Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

54:10742 Clark, W. A. V. Demographic change, attendance area adjustment and school system impacts. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1987. 199-222 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author examines the evidence that school boards in the United States have changed the boundaries of catchment areas in order to preserve racial segregation in schools. "This case study examines boundary changes in Topeka [Kansas] and suggests that racial change in schools is more directly attributable to demographic shifts than to attendance boundary changes."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10743 Fried, Ellen S.; Settergren, Susan. Effects of fertility on the changing roles of women and men. Apr 1986. xiii, 127 pp. Research Triangle Institute: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the effects of having children on the allocation of time by wives and husbands in the United States. The authors examine differences between men and women, changes over time in these differences, and differences between couples with egalitarian and traditional attitudes toward sex roles. Data are from the 1975-1976 Time Use Study in Economic and Social Accounts and the 1965-1966 Americans' Use of Time Study, both conducted by the University of Michigan. The results suggest that the additional burdens of child rearing continue to fall on women regardless of the couples' traditional or egalitarian attitudes toward sex roles in marriage.
Correspondence: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle, NC 27709. Location: U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda.

54:10744 Furstenberg, Frank F.; Brooks-Gunn, J.; Morgan, S. Philip. Adolescent mothers and their children in later life. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 142-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the life courses of adolescent mothers and their children using data from a longitudinal study conducted between 1966 and 1984 among approximately 300 primarily urban black mothers in the Baltimore, Maryland, area. Attention is given to these mothers' subsequent status in terms of education, marriage, fertility, contraceptive use, and economic success. Behavior problems among the children born to adolescent mothers are discussed. Among the mothers, the analysis "shows that a substantial majority completed high school, found regular employment and, even if they had at some point been on welfare, eventually managed to escape dependence on public assistance. Relatively few ended up with large families; most had fewer births than they had wanted or expected at the time they first became pregnant."
Correspondence: F. F. Furstenberg, Department of Sociology, University of Pennyslvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10745 Parant, Alain. Demographic aging and social expenditures: a future crisis for the economies of the developed countries. [Vieillissement demographique et depenses socials. Un futurible de crise pour les economies les plus developpees.] Futuribles, No. 110, May 1987. 23-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The main findings of a recent World Bank study on the impact of demographic aging on future social expenditures in developed countries up to the year 2025 are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10746 Schultz, T. Paul. School expenditures and enrollments, 1960-80: the effects of income, prices, and population growth. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 413-76 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "proposes a production-demand framework for explaining the level and distribution of national expenditures on schooling and enrollment rates. Incomes, prices, production technology, and demographic factors are interrelated as constraints and conditions affecting the costs of, and demands for, educational services. Data for 89 countries from 1960 to 1980 are used to test empirically a variety of hypotheses within this framework, including whether rapid population growth, which has contributed to an increase in the relative size of a school-aged cohort, affects that cohort's educational opportunities and achievements. Differences in school enrollment between males and females are also examined. Finally, regional and religious deviations in educational expenditures and achievements are calculated, based on the fitted model."
It is found that "public expenditures on schools have conformed to regular patterns with respect to consumer incomes and prices and demographic constraints. Clearly at the secondary level, and probably also at the primary level, rapid population growth has depressed levels of expenditures per child of school age. This has occurred through an increase in class size and a lowering of teacher salaries, but notably not through the restriction of enrollments."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10747 Vanderleyden, Lieve. Care for the elderly. [De zorg voor de derde leeftijd.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 239-56, 282 pp. Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Changes in the care of the elderly and in their relationships with their children in Belgium are analyzed using official data. A general decline in the number of households containing more than two generations is noted. The continuing, although declining, role of children's support for the elderly is considered.
Correspondence: L. Vanderleyden, Centruum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Ministerie voor de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Nijverheidsstraat 35-37, B1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

54:10748 Hill, David B.; Kent, Mary M. Election demographics. Population Trends and Public Policy, No. 14, Jan 1988. 16 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between demographic factors and the election process in the United States is examined. The authors study the demographic characteristics of those who participate in elections and discuss how politicians have or have not taken advantage of the available data to increase their chances of getting elected. Consideration is also given to how current demographic trends will affect the future political situation.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, P.O. Box 96152, Washington, D.C. 20090-6152. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10749 Nathan, Richard P. The politics of printouts: the use of official numbers to allocate federal grants-in-aid. In: The politics of numbers, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, 1987. 331-42 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes recent changes in the use of U.S. Bureau of the Census data for the purpose of allocating federal grants-in-aid to state and local governments. The focus is on the use of information processing technology and its political impact since the 1970s. Two programs are examined: revenue sharing and the community development block grant. In concluding, the author states that "the technology may have facilitated the use of direct federal-local formula grants, and it may have influenced the outcome in the direction of being more broadly distributed than would otherwise have been the case....[but] the underlying data--the official numbers--were not changed because of the establishment of direct federal-local formula grant programs and the politics of printouts."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10750 Prewitt, Kenneth. Public statistics and democratic politics. In: The politics of numbers, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, 1987. 261-74 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author explores the relationship between public statistics and democratic politics in the United States. "Public statistics in the United States are generated as part of democratic politics. This invites inquiry into the ways in which this particular nation's 'number system' advances or retards democracy, informs or distorts civic discourse, helps or hinders political participation." The focus is on two issues, namely, "accountability--how public leaders are held accountable for their performance in office--and representation--how diverse interests are represented in setting the political agenda." A historical view of the relationship between the analysis and political reporting of social statistics is presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10751 Singh, B. P. North-east India: demography, culture and identity crisis. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1987. 257-82 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The economic, cultural, and demographic factors behind the recent political troubles and related problems in northeast India are reviewed. The author notes the rapid pace of modernization that has occurred in the region, which has had positive as well as negative aspects. Consideration is given to the rapid growth of the region's population both from natural increase and in-migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10752 Skutel, H. J. Israel's demographic dilemma. Review of International Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 892, Jun 5, 1987. 15-7 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
The problems posed by the differential rates of population growth of the Jewish and Arab populations of Israel and the Occupied Territories are discussed. The various political choices facing the Israeli authorities are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10753 Thernstrom, Abigail. Statistics and the politics of minority representation: the evolution of the voting rights act since 1965. In: The politics of numbers, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, 1987. 303-27 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
Changes in minority representation in the United States since the Voting Rights Act in 1965 are reviewed. Sections are included on the amendments of 1970, numerical evidence of vote dilution, deceptive rhetoric, amendments made in 1975, the use of statistics as a subterfuge, and a case study involving redistricting in New York City.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10754 Vernon, Raymond. The politics of comparative economic statistics: three cultures and three cases. In: The politics of numbers, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, 1987. 61-82 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author explores the relationship between politics and economic statistics. He first describes the roles of the three groups that provide the links between politics and statistics: professional statisticians, politicians and policymakers, and academics. He then presents "three cases in which comparisons of the economic performance of a number of countries lie at the center of a political debate. One of the three cases entails the development of international criteria for distinguishing poor countries from the not-so-poor and from the rich....The statistical results are important to all the parties concerned because they directly affect the terms on which governments gain access to international credit and foreign markets. The second case centers on the dispute in the United States over the causes and cures of an alleged decline in the country's productivity....The third case involves a long-standing dispute in the United States over the level of its military spending as compared with that of the U.S.S.R."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:10755 Benedictow, O. J. Morbidity in historical plague epidemics. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3, Nov 1987. 401-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Morbidity in plague epidemics is an almost totally neglected field of research. In the present paper the evidence is presented and related to problems currently debated. The evidence clearly indicates that plague has a strong capacity for diffusion, leading to average morbidity rates in Tuscany 1630-2 (seven communities) and southern France 1720-2 (33 communities) of 44 and 55 per cent respectively. Combined with a lethality rate of close to eight per cent as in France, an epidemic pattern emerges which may serve to explain the reduction of the population during the late middle ages. Morbidity rates did not increase with increasing population densities, but were highest in small village communities, lowest in (small) towns and at an intermediate level in cities. This pattern has previously been observed in India, but no explanation was found. It is shown that the rat-based epidemiological model could serve to explain this peculiar pattern. This conclusion is supported by the few studies in which the spread of plague throughout local communities has been analysed."
Correspondence: O. J. Benedictow, Senior Lecturer in History, University of Oslo, Postboks 1008, 0315 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10756 Bentham, Graham. Migration and morbidity: implications for geographical studies of disease. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1988. 49-54 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using data on self-reported morbidity from the 1981 Census for Great Britain it is shown that the health status of migrants differs considerably from that of non-migrants. Young migrants, particularly those moving longer distances, are relatively healthy. Areas of net out-migration of this age group are therefore likely to become characterised by a less healthy population whereas the reverse will be true of areas of net in-migration. Amongst older people migration tends to be selective of those in poor health moving shorter distances to avoid environmental health hazards or to be closer to medical care. This has the curious effect of increasing morbidity and mortality rates in areas with favourable environmental conditions and good medical services. Migration is therefore likely to be a significant source of error in geographically based studies of the associations between disease and the environment."
Correspondence: G. Bentham, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10757 Chavkin, Wendy; Busner, Carey; McLaughlin, Margaret. Reproductive health: Caribbean women in New York City, 1980-1984. International Migration Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Fall 1987. 609-25 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"People from the Caribbean represent one of the largest immigrant groups in New York City. This study focuses on the reproductive health of first generation Caribbean immigrants. Birth and death certificate data were used to generate descriptive profiles of risk-factor prevalence and reproductive outcomes to Caribbean and comparison populations." Data on single live births for 1980-1984 take into consideration ethnic differences, age, place of birth, parity, mother's education, method of payment for health care, prenatal care, and birth weight.
Correspondence: W. Chavkin, New York City Department of Health, Bureau of Maternity Services and Family Planning, 125 Worth Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10758 Emanuel, Irvin. Maternal health during childhood and later reproductive performance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 477, 1986. 27-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Literature concerning the relationship between the health of mothers during their own chilhood and subsequent reproductive performance is reviewed. The author concludes that there is substantial evidence of an indirect nature that intergenerational factors are important in several problems associated with pregnancy outcome. The geographic focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: I. Emanuel, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10759 Horton, Susan. Birth order and child nutritional status: evidence from the Philippines. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 2, Jan 1988. 341-54 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The intra-household allocation of resources is examined using data from a 1978 multipurpose survey of 1,903 households conducted in the Bicol region of the Philippines. Specifically, the effects of birth order on child nutritional status are analyzed. The results suggest that the effects of birth order cause serious inequalities in long-term nutritional status, which in turn suggests that such effects are the result of changing economic circumstances rather than deliberate parental choice.
Correspondence: S. Horton, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:10760 Sahli, Sadok. Medico-social prevention, fertility, and development. [Prevention medico-sociale, fecondite et developpement.] Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 23, No. 84-87, 1986. 423-510 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
The author reports on a sample survey of 738 Tunisians, conducted to investigate the impact of preventive and social medicine on health and fertility. The sample population, drawn from the 1975 census, is described. Attention is given to the role played by information sources, particularly mass media, in preventive medicine, alcoholism and the prevention of traffic accidents, and public opinion concerning preventive medicine. Attitudes toward family planning are mentioned in the final section, and a copy of the questionnaire used is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10761 World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa (Brazzaville, Congo). Health-related population issues: report of a study group, Brazzaville, 7-9 October 1985. Pub. Order No. AFR/MCH/82. LC 87-400728. 1985. vi, 78 pp. Brazzaville, Congo. In Eng.
This is a report from a meeting held to consider questions relating to the implementation of family planning as part of integrated services with maternal and child health programs. The geographic focus is on Africa. Consideration is given to nutritional and ecological problems, women's roles in family planning programs, education and communication in family planning, and WHO's program of research in human reproduction.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

54:10762 Bouchard, Gerard; Morissette, Jean; Kouladjian, Kevork. The distribution of surnames in the Saguenay and Charlevoix regions as indicators of population structure in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [La statistique agregee des patronymes du Saguenay et de Charlevoix comme indicateurs de la structure de la population aux XIXe et XXe siecles.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 1, Apr 1987. 67-98 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper presents a statistical analysis of surnames, revealing a striking similarity between the Saguenay and Charlevoix regions in the province of Quebec, since the 19th century. Indeed, a migration study also shows that the former region was created in the 1840's by immigrants coming mostly from the latter. An analysis by decade also shows that the Saguenay population structure has remained relatively stable since the middle of the 19th century. It is suggested that this kind of surnames analysis may be a useful indicator not only of the dynamics of a population, but also of the evolution of the whole gene pool. It seems however to reflect very poorly the movement or diffusion of any deleterious gene in particular."
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, SOREP, Universite du Quebec, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10763 Cazes, Marie-Helene. Everyone obviously belongs to a generation. But which one? [Chacun appartient evidemment a une generation. Mais laquelle?] Population, Vol. 42, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1987. 671-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Problems concerning the allocation of individuals to specific generations in studies of population genetics are examined. Several alternative methods are described and illustrated with specific examples, and the problems with their use are discussed.
Correspondence: M.-H. Cazes, INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10764 Hed, Helen M. E. Trends in opportunity for natural selection in the Swedish population during the period 1650-1980. Human Biology, Vol. 59, No. 5, Oct 1987. 785-97 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Crow's index of opportunity for natural selection has been computed for the period 1750-1980 using data from the Swedish National Central Bureau of Statistics (SCB). The general trend is a decline in the size of Crow's index. Over time prenatal mortality became the major contributor to the part of the index related to the prereproductive period. This is due to a decrease in childhood mortality. A large part of the index related to reproduction is due to childlessness. Marital childlessness seems to have been fairly constant over time whereas the percentage of childless women in the population varied. The fertility component for childbearing women...shows little absolute change with the exception of a peak in the period 1930-39. Its relative contribution to the total index did however increase substantially over time."
Correspondence: H. M. E. Hed, Department of Genetics, University of Umea, S-901 87, Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10765 Kuchar, Ivan; Pavlik, Zdenek. Optimization of population quality. [Optimalizace kvality populace.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1987. 299-309 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Issues concerning the improvement of population quality in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. The need to involve various branches of government, including medical and social services, is noted. Twelve indicators of population optimization are identified, and their implications for the reproduction process are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10766 Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N.; Lasker, G. W. Biological aspects of human migration. Cambridge Studies in Biological Anthropology, No. 2, ISBN 0-521-33109-9. LC 87-8055. 1988. viii, 263 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of eight papers by different authors on the biological and genetic implications of human migration. The book "synthesises the biological consequences of changed environments on the migrants and the genetic impact of immigration on the host populations. Patterns of migration, past and present, and genetic, epidemiological and demographic consequences are considered....Individual chapters deal with the peopling of the continents, migration in the recent past, the effects of gene flow and rural to urban migration. In addition, a detailed analysis of the relationship between migration, adaptation and disease is presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10767 Ohayon, Elie; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne. Human population genetics: use of genetic markers, especially HLA, for studying interregional variability, Toulouse, October 21-23, 1985. [Genetique des populations humaines: apport des marqueurs genetiques, HLA en particulier, a l'etude de la diversite interregionale, Toulouse, 21-23 octobre 1985.] Colloque INSERM, Vol. 142, ISBN 2-85598-305-3. 1986. 407 pp. Editions INSERM: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Toulouse, France, in 1985 on aspects of human population genetics. The conference had two main purposes: to review present knowledge on different genetic markers and their uses in human population genetics, and to consider results of a multicenter genetic survey carried out in France between 1981 and 1985. The papers and abstracts, which are in English or French, are grouped under general headings concerning human polymorphism and genetic markers, in addition to an introductory section, which includes three demographically oriented studies concerning the historical demography of France, with the focus on population genetics and migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10768 Sokal, Robert R. The spatial analysis of human population structure. [Die raumliche Analyse der menschlichen Populationsstruktur.] Homo, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, 1986. 50-71 pp. Gottingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author describes how the genetic structure of a population can be investigated by means of spatial auto-correlation analysis. This method can be used to examine genetic differences from patterns of geographic variation. Examples are given using data from medieval cemeteries, Yanomama Indians, Bougainville Island, Ireland, and Europe in general.
Correspondence: R. R. Sokal, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11794. Location: State University of New York Library, Stony Brook, NY.

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.