Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

54:10769 Crane, Barbara; Finkle, Jason. The conservative transformation of population policy. Governance, No. 4, Winter-Spring 1987. 9-14 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The impact on the U.S. international population assistance of pressure from the New Right coalition of conservative Republicans, Protestant fundamentalists, the Catholic Church, and other right-to-life advocates is assessed. The authors outline a strategy to be followed by those wishing to protect U.S. international assistance for population programs from further erosion.
Correspondence: B. Crane, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: New York Public Library.

54:10770 Dumon, W. Family policy in Belgium. [Gezinspolitiek in Belgie.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 257-76, 282-3 pp. Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The development of family policy in Belgium since the end of World War I is described. Three periods are identified. The original objectives were to provide a basic income level for all families and to promote fertility. After World War II, measures were introduced to foster the physical and psychological health of the family, including the protection of women's rights. More recent policy trends have concentrated on family income and providing services at the family rather than the institutional level.
Correspondence: W. Dumon, Sociologisch Onderzoeksinstituut, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 2C Van Evenstraat, B3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10771 Dumon, Wilfred. Family policy in Western Europe: a sociological reflection. [La politique familiale en Europe occidentale: une reflexion sociologique.] Annee Sociologique, No. 37, 1987. 291-308 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Policies developed in Europe over the course of the twentieth century to protect and assist the family are reviewed. Two types of measures are distinguished: those affecting family formation and dissolution, and those involving financial support such as family allowances. The author notes that several kinds of legislation have an impact on the family, including legislation designed for other purposes such as the improvement of women's status, and that these other policies may work at cross-purposes with certain family policies. The need to take conflicting interests into account when designing policies both aimed at the family and affecting the family is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10772 Kaposztaz, Ferenc; Monigl, Istvan. The demographic situation and population policy in Hungary. [Demograficka situace a populacni politika v Madarsku.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1987. 217-27 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors examine Hungary's need to shape population policy to reflect current and future population trends. Hungary is experiencing an increase in mortality rates among men of reproductive age, a decline in fertility, and a decrease in population levels. Plans are under way for programs to improve the country's health status, provide family support and care for the elderly, increase fertility levels, and alter the age structure. Legislation is already in effect that will increase the length of maternity leave as well as the amount of maternity benefits and family support. The need for policy-oriented research in demography and in other scientific disciplines is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10773 Mali. Direction Nationale de la Planification. Unite de Population (Bamako, Mali). Final report of the national seminar on the integration of demographic variables in development plans and programs, Bamako, June 23-28, 1986. [Rapport final du seminaire national sur l'integration des variables demographiques dans les plans et les programmes de developpement, Bamako, 23-28 juin 1986.] Sep 1986. 65 pp. Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
This is the report of a seminar held in June 1986 in Bamako, Mali, to discuss the integration of demographic variables into the development plans and programs of Mali. It includes details of the papers presented and of the recommendations adopted concerning the policies and programs required in the areas of fertility, morbidity and mortality, and migration.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:10774 Mali. Direction Nationale de la Planification. Unite de Population (Bamako, Mali). The integration of demographic variables in development plans and programs in the Republic of Mali. Some aspects of methodology and population policy. [Integration des variables demographiques dans les plans et les programmes de developpement de la Republique du Mali. Elements de methodologie et de politique de population.] Jul 1986. 90 pp. Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
This report contains selections from presentations made to a seminar on the integration of demographic variables into the development plans and programs of Mali held in Bamako in June 1986. It examines the relationship between economic development and population factors in Mali, the methodological and institutional aspects of an integrated approach, how to include demographic variables in the development plan, and the elements of a population policy for the country.
For a report on the seminar, also published in 1986, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:10775 Mason, Paul E.; Yackle, Jeanette F.; Stepan, Jan. Annual review of population law, 1983: international resolutions and agreements, constitutional provisions, legislation, regulations, judicial decisions, legal pronouncements, Volume 10. ISBN 0-89714-042-7. 1985. xlviii, 484 pp. United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Harvard Law School Library: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This report details changes in population law around the world. It is organized by subject, with separate entries for the countries or international agencies concerned. Texts, or summaries of texts, are provided. Subjects covered include population policy; fertility regulation, including family planning, contraception, sterilization, and induced abortion; family status and welfare, including marriage and marriage termination; children and child welfare; public welfare, including family allowances, parental benefits, old-age benefits, labor protection, personal status, and personal mobility; public health; education; and property and economic factors. An unannotated bibliography is included.
For Volume 9, concerning 1982, see 50:30735.
Correspondence: UNFPA, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10776 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). World population policies. Volume 1: Afghanistan to France. Population Studies, No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102, Pub. Order No. E.87.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151165-8. Dec 1987. vi, 247 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the first volume of a planned three-volume work presenting information on the population policies of the countries of the world. The information is from the continuous monitoring carried out by the U.N. Population Division. The work is organized in alphabetical order by country; this first volume covers countries from Afghanistan to France. The information for each country includes selected demographic indicators, current government perceptions on population issues, general policy framework, the institutional framework relevant to policy, and specific policies and measures.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

54:10777 Bauer, P. T. Population scares. Commentary, Vol. 84, No. 5, Nov 1987. 39-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author presents arguments against the need for policies and programs of population control, and against the theory that rapid population growth is detrimental to socioeconomic development. However, the author does accept the validity of the theory of fertility transition attributed to John C. Caldwell, namely, that fertility control is practiced primarily by women who have adopted Western attitudes to childbearing and child rearing through exposure to Western education, media, and contacts.
Correspondence: P. T. Bauer, Professor Emeritus, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10778 Boiko, V. V. Studies of birth rates: social-psychological aspects. [Problema rozhdaemosti: sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie aspekty.] Psikhologicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 5, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1984. 55-61, 166-7 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general review of world literature and attitudes toward propaganda campaigns aimed at regulating population growth in the USSR. The goals, strategies, and psychological methods used in such campaigns are examined, and social attitudes toward population dynamics and family planning are explored.
Correspondence: V. V. Boiko, Higher Trade Union School of Culture, Leningrad, USSR. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10779 Brown, Barbara B. Facing the "black peril": the politics of population control in South Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jan 1987. 256-73 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A programme of national population control theoretically encompasses three distinct elements: limitation on women's fertility, change in human mortality rates and control of immigration. The government of South Africa has adopted specific policies on each of these three which, taken together, attempt to limit the black population while maintaining a large white population. This article will focus on official policy regarding the limitation of women's fertility in the wider context of population control....[It] also explores the nature and cause of...policy shifts, placing the birth control programme in the context of South Africa's evolving political economy."
Correspondence: B. B. Brown, Boston University, 147 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10780 Isaacs, Stephen L.; Holt, Renee J. Redefining procreation: facing the issues. Population Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 3, Sep 1987. 39 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The ethical, legal, and social issues raised by modern reproductive technologies are reviewed. These include artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogate motherhood. "Descriptions of the reproductive technologies, attitudes and arguments pro and con, and legal and legislative action in the U.S. and various other countries lead to a discussion of what should be included in general guidelines for the protection of all parties involved, and their rights and obligations."
This publication was previously cited as 53:30758 under an incorrect subject classification.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10781 Jowett, A. J. China: population change and population control. GeoJournal, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1986. 349-63 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Changes in population trends and policy in China since 1949 are reviewed. Having noted the devastating demographic impact of events occurring during the years 1958-1961, the author focuses on the development of the antinatalist policy and program since the 1970s. It is observed that the total fertility rate declined from 6.4 in 1968 to 2.2 in 1980 and the level of contraceptive usage rose to levels currently experienced in the developed world. Consideration is also given to changes in age at marriage and female education, the impact on fertility of successful socioeconomic development, and differences between rural and urban areas.
Correspondence: A. J. Jowett, Department of Geography, Glasgow University, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library.

54:10782 Karinskii, S. S. Birth-rate changes in Western European countries. [Tendentsii izmeneniya rozhdaemosti v stranakh Zapadnoi Evropy.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 62-7 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Historical and current fertility trends in Western Europe are reviewed, with emphasis on governments' efforts to influence fertility as well as scholars' opinions on the effectiveness of such efforts. Topics covered include legislation concerning contraception, abortion, divorce, sterilization, and assistance to families with children, with particular reference to measures designed to increase fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10783 Lattes, Gerard. Family assistance and the cost of children. [Aide a la famille et cout des enfants.] Economie et Statistique, No. 203, Oct 1987. 61-7, 76, 78 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author reviews trends in government assistance to families in France from 1970 to 1986. The results indicate that such assistance has increased at a slower rate than have salaries. Furthermore, the concentration of state aid on the third child still did not cover the costs for the family concerned, although it came to between 43 and 48 percent of the average salary if the mother was working outside the home.
Correspondence: G. Lattes, Division Revenus, Departement Population-Menages, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 75582 Paris Cedex 12, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10784 Latuch, Mikolaj. Structural changes in the process of population reproduction as premises for the formation of population policy. [Zmiany strukturalne w procesie reprodukcji ludnosci jako przeslanki do ksztaltowania polityki ludnosciowej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 47-61 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
General guidelines for the development of population policy as stated in the World Population Plan of Action are first reviewed. The author then considers changes in marital fertility in Poland from 1950 to 1984 and notes that a change in rural fertility is the main cause of the fertility decline that has occurred. The author concludes by asserting that population policy and family planning need to remain closely connected and interdependent.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10785 Luscher, Kurt; Schultheis, Franz. Family policy measures and institutions in southwest Baden-Wurttemberg. [Familienpolitische Massnahmen und Einrichtungen im Sudwesten Baden-Wurttembergs.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 52, 1987. [iii], [258] pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
These are the results of a study of socio-demographic, cultural, economic, legal, and family policy factors influencing the birth rate in the southwestern part of West Germany. The authors present a documented review of family policy development and an analysis of monetary and organizational measures, social assistance, and social insurance plans pertaining to children. A chronological, annotated listing of financial and organizational measures initiated on behalf of children in Baden-Wurttemberg, Federal Republic of Germany, since 1945 is provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10786 Mouli, A. S. Chandra; Devi, Manjula. Some aspects of the legalisation of abortion: findings from a sample survey in Karnataka. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1985. 221-35 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The present investigation basically aims at assessing the levels of awareness of the legalisation of abortion in both rural and urban areas [of India] as well as the knowledge about the facilities made available at the primary health centre and urban family welfare centre. Further, the study also attempts to know from both the rural and urban communities whether people would take advantage of these facilities if they are provided in [these centers]." Data were collected in the four years following the liberalized abortion legislation of 1971 and take into consideration respondents' sex, age, religion, caste, and residence. It is found that "in rural areas about 15 per cent of males and 8 per cent of females only were aware of the legalisation of abortion while in urban [areas] about 41 per cent of males and 24 per cent of females were aware of the legalisation of abortion."
Correspondence: A. Mouli, Population Centre, II Cross, Malleswaram, Bangalore-560 003, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

54:10787 Papademetriou, D. G. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: America amends its immigration law. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1987. 325-34 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author describes the new Immigration Reform and Control Act adopted in the United States in 1986 and attempts to assess its consequences. The details of this legislation are outlined. The author concludes that the main issue will be the capacity of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to implement the act.
Correspondence: D. G. Papademetriou, Population Associates International, Fairfax, VA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10788 Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J. Foreign and undocumented workers in California agriculture. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1987. 223-39 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the role of foreign labor in California agriculture in light of assumptions made when the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act was drawn up. The act included special provisions for agriculture based on two assumptions: "(1) that agriculture now relies heavily on undocumented workers to harvest perishable crops, and (2) that growers hire undocumented labor because legal farmworkers are not available to work at wages growers can afford to pay....The findings cast some doubt on the assumptions that undocumented workers are employed mostly in harvesting perishable crops and that growers hire illegal aliens because legal workers are not available."
Correspondence: J. E. Taylor, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.