements supporting the activities and needs of population within the settlement system), developed initially for the Caucasus region, to the entire country. A five-level hierarchy of urban nodes, ranging from highly developed agglomerations to small and medium-sized cities, is proposed which is used to analyze the level of urban support provided in the major economic regions of the USSR."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Vsesoyuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva (Moscow, USSR), No. 4, 1987, pp. 356-64.
Correspondence: P. M. Polyan, Institute of Geography, Staromonetny per. 29, Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20072 Rietveld, Piet. Urban development patterns in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Apr 1988. 73-95 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines recent urban development in Indonesia. "Analysis of urban developments in Indonesia has been hampered in the past by weak data. Recently, the National Urban Development Strategy (NUDS) project has generated a set of improved data. This paper aims at elaborating and supplementing the NUDS study. After a discussion of definitional problems, an analysis is carried out of urban growth rates at the provincial level. Private investment is shown to be a principal determinant of urban growth rates. Other significant determinants are rural immigration and the present level of urbanisation. Private investment is shown to be strongly biased towards provinces with large urban areas. In addition, polarisation is studied at the level of individual cities. It is found that a period of rapidly increasing polarisation has come to an end during the last decade."
Correspondence: P. Rietveld, Department of Economics, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1105, PB 7161, 1007 MC Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20073 Singh, Vashistha N. Spatial urban pattern and growth of urbanisation. 1986. xix, 284 pp. Inter-India Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes urban spatial patterns and trends in urbanization in India. "In the present study the author has given particular attention to determining the different levels of growth foci in [Northern Bihar]. This study is based not only on the Census classification of towns but also on the nature of services available in different towns....The growth potentiality of the towns has been analysed on the basis of the past trend of urban growth during the whole Census period. The total urban growth was as high as 215.67 per cent for the whole region during the period 1951-81." Tabular data for selected years are included on temperature and rainfall, harvest statistics, communications, population growth, population density, and rural-urban ratio.
Correspondence: Inter-India Publications, D-17 Raja Garden Extension, New Delhi 110 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20074 Speare, Alden; Liu, Paul K. C.; Tsay, Ching-lung. Urbanization and development: the rural-urban transition in Taiwan. Brown University Studies in Population and Development, No. 7, ISBN 0-8133-7328-X. LC 87-29532. 1988. xxii, 217 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The rapid urbanization and industrialization of Taiwan that occurred between 1950 and 1985 is examined. "The authors detail the processes through which change was effected, paying particular attention to the role of intermediate cities, to rural industrialization, and to the development of extensive commuting as alternatives to massive urbanization. Analyzing detailed population data from 1950 to 1985, they also examine survey data on the determinants of this migration and the success of migrants in urban settings."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20075 Tarrius, Alain. Entering the city: Maghribian migrations and the reshaping of urban networks in Tunis and Marseilles. [L'entree dans la ville: migrations maghrebines et recompositions des tissus urbains a Tunis et a Marseille.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 1987. 131-48 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The development of French urban areas populated predominantly by North African immigrants is explored. "Starting from...research on the development of the outer periphery, the author analyses the emergence of a big Maghrebian city within Marseilles. He shows both the reproduction of residential patterns found in Tunis and the production of original social relationships, which characterize the dynamics of exchange between Maghrebian people."
Correspondence: A. Tarrius, Directeur de Recerche INRETS, Chemin de la Croix-Blanche, 13300 Salon-de-Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

54:20076 Wojciechowska-Ratajczak, Bogumila. Demographic changes in Poland's rural areas. [Przemiany demograficzne na wsi w Polsce ludowej.] Wies Wspolczesna, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1985. 62-70 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Demographic changes that have occurred in rural areas of Poland since World War II are analyzed, with particular reference to their relationship to agricultural development. The author notes that the rural population declined by 9.1 percent between 1946 and 1983 and that the percentage of the labor force employed in agriculture declined from 52.2 percent to 30.2 percent.
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.