Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

54:10621 Andrews, Gary R.; Esterman, Adrian J.; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J.; Rungie, Cam M. Aging in the Western Pacific: a four country study. Western Pacific Reports and Studies, No. 1, 1986. xii, 155 pp. World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific: Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
This study is concerned with demographic aging and its health and socioeconomic consequences in selected Asian and Pacific countries, namely, Fiji, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the Republic of Korea. The primary objectives were to provide recommendations for actions in the area of health and social care for the elderly. Comparisons are made with a similar study undertaken for selected European countries.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

54:10622 Austria. Statistisches Zentralamt (Vienna, Austria); Czechoslovakia. Federalni Statisticky Urad (Prague, Czechoslovakia). Austria and Czechoslovakia: a socio-demographic comparison. 1987. xxii, 67 pp. Statistisches Zentralamt: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
This publication presents comparative data on the socio-demographic situations of Austria and Czechoslovakia. Data are included on age and sex distribution, social status, fertility, natural increase, marriages, divorces, households, family size, life expectancy, mortality (including infant, neonatal, and perinatal mortality), causes of death, education, and economic activity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10623 Devereaux, Mary S. Aging of the Canadian population. Canadian Social Trends, Winter 1987. 37-8 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Data from the 1986 census of Canada concerning demographic aging are summarized in this paper. Census data show an increase in the elderly and working-age population, a decline in the young adult population, and a stable child population.
Correspondence: M. S. Devereaux, Canadian Social Trends, 11th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10624 Fang, Shan. Aging population: an impending problem on the Chinese mainland. Issues and Studies, Vol. 23, No. 7, Jul 1987. 56-67 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This article is an attempt to survey the possible impact of an aging population on mainland society and the economy [of China]." The author concludes that the Chinese government remains concerned exclusively with implementing measures to slow the rate of population growth and has not yet confronted the development of measures to resolve the problems posed by current trends in demographic aging.
Correspondence: S. Fang, Institute of International Relations, 64 Wan Shou Road, Mucha, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

54:10625 Forsdahl, Anders. From an excess of women to an excess of men. A changed society. [Fra kvinneoverskudd til mannsoverskudd. Et endret samfunn.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 106, No. 28, Oct 10, 1986. 2,341-3, 2,354 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in the sex ratio in Norway over the last 100 years are reviewed. The author notes a change from an excess of women, due primarily to male emigration, to an excess of men. The effects of this change on society are considered.
Correspondence: A. Forsdahl, Universitetet i Tromso, Institutt for Samfunnsmedisin, Postboks 417, 9001 Tromso, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10626 Gouws, N. B. The problem of aging: a socio-demographic perspective. [Die problematiek van veroudering: 'n sosiaal-demografiese perspektief.] Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Sosiologie/South African Journal of Sociology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Aug 1985. 97-103 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Afr. with sum. in Eng.
Aspects of demographic aging in South Africa are examined. The author notes that although the white population is aging, the other three main racial groups are still youthful populations, and the population as a whole is getting younger. Both the demographic and non-demographic consequences of demographic aging are considered. The non-demographic consequences are economic, sociological, and political in nature.
Correspondence: N. B. Gouws, Afdeling Demografie, Sentrale Statistiekdiens, Privaatsak X44, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10627 Kuroda, Toshio. Population aging in Japan, with reference to China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1987. 3-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Population aging, according to estimates made by the United Nations, will become a significant problem in Asian countries such as China and Japan where fertility reduction has proven successful. The demographic characteristics of these two countries are compared, and various components of population aging are analyzed. Policy recommendations for countries faced with aging populations are also outlined.
Correspondence: T. Kuroda, Population Research Institute, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10628 Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A. Trends in the residential segregation of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians: 1970-1980. American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 6, Dec 1987. 802-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines trends in residential segregation for blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 60 [U.S.] SMSAs between 1970 and 1980 using data taken from the 1970 Fourth Count Summary tapes and the 1980 Summary Tape File 4. Segregation was measured using dissimilarity and exposure indices. Black segregation from Anglos declined in some smaller SMSAs in the south and west, but in large urban areas in the northeastern and north central states there was little change; in these areas blacks remained spatially isolated and highly segregated....Hispanic segregation was markedly below that of blacks, but increased substantially in some urban areas that experienced Hispanic immigration and population growth over the decade....Asian segregation was everywhere quite low."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10629 Matras, Judah. Demographic trends in the population of Israel: implications for changing patterns of dependency. Joint (JDC) Israel Brookdale Institute of Gerontology and Adult Human Development Discussion Paper, No. D-127-86, Mar 1986. 56, [iii] pp. Joint (JDC) Israel Brookdale Institute of Gerontology and Adult Human Development: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng. with sum. in Heb.
This paper reviews demographic trends in Israel since the mass immigration of 1948-1951, focusing on the implications for dependency, the organization of employment, income, and social welfare. The author notes a relative convergence in demographic characteristics among the population of Israel and observes that the demographic changes that have occurred have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly people with no siblings or children living nearby, smaller families, shorter widowhood spans, and longer empty nest periods. "These notable changes in dependency patterns are being experienced by adults born or socialized in Israel, who possess greater socioeconomic capabilities and who have more capacity to maneuver in obtaining services for their immigrant parents than did earlier adult cohorts."
Correspondence: Joint (JDC) Israel Brookdale Institute of Gerontology and Adult Human Development, JDC Hill, P.O.B. 13087, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10630 Rosenwaike, Ira; Dolinsky, Arthur. The changing demographic determinants of the growth of the extreme aged. Gerontologist, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jun 1987. 275-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Persons 85 years and over, the extreme aged, have been proportionately the most rapidly growing segment of the aged [U.S.] population for some time. Since 1940 growth in excess of 50% has occurred each decaded. Census data were used to investigate the relative effects of the different demographic factors underlying this growth. In contrast with earlier periods declining mortality has been most responsible for the growth of this population since 1940."
Correspondence: I. Rosenwaike, Research Specialist, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

54:10631 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report. The survey of hill tribe population: 1986. Phayao province. Pub. Order No. E-Sur-Hil-K No.1-87. 1987. [ix], 46, 53 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This report is one is a series presenting results from a demographic survey of the hill tribe population of Thailand. This report concerns the hill tribe population of Phayao province, which was surveyed in 1986. The survey covered such demographic characteristics as ethnic group, household, age and sex distribution, marital status and age at marriage, educational status, religion, language, fertility, family planning, occupation, and migration.
For a previous report concerning Tak province, published in 1986, see 53:10650.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10632 Torrey, Barbara B.; Kinsella, Kevin; Taeuber, Cynthia M. An aging world. International Population Reports, Series P-95, No. 78, LC 87-619853. Sep 1987. vii, 85 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report summarizes the detailed demographic and socioeconomic statistics collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census concerning the older population in 31 countries around the world. These data are available through the International Data Base on Aging, which is maintained by the Center for International Research at the Census Bureau and archived at the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Sections are included on life expectancy, mortality and health, gender differences, rural and urban dimensions, marital status and living arrangements, educational status and literacy, social support for the elderly, labor force trends, occupations, and income. In general, separate consideration is given to those over 55, those over 65, and those over 80.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10633 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: demographic, social, and economic indicators of the female population. [America Latina: indicadores demograficos sociales y economicos de la poblacion femenina.] Boletin Demografico, Vol. 20, No. 39; LC/DEM/G.52, Jan 1987. 115 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The social and demographic characteristics of women in Latin America are examined in this report. Chapters are included on general demographic indicators of the female population; fertility; mortality, with emphasis on maternal and child health care and environmental sanitation; international migration; female education; and women's labor force participation. Each chapter consists of an introductory analysis followed by a selection of statistics. The emphasis of the report is on how women are faring as the region develops.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10634 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). America's centenarians: data from the 1980 census. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 153, Sep 1987. vi, 121 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data from the 1980 census on U.S. centenarians are presented by age, marital status, sex, educational status, and income for the United States as a whole and for individual states.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10635 Xu, Qin. Analysis of the process and characteristics of China's population aging. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Nov 29, 1985. 28-30 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author projects three stages of population aging in China to the year 2040, based on 1982 census data. It is estimated that by the third stage (2025-2040), 25 percent of the population will be aged 65 and over. Two characteristics of China's population aging are emphasized: the speed of the process relative to other countries and the proportion of aged relative to developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:10636 Ducros, Jacqueline; Ducros, Albert. Age at menarche in Tahiti. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 14, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 559-62 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Data on age at menarche have been collected, using the status quo method, among 1,246 Tahitian girls attending school. The median age, estimated by probits, is 12.75 SD 1.76. The girls of the rural districts have a higher median age (13.08 SD 1.97) than the girls of Papeete (12.61 SD 1.47). The results were compared with data collected among other girls of Maori or European ancestry in France, New Zealand and Easter Island."
Correspondence: J. Ducros, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Biologique, Universite Paris 7, 2 Place Jussieu, 75241 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10637 James, William H. The human sex ratio. Part 1: a review of the literature. Human Biology, Vol. 59, No. 5, Oct 1987. 721-52 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
This is the first part of a scheduled two-part study on the human sex ratio. The objectives of the study are "first, to summarize much that is known about the variation of the human sex ratio at birth; second, to relate these findings to a hypothesis designed to explain them; and third, to outline some of the research needed to test the hypothesis. In the present paper the literature will be reviewed: in the second paper, the adequacy of the hypothesis to accommodate the data will be discussed, and a research program will be outlined." Factors associated with variations in the sex ratio include race, season, war, legitimacy, birth order, and paternal age. Consideration is also given to other factors that may affect the sex ratio, including psychological factors, smoking, handedness of parents, the location of an anomalously implanted pregnancy, occupation, and maternal age.
Correspondence: W. H. James, Medical Research Council Mammalian Development Unit, Wolfson House, University College London, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10638 Jeune, B. Parity and age at menopause in a Danish sample. Maturitas, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1986. 359-65 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A random sample of 151 Danish women who had undergone natural menopause reported the age at which this occurred and answered a questionnaire. A significant association was found between parity and age at menopause after correction for the effects of age at the first and last births, weight, smoking and occupation. However, there is no evidence that the age at menopause has fallen in recent decades, even though the average parity in developed population has dropped dramatically over this period. It is therefore possible that potential fertility is a confounding variable in the relationship between parity and age at menopause."
Correspondence: B. Jeune, Institute of Community Health, Department of Social Medicine, J. B. Winslows Vej 17, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10639 Moller, Herbert. The accelerated development of youth: beard growth as a biological marker. Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1987. 748-62 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This article attempts to establish the age at beard eruption as a proxy for the age at the onset of male fecundity, from ancient times to the present.
Correspondence: H. Moller, 6808 Woodwind Drive, Sarasota, FL 34231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10640 Yang, Shiquan. Also talking about China's population sex ratio. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1985. 13-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author points out that China's sex ratio is similar to the global sex ratio. Since 1960, the sex ratio in China has fluctuated around 105. The third national census in 1982 indicated a sex ratio for China of 106.3. The author analyzes the sex ratios at birth, in different age groups, and at death, as well as the main causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

54:10641 Bean, Frank D.; Lowell, B. Lindsay; Taylor, Lowell J. Undocumented Mexican immigrants and the earnings of other workers in the United States. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 35-52 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article examines the effects of undocumented Mexican immigrants on the earnings of other workers in geographical labor markets in the Southwest. The number of undocumented Mexicans included in the 1980 census in southwestern SMSAs is estimated. We then estimate the parameters of three specifications of a generalized Leontief production function with various demographic groups as substitutable factors. The statistically significant effects of undocumented Mexicans on the earnings of other groups are positive, but of slight magnitude. Legal immigrants' effects on native white earnings, however, are small and negative. The results are consistent with the possibility that undocumented Mexican immigrants' jobs complement those of other workers. The implications for public policy concerns about the effects of illegal Mexican immigration are discussed."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 452).
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, Department of Sociology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10642 Behrman, Jere R.; Taubman, Paul. Birth order, schooling, and earnings. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, Pt. 2, Jul 1986. 121-50 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Birth-order effects are posited by many to affect earnings and schooling. We show how such effects can be interpreted to shift either the earnings possibility frontier for siblings or parental preferences. We find empirical evidence for birth-order effects on (age-adjusted) schooling and on earnings for young U.S. adults, though the latter is not robust for all specifications. The examination of intrahousehold allocations suggests that these birth-order differences occur despite parental preferences or prices by birth order favoring later borns, apparently because of stronger endowment effects that favor first borns."
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

54:10643 Ben-Tuvia, Sheila. Classification of geographical units according to the socio-economic characteristics of the population. 1983 Census of Population and Housing Publication, No. 15, 1987. xxxvi, 126, [ix] pp. Central Bureau of Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This volume, the fifteenth in the series of the 1983 Census of Population and Housing Publications, presents the results of the research on the characterization and classification of urban geographical units in Israel. The geographical units in this publication are the statistical areas in large urban localities (over 10,000 population) and the smaller undivided urban localities (2,000-10,000 population). The characterization of the areas is based on a multivariate analysis of 16 demographic and socio-economic population and household variables derived from the data of the 1983 Census of Population and Housing. By means of factor analysis and cluster analysis, the values of these variables have been combined into a single measure of the socio-economic level of each geographical unit and the geographical units have been classified into homogeneous clusters according to their socio-economic level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10644 Blackburn, McKinley L.; Bloom, David E. Regional roulette. American Demographics, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1988. 32-7 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Geographical shifts in the economic health of the United States are analyzed using data from Public Use Samples of the 1970 and 1980 censuses and from the 1980 and 1986 Current Population Surveys. The results indicate a revival of economic prosperity in the Northeast due primarily to the rise in the number of two-income couples and the development of a healthy, diversified regional economy.
Correspondence: M. L. Blackburn, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10645 Blackburn, McKinley L.; Bloom, David E. The effects of technological change on earnings and income inequality in the United States. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 87-5, Jun 1987. 59 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper explores the relationship between technological change and inequality in the U.S. since the late 1960's. The analysis focuses primarily on studying patterns and trends in the dispersion of various distributions of earnings and income during this recent period of rapid technological progress....[Data are from] the March Current Population Surveys from 1968 to 1986. Our main findings are that there is little empirical evidence that earnings inequality, measured across individual workers, has increased since the late 1960's....However, we do find evidence of an increase since the late 1960's in the inequality of total family income, measured across families."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10646 Cantillon, B.; Lesthaeghe, R. Generation, household type, and income: trends in Flanders between 1976 and 1985. [Generatie, gezinsvorm en inkomen: ontwikkelingen in Vlaanderen 1976-1985.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 201-38, 281 pp. Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"During the period 1970-1985 a general deterioration of the income positions of the younger generations and a marked improvement of the economic position of the elderly has been documented for the U.S. and the U.K. This article shows that the same trend also appeared in Flanders. The causes of these new trends in poverty and/or insecurity are analysed, including the effects of new forms of household formation and dissolution."
Correspondence: B. Cantillon, Centruum voor Sociaal Beleid, Universitaire Faculteiten Sint Ignatius, Prinsstraat 13, B2000 Antwerp, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10647 Carr, Timothy J. The effect of fertility decisions on pecuniary and nonpecuniary compensation: final report. Mar 1983. vii, 62 pp. Mathematica Policy Research [MPR]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the effect of decisions about having children on both rates of pay and non-pecuniary aspects, including fringe benefits and job satisfaction. Data concern the United States and are from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men and Young Women. The results suggest that "being a parent is positively related to hourly rates of pay for men, but negatively related for white women....The number of children is a significant factor. The wages of young men with two children tend to be higher than those of men with either more or less than two children. However, a different pattern emerges for women: the more children a woman has, the lower her hourly rate of pay, all other things being equal. The above conclusions tend to apply to both blacks and whites, although the patterns appear less pronounced in the case of blacks."
Correspondence: Mathematica Policy Research, Suite 550, 600 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20024. Location: U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

54:10648 Devaney, Barbara L. Final report: a cohort analysis of the opportunity costs of children. Mar 1984. iii, 44 pp. Mathematica Policy Research [MPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper is a cohort analysis of the opportunity costs of childrearing [in the United States], with opportunity costs defined as the forgone earnings of women attributable to children. Based on the human capital model of earnings determination and traditional, cross-sectional models of female labor supply, the theoretical model specifies both wage and labor supply effects of children....The empirical results suggest that the primary wage effect comes from the initiation of childrearing, as only the first order birth has a significant effect on wages. The labor supply effects, however, come from the first three birth orders, with the first and third births reducing female labor supply and the second child exerting a positive influence on both labor force participation and hours of work. In addition, the primary labor supply effects are changes in the labor force participation rates of mothers, rather than changes in hours of work of working mothers."
Correspondence: Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

54:10649 Dolton, P. J.; Makepeace, G. H. Marital status, child rearing and earnings differentials in the graduate labour market. Economic Journal, Vol. 97, No. 388, Dec 1987. 897-922 pp. New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with differences between male and female earnings and the roles of marital status and children in this differential. The authors apply an econometric model to data from a 1977 survey involving 4,430 graduates in the United Kingdom to analyze the importance of marital status, the presence of children, and family role specialization in sex-related earnings differentials. The results "suggest that female participation is conditioned by marital status and the presence of a child, and that earnings, given participation, are not affected by marital status but are affected by the presence of children."
Correspondence: P. J. Dolton, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10650 Duncan, Greg J.; Rodgers, Willard. Single-parent families: are their economic problems transitory or persistent? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 171-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine "the living arrangements and economic status of children in a dynamic perspective, using data from a longitudinal household survey (the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, or PSID), for which annual interviews were conducted with a representative sample of U.S. households between 1968 and 1984. Much of this analysis will focus on a group of 707 children who were born into these households between 1967 and 1969 and for whom detailed demographic and economic information has been gathered over their first 15 years of childhood." Attention is given to time spent in one-parent households and to parental absence and child's economic well-being. In most instances, data are provided separately for blacks and whites. It is found that "while most of the children who ever live in a single-parent family or below the poverty line do so for a relatively short period, racial differences are striking: Both life in a single-parent family and experience with poverty are much more prevalent and persistent for black children than for whites." While the effect of marital status on the economic well-being of mothers and children is shown, "labor-market events appear to bear more responsibility than do family events for transitions into poverty."
Correspondence: G. J. Duncan, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10651 Edmondson, Brad. Inside the empty nest. American Demographics, Vol. 9, No. 11, Nov 1987. 24-9 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author examines aspects of the retirement plans of Americans aged 50-64, with attention given to the likelihood of relocating at retirement and to household incomes and expenditures. Data are from a variety of official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Brad Edmondson, American Demographics, 108 N. Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10652 Iversen, Gunvor; Andersen, Arne S.; Ellingsaeter, Anne L.; Hansen, Arvid. Standard of living in Norway: inequality, stability, and comprehensive measures. [Levekar i Norge: ulikhet, stabilitet og helhet.] Statistisk Sentralbyra Reprint Series, No. 28, ISBN 82-537-2587-6. 1987. [17] pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in the standard of living in Norway are analyzed. Consideration is given to those with comfortable living conditions as well as to those living in poor conditions, to changes affecting individuals, and to specific indicators. "Regression analyses show that the labour market is the most important arena for the distribution of welfare and that class is more important than sex."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10653 Jencks, Christopher. The politics of income measurement. In: The politics of numbers, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, 1987. 83-131 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the U.S. Census Bureau's production of real family income (RFI) figures and discusses the interpretation and use of these statistics. The first section concerns the conceptual and practical problems involved in measuring trends in real family income. The second section deals with issues of income and living standards. The author examines trends in expenditures related to health, housing, and nutrition and discusses the relationship between trends in well-being and trends in expenditures. In the third section, he focuses on the reasons for the continuing emphasis on trends in real family income in census publications. Census data for 1950-1980 are used, and the author argues that "the defects of the RFI series make the 1970s look considerably worse than they were."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10654 Kearl, J. R.; Pope, Clayne L. Unobservable family and individual contributions to the distributions of income and wealth. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, Pt. 2, Jul 1986. 48-82 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper uses combinations of full brothers, half brothers, and fathers and sons to measure the effect of common family background on a household's income and wealth. While the data are drawn from a nineteenth-century [U.S.] population, the intraclass correlation for income ranges from .13 to .18, which is similar to that found in modern samples. Intraclass correlations for wealth are significantly higher (.18-.35) than are those for income. Intraclass correlations of half brothers compared to those for full brothers suggest that fathers play a dominant role in the transmission of the common family effect. When unobserved background is decomposed into individual and family effects, the individual effect dominates the family effect for income, while the family effect dominates the individual effect for wealth." A comment by Sherwin Rosen is included (pp. 80-2).
Correspondence: J. R. Kearl, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

54:10655 Lattes, Gerard. The growth of real salaries has exaggerated financial pressures and reduced the weight of allowances. [La croissance des salaires reels a accentue la pression fiscale et reduit le poids des prestations.] Economie et Statistique, No. 203, Oct 1987. 49-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author suggests that the development of the balance between taxes and allowances in France between 1970 and 1986 has led to a decline in the rate of growth of household purchasing power. Family allowances also increased more slowly than salaries. Families most adversely affected by these trends are small families at each end of the economic scale.
Correspondence: G. Lattes, Division Revenus, Departement Population-Menages, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 75582 Paris Cedex 12, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10656 Levy, Frank. Dollars and dreams: the changing American income distribution. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-523-3. LC 86-42952. 1987. xx, 259 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report, prepared for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is concerned with the current economic situation in the United States and its effect on individual families and households, and is based primarily on data from the 1980 census. The author notes that family incomes have not increased significantly since the oil crisis of the early 1970s and focuses on the consequences of this fact. Topics considered include the baby bust, the national deficit, the growth of single-parent households, income growth among the elderly, the rise of the suburbs, and the decline of the steel industry. He concludes that while income inequality has not changed significantly since 1947, there is a growing inequality in economic prospects, resulting in an increasingly unequal distribution of the chance to purchase the middle-class life-style.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10657 Ross, Christine; Danziger, Sheldon; Smolensky, Eugene. The level and trend of poverty in the United States, 1939-1979. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 4, Nov 1987. 587-600 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A detailed record of the number and characteristics of persons in poverty is available since 1959. This paper provides measures for 1939 and 1949 that correspond as closely as possible to the official poverty statistics. Poverty, as officially measured, fell from 40.5 percent of all persons in 1949 to 13.1 percent in 1979, declining most among the elderly and least among female-headed households. We estimate the effects on the aggregate poverty rate of changes between 1940 and 1980 in the distribution of the population by selected demographic characteristics of household heads and by the employment status of head and spouse. Some changes, such as the increasing proportion of two-earner families, were poverty reducing, whereas others were poverty increasing."
Correspondence: C. Ross, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10658 Sorensen, Annemette; McLanahan, Sara. Married women's economic dependency, 1940-1980. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 93, No. 3, Nov 1987. 659-87 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Changes in the economic dependecy of married women in the United States are examined using data from the Public Use Samples of censuses from 1940 to 1980. "The finding is that the situation in 1980 is greatly different from the situation in 1940, when the vast majority of married women were completely dependent on spouses for economic support. Today, completely dependent wives constitute a distinct minority. Minority women have been less dependent than white women thoughout this period. Married women become less dependent as they grow older, owing in part to the Social Security benefits that accrue to them regardless of work-force participation. A multivariate analysis pinpoints the source of most marital dependency as being the labor supply of married women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:10659 Taylor, Jeffrey R. China: consumer demand statistical update. CIR Staff Paper, No. 31, Oct 1987. 182 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is a compendium of statistical tables on consumer demand in China, covering the period 1949 to 1985....Data are presented at both the national and provincial levels for the following concepts: household size and composition; income and wages; consumption levels, by commodity; retail sales, by commodity; ownership of durable goods; and housing. Differences between urban and rural living standards are clearly delineated by separate tables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10660 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Male-female differences in work experience, occupation, and earnings: 1984. Current Population Reports, Series P-70: Household Economic Studies, No. 10, Aug 1987. iv, 45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents data on differences between men and women in lifetime labor force attachment, occupation, and earnings. The information was collected from a sample of approximately 20,000 [U.S.] households in May, June, July, and August 1984 as part of the Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10661 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Poverty in the United States, 1985. Current Population Reports, Series P-60: Consumer Income, No. 158, Oct 1987. v, 182 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents social and economic characteristics of the [U.S.] population below the poverty level in 1985 based on the March 1986 Current Population Survey (CPS)....The data in the report consist of cross classifications of poverty status by such characteristics as age, race, sex, family relationship, educational attainment, work experience, and type of income received. Although the primary focus of these data is on the United States as a whole, some tables are also shown by region and type of residence."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

54:10662 Avramov, Dragan. Population by educational level. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1986. 3-14 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
Trends in educational status in Yugoslavia are reviewed, based on data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The author notes that the 1981 census was the first to show the numbers of those with primary education to be greater than those with no education. Differences in educational progress by region are analyzed. The author also suggests that the areas of specialization of those proceeding to graduate studies do not correspond to the country's needs.
Correspondence: D. Avramov, Assistant, Centre for Demographic Research, Institute of Social Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10663 Olsen, Carolyn L. The demography of colony fission from 1878-1970 among the Hutterites of North America. American Anthropologist, Vol. 89, No. 4, Dec 1987. 823-37 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A demographic analysis of the growth of the Hutterite population in North America during the past century is presented. The emphasis is on the fission of colonies into mother and daughter communities and on changes over time in the size and composition of the respective communities.
Correspondence: C. L. Olsen, Diabetes Control Program, New York State Health Department, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12237. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

54:10664 Bean, Frank D.; Frisbie, W. Parker; Lowell, B. Lindsay; Telles, Edward E. The Spanish and Mexican origin populations in the American Southwest. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 9: 1987, No. 9.015, 1987. 40, [33] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
Population characteristics and trends among people of Mexican origin in the American Southwest are examined. The authors discuss population size and growth; geographic distribution and internal migration; socioeconomic conditions and trends, including education, labor force participation, and income; fertility and household and family structure; acculturation and language use; and immigration. U.S. census data for 1960, 1970, and 1980 are used.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10665 DellaPergola, Sergio. Demographic trends of Latin American Jewry. In: The Jewish Presence in Latin America, edited by Judith L. Elkin and Gilbert W. Merkx. Thematic Studies in Latin America, 1987. 85-133 pp. Allen and Unwin: Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in Jewish population size and composition in Latin America are discussed. "Although the principal data, estimates, and projections on Jewish population size will be presented, the chapter will also focus on aspects of internal sociodemographic stratification and change that are not directly related to Jewish population size. Most of the materials presented concern Jews in Argentina, whose demographic trends have decisively affected the total Jewish population balance in the region."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10666 Hirschman, Charles. The meaning and measurement of ethnicity in Malaysia: an analysis of census classifications. Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 46, No. 3, Aug 1987. 555-82 pp. Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The development of ethnic classifications in Malaysia is traced from 1871 to the present. The author asserts that changes in the measurement of ethnicity over time have reflected shifts in ideology and in the political economy.
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, Professor of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10667 Horn, R. V. Ethnic origin in the Australian census. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 4, No. 1, May 1987. 1-12 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This article discusses the Australian statistics of ethnic origin, collected under the headings of race and ancestry in the Australian census, with particular reference to conceptual precision and neutrality and to validity of results. It deals with European and non-European groups, but not with the special problems of counting the Australian aboriginal population."
Correspondence: R. V. Horn, 35 Johnson Crescent, Lane Cove, NSW 2066, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10668 Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R. English language skill acquisition, locational choice and labor market returns among the major foreign-born language groups in the United States in 1900 and 1980. Economic Development Center Bulletin, No. 87-12, Dec 1987. 28 pp. University of Minnesota, Department of Economics, Economic Development Center: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the possibility of English being displaced by another language in parts of the United States. Comparisons are made between the German-speaking population in 1900 and the Spanish-speaking population in 1980 using census data. Both similarities and differences, such as in spatial distribution, are considered. It is concluded that the survival and growth of non-English-speaking populations will depend on immigration trends, differential fertility, and the acquisition of English by immigrant children.
Correspondence: Economic Development Center, Department of Economics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10669 Jorge, A.; Moncarz, R. The golden cage--Cubans in Miami. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1987. 267-82 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The experience of Cuban immigrants in Florida is examined. The authors suggest that the reported success of this immigrant community has been greatly exaggerated. The social and other problems they face are described, and an assessment is made of their needs.
Correspondence: A. Jorge, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10670 Petersen, William. Politics and the measurement of ethnicity. In: The politics of numbers, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, 1987. 187-233 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a historical overview of the development of ethnicity as an element in U.S. statistics and the public and governmental pressures that have influenced it. The author traces shifts in the racial and ethnic composition of the United States since colonial times. He emphasizes the problems associated with the collection and presentation of data on ethnicity and seeks to determine the causes of inconsistency in ethnic classification. The impact of science, law, politics, and fiscal and technical restraints, on the classification of ethnicity is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10671 Robitaille, Norbert; Choiniere, Robert. The demographic growth of native peoples in Canada in the twentieth century. [L'accroissement demographique des groupes autochtones du Canada au XXe siecle.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 1, Apr 1987. 3-35 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"After presenting the various concepts defining the native peoples (registered and non registered Indians, Metis, Inuit), the authors examine the geographical distribution of the native populations in 1981, and their growth since 1901. The evolution of the age structure is also considered, and compared to the one observed for the Canadian population as a whole. Finally, the components of demographic growth (fertility, mortality, migration, ethnic and linguistic mobility) are analysed. Results show that the growth rate of the native populations is much higher than the rate of the total Canadian population. This is mainly due to higher, but rapidly declining, fertility rates."
Correspondence: N. Robitaille, Groupe de Recherche sur la Demographie Quebecoise, Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10672 Rosenwaike, Ira. A technique for determining Jewish population distribution in U.S. metropolitan areas. Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Summer-Fall 1986. 293-304 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes a method for estimating the numbers of the Jewish population in metropolitan regions of the United States using ancestry data from the 1980 census. Results are compared with data from local surveys for New York and Philadelphia.
Correspondence: I. Rosenwaike, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10673 Sandefur, Gary D.; Sakamoto, Arthur. American Indian household structure and income. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 71-80 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We use the 1980 Public-Use Microdata Sample to consider the relationship between household structure and economic well-being among American Indians. We focus on the total U.S. Indian population and on the residents of 19 'Indian states' where there has been relatively little growth in the Indian population by means of changes in racial self-identification. Using Sweet's (1984) scheme of household types, we find that the prevalence among Indians of female-headed households with children is intermediate between that among blacks and whites, but the prevalence of couple-headed households with children is highest among Indians. Racial differences in the distribution of household types and differences in average household size are important determinants of black-white and Indian-white differences in average household income."
Correspondence: G. D. Sandefur, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10674 Stevens, Gillian; Swicegood, Gray. The linguistic context of ethnic endogamy. American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 1, Feb 1987. 73-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Because ethnic endogamy promotes the transmission of the groups' cultural attributes to younger generations, it perpetuates ethnic descent groups. Yet demographic and social contexts of marriages can alter levels of ethnic endogamy. Though this study examines aspects of the demographic environment, it emphasizes the extent to which the language characteristics of the ethnic group members and their enviroment are associated with ethnic endogamy [in the United States]. Based on the 1976 Survey of Income and Education, the analysis shows strong relationships between endogamy and ethnic group size and geographic segregation. Moreover, ethnic endogamy is also associated with the relative size and vitality of the embedded non-English language subgroup. These results underscore the importance of non-English languages as sources of ethnic group cohesion and continuity."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 397).
Correspondence: G. Stevens, Department of Sociology, University of Illinois, 702 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10675 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1986 and 1987 (advance report). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 416, Aug 1987. 15 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents advance data and shows changes in selected demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Hispanic population of the United States since 1982." Data are from the March 1986 and 1987 supplements to the Current Population Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10676 Weller, Robert H.; Serow, William J. Indirect estimates of the birth and death rates and age-sex composition of Palestinian refugees. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 29, Dec 1986. 5-20 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
Fertility, mortality, and age and sex distribution among Palestinians living in Jordan, the West Bank, Gaza, Lebanon, and Syria in the 1970s are examined. Indirect estimation techniques developed by Preston are used to estimate crude birth and death rates, population size, and age and sex composition for each of the five geographical areas. The estimates are compared with figures from the registers maintained by the U.N. Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA).
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 415).
Correspondence: R. H. Weller, Center for the Study of Population, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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