Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

54:10505 Connell, John. Migration, rural development and policy formation in the South Pacific. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1987. 105-21 pp. Oxford, England/Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
This paper examines the reasons for migration in the South Pacific region and the impact of migration on rural development. Consideration is also given to the policies that have been or should be developed in order to encourage rural development and thereby reduce migration flows from rural areas.
Correspondence: J. Connell, Department of Geography, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10506 Cushing, Brian J. A note on specification of climate variables in models of population migration. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1987. 641-9 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"In the literature on population migration, increasing attention has been devoted to quality-of-life factors. Measures of temperature (as proxies for climate) have frequently been employed in empirical work regarding the determinants of population migration decisions. A wide range of such specifications have been used, most of which imply restrictions on the preferences of migrants. In this paper, a variety of temperature variable specifications are analyzed and interpreted. Statistical tests for nested and nonnested hypotheses are used to compare and choose among the various specifications." The model is used to analyze interstate migration in the 48 contiguous states of the United States for the period 1975-1980.
Correspondence: B. J. Cushing, Assistant Professor of Economics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10507 Dabla, Bashir. Migration and its sociological impact in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 29, Dec 1986. 77-92 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
Demographic developments in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait since World War II are reviewed using data from governmental, international, and other published sources. Following an overview of trends in population size and distribution, attention is focused on internal and international migration and the associated social, economic, and political implications. The concentration of immigrants in cities, migrants' occupations, acculturation, and the security concern arising from the volume of immigration flows are briefly discussed.
Correspondence: B. Dabla, Department of Sociology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10508 Duarte, Renato. Rural employment and migration in Latin America. [Emprego rural e migracoes na America Latina.] Serie Cursos e Conferencias, No. 24, ISBN 85-7019-108-1. 1986. 204 pp. Fundacao Joaquim Nabuco: Recife, Brazil. In Por.
These are the proceedings of a conference on rural employment and migration in Latin America, held in Recife, Brazil, October 29-31, 1984. The majority of the papers concern Brazil, but papers are also included on migration in Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador. Considerable attention is given to questions concerning rural-urban migration.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10509 Havet, Jose. The village and the shantytown: retention and migration of the rural populations of Africa. [Le village et le bidonville: retention et migration des populations rurales d'Afrique.] Developpement International, No. 2, ISBN 2-7603-3313-2. 1986. 252 pp. Editions de l'Universite d'Ottawa/IDIC: Ottawa, Canada. In Fre.
This publication includes 11 presentations delivered at a conference, organized by the Institute of International Development and Cooperation at the University of Ottawa in 1981, on migration of African rural populations, particularly rural-urban migration. After a theoretical framework on the issue, some case studies are presented concerning Malawi, South Africa, and Zambia. Also discussed are health and education issues and their impact on migration from rural areas as well as national development rural programs. The primary focus is on steps that can be taken to persuade people not to migrate from rural areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10510 Jagielski, Andrzej. Migration and demographic processes: theoretical reflections. [Migracje a procesy demograficzne: refleksja teoretyczna.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 79-95 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A general introduction to migration theory is presented. The author distinguishes international and internal migration and considers the implications of this distinction for demographic and geographical studies. The effects of in-migration, including labor force migration, refugees, and rural-urban migration, are assessed. Finally, the author examines the impact of migration in Poland.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10511 Lebris, Emile; Pontie, Guy; Quesnel, Andre; Gregory, Joel; Duquette-Ahado, M.-Therese; Vignikin, Kokou. Togolese migration: current and future trends. [Migrations togolaises: bilan et perspectives.] 1986. 385 pp. Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique: Lome, Togo. In Fre.
This report attempts to summarize research undertaken over the past 20 years on migration in Togo and to present some guidelines for future research. It consists of 15 papers by various authors, which concern both internal and international migration and rural-urban migration, as well as case studies of the migration of specific groups.
Correspondence: Unite de Recherche Demographique, Universite du Benin, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10512 Panagariya, Arvind; Succar, Patricia. The Harris-Todaro model and economies of scale. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 52, No. 4, Apr 1986. 984-98 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors attempt to reanalyze the Harris-Todaro migration model in the presence of economies of scale in the manufacturing sector, focusing on economies of scale that are external to a given firm but internal to the industry.
Correspondence: A. Panagariya, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10513 Parasuraman, S. Migration and its effect on the family. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 47, No. 1, Apr 1986. 1-14 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The number of Indians undertaking internal and international migration is increasing consistently over a period of time though the proportion of migrants to the total population is relatively low in India. The paper examines the volume and streams of internal and international migration and tries to estimate the incidence of conjugal separation. The impact of migration on the family is assessed in the context of conjugal separation and also in those situations where the entire family moves out of the place of origin. Social, psychological, and economic impact on the family, resulting in consequence of migration, is analysed at length. A few areas are also suggested for further research."
Correspondence: S. Parasuraman, Unit for Child and Youth Research, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10514 Rao, M. S. A. Studies in migration: internal and international migration in India. ISBN 81-85054-08-8. LC 86-902753. 1986. x, 400 pp. Manohar: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of 12 papers by different authors prepared for a workshop on migration in India. The book begins with an examination of aspects of the sociology of migration in India. The next two sections contain four papers on rural-urban migration and urbanization. Sections are also included on peasant and labor migration in rural areas and on tribal migration. A final section examines Indian migration to South Africa and England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10515 Rybakovskii, L. L. Population migration: projections, factors, policy. [Migratsiya naseleniya: prognozy, faktory, politika.] 1987. 199 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This work is concerned with the study of migration, with particular reference to the situation in the USSR. The migration process is analyzed, with attention given to migration as an object of social management, methods of forecasting migration, and the study of the causes of migration. Consideration is also given to the theory of migration behavior and to migration policies and their effectiveness.
Location: Princeton University Library.

54:10516 Stark, Oded; Sirageldin, Ismail. Migration, human capital and development. Research in Human Capital and Development, Vol. 4, ISBN 0-89232-416-3. 1986. xiv, 177 pp. Jai Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of six studies by various authors on migration, human capital, and development. Several of these papers were previously published as working papers by the Migration and Development Program at Harvard University.
Two of the papers, not previously published, are cited elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10517 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Geographical mobility: 1985. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 420, Dec 1987. iv, 67 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents official data collected in March 1985 on geographical mobility in the United States. Consideration is given to "the volume and rate of movement, changes in the types of movement, the characteristics of movers, and changes in interregional patterns of population movement. The report's detailed tables provide data on these and additional subjects." Other topics covered include migration from abroad and five-year migration patterns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10518 Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Tisna P. A. Migration and household reproduction: a study among the Bissa of Burkina Faso. Pub. Order No. DA8718195. 1986. 307 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and rural household reproduction among the Bissa of Burkina Faso is examined. "This dissertation demonstrates that migration does not affect all households equally, and that the benefits or negative consequences which result from movement by their members are determined by the specific characteristics of each household and by the internal dynamics existing between its members."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(5).

54:10519 Zaba, Basia. Measurement of emigration using indirect techniques: manual for the collection and analysis of data on residence of relatives. ISBN 2-87040-040-3. 1986. 199 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This manual, which is also published in Spanish, is on indirect methods of estimating emigration. In particular, it is concerned with two methods developed by members of the IUSSP Working Group on the Methodology for the Study of International Migration, one based on the residence of children, the other based on the residence of siblings. The manual is based on data from the 1981 Barbados Experimental Migration Survey, in which these two methods were tested, and on the work of a seminar held in May 1982 to discuss the results of the survey. The author draws on materials from papers presented at the seminar on theory and methodology; describes the fieldwork, data processing, and analysis; and illustrates specific points with data from the Barbados survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

54:10520 Bean, Frank D.; Baker, Susan G.; Lowell, B. Lindsay; Taylor, Lowell J. Mexican immigration and the earnings of other workers: the case of undocumented females. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 9: 1987, No. 9.014, 1987. 24, [13] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of undocumented and legal male and female Mexican immigrants on the earnings of other workers in geographical (or local) labor markets in the [U.S.] Southwest. Estimates are first presented of the number of undocumented Mexicans included in selected markets in 1980....We then estimate the parameters of two alternative specifications of a Generalized Leontief production function in which various demographic groups (including undocumented Mexicans) are treated as substitutable factors. The results reveal that the statistically significant effects of undocumented Mexican immigrants on the earnings of other labor force groups tend to be positive, although these are of slight magnitude."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10521 Bender-Szymanski, Dorothea; Hesse, Hermann-Gunter. Migration studies: a critical analysis of empirical research in the German language from a psychological point of view. [Migrantenforschung: eine kritische Analyse deutschsprachiger empirischer Untersuchungen aus psychologischer Sicht.] Studien und Dokumentationen zur Vergleichenden Bildungsforschung, Vol. 28, 1987. 240 pp. Bohlau: Cologne, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Selections from empirical migration research published in German are reviewed, with a focus on migration from a psychological point of view. Sections are included on cultural contact, employment orientation and the process of choosing a job, foreign children's level of success in school, a model for the sociology of the guest worker problem, the interpretation of differences as deficits, the interpretation of deficits as being caused by deprivation, and acculturation. The geographic focus is on the Federal Republic of Germany.
Correspondence: Bohlau-Verlag, Niehler Strasse 272-274, Postfach 600180, D-5000 Cologne 60, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

54:10522 Bory, Valerie. Get out! From the harassment of Italians to fear of refugees, 1896-1986. [Dehors! De la chasse aux Italiens a la peur des refugies, 1896-1986.] En Suisse, ISBN 2-8289-0269-2. 1987. 155 pp. Pierre-Marcel Favre: Lausanne, Switzerland. In Fre.
The changing attitudes and behavior of the Swiss population toward foreigners in Switzerland are examined from 1896 to 1986. The author notes the periodic outbreaks of antagonism toward foreigners, most recently concerning foreign workers in the 1960s and refugees in the 1980s. The practical implications of such outbreaks for Swiss migration policy and for migration trends are considered.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10523 Brecher, Richard A.; Choudhri, Ehsan U. International migration versus foreign investment in the presence of unemployment. Journal of International Economics, Vol. 23, No. 3-4, Nov 1987. 329-42 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper extends the standard (two-factor, one-good) model of international factor movements, to include unemployment due to a minimum-income guarantee within the capital-abundant country. From this country's perspective, we establish important departures from previous (full-employment) results. Most notably, our analysis shows that: (1) free factor mobility is worse than no mobility; (2) the optimal degree of labour migration is zero; and (3) national welfare can always be maximized by an optimal flow of capital. The analysis is then extended to examine: (1) illegal migration; (2) subsidization of employment; and (3) alternative views of unemployment."
Correspondence: R. A. Brecher, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10524 Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada (Ottawa, Canada). Profiles of Canadian immigration. [Profils de l'immigration au Canada.] Pub. Order No. MP23-82/1987. ISBN 0-662-55449-3. 1987. 34, 34, [5] pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This booklet contains explanatory text accompanying a set of posters presenting demographic profiles of immigration to Canada. Data are included on immigration and population change; components of population change, 1951-1986; immigrant characteristics; immigrant origins; settlement of immigrants in Canada; and scenarios for long-term population growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10525 Chowdhury, Osman H. Labour migration to the Middle-East: an Asian perspective. Asian Profile, Vol. 15, No. 1, Feb 1987. 73-91 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
A review of trends and patterns of labor migration from Asia as a whole to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East is presented, the emphasis being on the impact of this migration for the countries of origin. The geographical focus is on India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. Data are taken from published sources. The author notes the financial benefits of remittances for the countries of origin, and the development of policies in those countries to encourage and regulate contract migration and to maximize utilization of remittances.
Correspondence: O. H. Chowdhury, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

54:10526 Clark, Don P.; Thompson, Henry. Immigration, international capital flows, and long run income distribution in Canada. Atlantic Economic Journal, Vol. 14, Dec 1986. 24-9 pp. Edwardsville, Illinois. In Eng.
"A five sector general equilibrium model is used to derive the long-run income distributional consequences of immigration and capital flows in Canada."
Correspondence: D. P. Clark, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10527 Cox, David. South Pacific migration and Australia. Australian Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 21, No. 2, May 1986. 143-50 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"Historically Australia has had, and continues to have, important links with the South Pacific. As emigration has become a growing necessity for South Pacific Islands, Australia has become involved as a receiving country of both legal and illegal immigrants from the region. A recent study of the social consequences of emigration in Fiji, Tonga and Western Samoa raises several important issues for Australia, and another study of South Pacific Islanders in Melbourne raises equally important questions. This paper summarises briefly the nature of those issues and suggests that this is an area of welfare requiring considerable attention."
Correspondence: D. Cox, Department of Social Studies, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10528 del Castillo, Jose; Georges, Eugenia; Bray, David; Grasmuck, Sherri; Gurak, Douglas; Kritz, Mary; Pessar, Patricia; Mitchel, Christopher. Dominican immigration in the United States. [La inmigracion dominicana en los Estados Unidos.] 1987. 200 pp. Universidad APEC: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Editorial CENAPEC: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
This work is the product of a seminar, held April 27-29, 1983, in Santo Domingo, which brought together scholars from the United States and the Dominican Republic to discuss aspects of migration to the United States from the Dominican Republic. The quantitative aspects of this migration are assessed first. The impact of out-migration on areas of high emigration and on the economy as a whole in the country of origin is examined next. A final section examines the situation of migrants in the United States.
Correspondence: Editorial CENAPEC, Av. Maximo Gomez No. 72, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: New York Public Library.

54:10529 El-Sakka, Mohamed I. T. Migrant remittances and the balance of payments: the Egyptian case. Dirasat Sukkaniyah/Population Studies, Vol. 13, No. 74, Jan-Mar 1987. 87-103, [55-6] pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
The economic impact on the Egyptian economy and balance of payments of remittances from Egyptians working abroad is analyzed. The results indicate that the overall effect on the Egyptian economy is positive.
Correspondence: M. I. T. El-Sakka, Faculty of Commerce for Foreign Affairs, Helwan University, 7 Moderiet El-Tahir Street, Garden City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10530 Fox, Marc; Stark, Oded. Remittances, exchange rates and the labor supply of Mexican migrants in the U.S. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 33, Nov 1987. 16 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper assumes that migrants derive utility from their own consumption, their own leisure and remittances to their family. It hypothesizes that the labor supply and remittances of Mexican migrants in the U.S. are jointly determined. Shifts in real exchange rates affect the cost of sending a given real volume of remittances back to the family in the sending country. This in turn induces income and substitution effects on both remittances and labor supply. It is argued that the substitution effect would dominate. Therefore, under reasonable conditions, a real depreciation of the peso should lead to an increase in both remittances and labor supply. Empirical work using U.S. Census data and a data set containing information on Mexican migrants in the U.S. lends support to the theoretical predictions."
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10531 Galor, Oded; Stark, Oded. The impact of differences in the levels of technology on international labor migration. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 34, Nov 1987. 20 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper we analyze the pattern of international labor migration in a two-country world where one country's production technology is superior to that of the other country. We exploit an overlapping generations model which enables us to trace the relevant dynamic considerations. We find that in the absence of international capital movements labor will migrate from the technologically-inferior to the technologically-superior country except for one specific case which we explicate fully....We also examine the welfare implications of migration when capital mobility is not allowed. We find that migration has no effect on the welfare of the non-migrant."
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10532 George, Pierre. Immigration in France: facts and problems. [L'immigration en France: faits et problemes.] ISBN 2-200-37110-1. 1986. 168 pp. Armand Colin: Paris, France. In Fre.
Questions and problems concerning the presence of a substantial immigrant population in France are reviewed. Immigration is first considered in the context of the European situation as a whole. The author then presents a statistical analysis of the immigrant population in France and its labor force experience. The particular problems raised by the concentration of immigrants in specific areas of the major urban centers are then discussed. The book concludes with a review of the ethical and political issues raised by the immigration situation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10533 Goddard, R.; Sparkes, L. The demographic effects of immigration. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 4, No. 1, May 1987. 13-42 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the demographic consequences of immigration. The impact of immigration on population growth, population composition--by birthplace, age, sex, and marital status, and population distribution are briefly analysed. It is shown that the composition as well as the size of the intake is important. Five series of projections are presented to demonstrate the sensitivites of demographic trends to immigration policy changes." The data are for Australia for the period from the 1940s through the mid-1980s.
Correspondence: R. Goddard, Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, P.O. Box 25, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10534 Gunatilleke, Godfrey. Migration of Asian workers to the Arab world. Pub. Order No. E.86.III.A.2. ISBN 92-808-0555-X. 1986. v, 358 pp. United Nations University: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a compilation of papers by various authors on aspects of labor migration from Asian countries to the Arab region. It reports the present status of migration from seven countries, including the numbers involved, migrant characteristics, employment and occupations, income and remittances, and problems associated with the return home. Separate chapters are included on Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The book takes a comparative approach and is based on official and other published data for the countries concerned.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10535 Houghton, D. S. Immigration in Canada and Australia: some recent parallels. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 4, No. 1, May 1987. 43-55 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"Canada and Australia share many similar post-war demographic characteristics. Both countries have experienced declining rates of natural population growth and adopted increasingly restrictive attitudes towards immigration during the 1970s in the face of rising unemployment. However, both countries have accepted relatively large numbers of political refugees, particularly from south-east Asia, and both have signalled that they intend to raise their migrant intake quotas despite continuing high levels of unemployment."
Correspondence: D. S. Houghton, Department of Geography, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10536 Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R. What's in a name? Country-of-origin influences on the earnings of immigrants in the United States. Research in Human Capital and Development, Vol. 4, 1986. 75-106 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we focus on the migration-related processes that may lead to the well-documented differences in earnings and in naturalization rates across country-of-origin groups in the United States. Our theoretical framework examines how the forces of selectivity associated with the decisions by residents of non-U.S. countries to migrate to the United States and with the decisions by foreign-born U.S. residents to remain in the United States are influenced by country conditions and are reflected ultimately in the observed earnings differences among the 'survivors' of these processes who are enumerated in U.S. sample surveys. In particular, we assess how economic conditions, origin-country attractiveness, costs of migration, the quantity and quality of information, and the country-specific restrictions of U.S. immigration law influence both who migrates to and, among the migrants, who remains in the United States. The framework is applied to two U.S. data sets--a sample of the foreign born in the 1980 Census and a sample from the 1971 cohort of legal immigrants."
Correspondence: G. Jasso, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10537 Kapsoli, Wilfredo; Bonfiglio Volpe, Giovanni; Rodriguez Pastor, Humberto; Morimoto, Amelia; Hunefeldt, Christine; Luciano, Jose C.; Fukumoto, Mary. First seminar concerning immigrant populations. Proceedings, Lima, May 9-10, 1986. Volume 1. [Primer seminario sobre poblaciones inmigrantes. Actas, Lima, 9 y 10 de mayo de 1986. Tomo 1.] 1987. 234 pp. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a seminar on immigration in Peru. The volume contains seven papers by different authors concerning immigration from various parts of the world, including Africa, Europe, China, and Japan. Consideration is given to the integration of immigrants. Both nineteenth- and twentieth-century immigrations are discussed.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10538 Katz, Eliakim; Stark, Oded. International labour migration under alternative informational regimes: a diagrammatic analysis. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 31, Aug 1987. 28 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper sets out to model the interaction between international labour migration and asymmetric information when workers possess, at least for a while, more information than some of their employers....In Section II we present our basic model and derive the likely migratory patterns under public or symmetric (full) information. In Section III we consider the effects of asymmetric information on migratory patterns within the context of our basic model. In Section IV we examine the impact of allowing employers, after a while, to identify individual workers' true productivities. In Section V we set out our main conclusions and outline some directions along which future research in this area may prove fruitful."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10539 Koch, H. Reinhard. Flight and exit from the German Democratic Republic: a comment on a familiar topic. [Flucht und Ausreise aus der DDR: ein Beitrag zum "Wohlbekannten"] Deutschland Archiv, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1986. 47-52 pp. Cologne, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The author discusses population movement out of the German Democratic Republic since 1945 and critically evaluates the sources of migration statistics. These include the official population statistics of the German Democratic Republic, official migration statistics from the Federal Republic of Germany, West German data acquired through the processing of refugees, and migration data from the West German population censuses of 1961 and 1970. Reasons for migrating, political motivation and implications, and the socioeconomic aspects of East-West migration are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10540 Lattes, Alfredo E.; Oteiza, Enrique; Garciarena, Jorge. The dynamics of Argentine migration (1955-1984): democracy and the return of expatriates. Pub. Order No. 86.13. 1987. xxiii, 142 pp. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [UNRISD]: Geneva, Switzerland; Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors concerning international migration affecting Argentina between 1955 and 1984. In the first three papers, two estimates of Argentine emigration during this period are provided; one is based on entrance and exit registers, the other on censuses and civil registers. The following chapter is concerned with the estimation of the volume and characteristics of this migration, based on data from foreign censuses. Two studies of Argentines in Mexico and Venezuela are included, containing analyses of migrant characteristics as well as estimates of the size of these migrant groups. In the final chapter, the author presents an "analysis of the way in which the media, notably the press, have dealt with the increasing emigration of Argentines, as well as with the emergence of a large community of expatriates based especially in certain Latin American countries, in North America, and in Europe, and with the return of Argentines to their home country." This publication is also available in Spanish.
Correspondence: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10541 Lesourne, Jacques. The immigration issue. Futures, Vol. 18, No. 6, Dec 1986. 738-47 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
"This article outlines the historical development of migration. It then discusses, with reference to two extreme scenarios, the future economic, religious and cultural effects of continued immigration." The focus is primarily on the future situation in Europe.
This is a translation of the French article in Debat, No. 37, Nov. 1985.
Correspondence: J. Lesourne, Professor of Economics, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10542 Lien, Da-Hsiang D. Economic analysis of brain drain. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1987. 33-43 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, we consider the brain drain problem arising from the possibility of signaling and individual's two-stage decision procedures within an asymmetric information framework. Where the ranking of the universities provides a signal to domestic employers, our results indicate that, at rational expectations equilibrium, there is an association between students of a particular quality and corresponding qualities of universities they will choose to attend to attain Ph.D.'s. Moreover, we can predict whether these graduating Ph.D.'s choose to return home or remain abroad."
Correspondence: D.-H. D. Lien, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10543 Lohrmann, R. Irregular migration: a rising issue in developing countries. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1987. 253-66 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The growing concern with illegal, or undocumented, migration in developing countries is described. The author notes that although such migration occurred in the past without causing concern, changing economic, political, and social factors since the 1970s have caused governments to attempt to control such flows. A review of regional trends is included, and the consequences of illegal migration for both countries of origin and destination are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10544 Ricketts, Erol. U.S. investment and immigration from the Caribbean. Social Problems, Vol. 34, No. 4, Oct 1987. 374-87 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"In this study, I use multivariate analysis of data for a sample of 18 countries to examine the relationship between growth in U.S. direct investment in Caribbean countries and immigration from the area during the 1970s. The results indicate countries which received more U.S. direct investment had higher rates of immigration after other important factors were controlled. I conclude by discussing the implications of this finding for economic policy in the Caribbean Basin."
Correspondence: E. Ricketts, Program in Sociology, City University of New York, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10545 Salt, J. Contemporary trends in international migration study. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1987. 241-51 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Recent trends in international migration are reviewed. Three major trends are identified: changes in the relationships between states due to the presence of a more or less permanent minority population from one state in the other; the flow of illegal migrants despite stricter immigration laws; and the growing problem of refugees and their impact on the migration policies of developed countries. The author reviews some theories concerning international migration and the role of institutions in the international division of labor.
Correspondence: J. Salt, Department of Geography, University College, London University, London, WC1E 7HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10546 Samuel, T. J.; Conyers, T. The employment effects of immigration: a balance sheet approach. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1987. 283-90 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The impact of immigration on unemployment in Canada is examined for the period 1983-1985. The authors attempt to construct a balance sheet of immigration in terms of labor supply and demand. They conclude that immigrants create more jobs than they fill, and that their net effect on the employment situation is positive.
Correspondence: T. J. Samuel, Employment and Immigration Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10547 Sergi, Nino. Foreign immigration in Italy. [L'immigrazione straniera in Italia.] Collana dell' Istituto Sindacale per la Cooperazione con i Paesi in Via di Sviluppo, No. 2, ISBN 88-7910-152-8. 1987. 295 pp. Edizioni Lavoro: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on aspects of foreign immigration in Italy. The first part contains three papers on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of this migration. The second part is concerned with legal aspects. The final part consists of two papers that look at the situation elsewhere in Europe and at attempts to develop policies to control immigration.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10548 Solonskaya, L. A. International migration of the labor force under conditions of contemporary capitalism. [Mezhdunarodnaya migratsiya rabochei sily v usloviyakh sovremennogo kapitalizma.] 1986. 142 pp. Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo Universiteta: Leningrad, USSR. In Rus.
The author investigates the process of international labor migration and analyzes the factors involved in its acceleration under conditions of contemporary capitalism. A Marxist evaluation of the state-monopolistic regulation of migration is presented. Topics considered include the socioeconomic conditions of immigrants, the conflicting consequences of international migration, and the strengthening of the class struggle of the proletariat.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10549 Stahl, Charles W. International labor migration: a study of the ASEAN countries. CMS Occasional Papers and Documentation, No. 6, ISBN 0-913256-91-9. LC 85-47917. 1986. xi, 67 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The extent of labor migration in the ASEAN region and its economic consequences are explored. The region includes Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. The countries that primarily export labor are first examined, consisting of the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. Next, the situation in Malaysia, which both exports and imports labor is reviewed. The final case study concerns Singapore, a labor-importing country. The hypothesized benefits to countries that export labor are critically reviewed, with a general concern with assisting those countries to maximize such benefits.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10550 Thalassinos, L. I. Income distributional effects on factor returns. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1987. 291-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this work an attempt [is] made to model the distributional effects of the brain drain in the recipient country in terms of an inflow of sector-specific skilled labor in a three factor, two goods model. Although only one variant of this model has been examined, it is sufficient to demonstrate its rich potentiality for purposes of immigration policy analysis relative to the traditional model and other modifications in the literature."
Correspondence: L. I. Thalassinos, Department of Economics, Piraeus Graduate School of Business Studies, 40 Karaoli and Dimitriou Street, Piraeus, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10551 United States. General Accounting Office [GAO] (Washington, D.C.). Immigration. The future flow of legal immigration to the United States. Pub. Order No. GAO/PEMD-88-7. Jan 1988. 128 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a report to the Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate. It "addresses some concerns that recent [U.S.] immigration has laid the basis for explosive growth in future legal immigration....This report seeks to (1) describe and analyze past patterns of legal immigration, (2) develop projections of the numbers and characteristics of legal immigrants in future years, (3) improve current knowledge about the immigration process as it concerns immediate relatives of U.S. citizens exempt from the annual numerical limits, and (4) assess the effect of the emigration of legal immigrants on net immigration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

54:10552 Bezdenezhnykh, V. A.; Khorev, B. S. Important shifts in urbanization and population migration in the European Socialist countries. [Sushchestvennye sdvigi v urbanizatsii i migratsii naseleniya v evropeiskikh sotsialisticheskikh stranakh.] Izvestiya Vsesoyuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, No. 6, 1986. 508-14 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Recent trends in internal migration in the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe are reviewed. The authors note a general decline in such migration over the past decade, as well as a decline in rural-urban migration and interurban migration. The process of urbanization continues, although the fastest rates of growth are observed in middle-sized towns. Some of the largest metropolitan areas have ceased to grow or have started to decrease in size.
Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

54:10553 Brown, Lawrence A.; Goetz, Andrew R. Development-related contextual effects and individual attributes in third world migration processes: a Venezuelan example. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 4, Nov 1987. 497-516 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines individual out-migration in Venezuela as a function of personal attributes and place characteristics indexing development, using logistic regression. The likelihood of out-migration varies inversely with age and directly with educational attainment and is higher for females and persons in places with more traditional socioeconomic structures and greater levels of population pressure; but place characteristics also effect the role of personal attributes. As a step toward elaborating a development-migration paradigm, of continuing concern is the proper representation of development and whether, in any case, development is only an artifact of public policy."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Department of Geography, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10554 Campbell, Eugene K. Internal migration in the western area of Sierra Leone: an exercise for policy formulation. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 1986. 86-101 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
"Most studies on internal migration in Sierra Leone are based on birthplace data, especially from the 1963 census. Considering the limitations of this type of data, analyses in this study are done from the place-of-previous residence data. This study concludes that migration to the Western Area is high and that several factors contribute to the patterns of migration. But the consequences in the city, especially rapid population growth, are the results of both recent and historical migrations. The difficulties in curbing the latent effect of historical migration makes it expedient that development policies which synchronize centralization and de-centralization of investments in Sierra Leone be implemented." The data used in this study are primarily from a 1975 sample survey of 22,231 people.
Correspondence: E. K. Campbell, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10555 Chang, Ching-fu; Hsieh, Kao-chiao. A study of occupational achievement of migrants to Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 10, Jun 1987. 167-201 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"Based on a survey of 452 migrants who moved into Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, in 1977, this paper tests two major hypotheses of occupational achievement within the context of migration. They are status attainment and information hypotheses. Using the Blau-Duncan basic model...[the author finds that] educational attainment of migrants is the most important factor in determining an individual's occupational achievement. More importantly, assistance from relatives has a negative effect on occupational achievement for rural migrants only."
Correspondence: C.-F. Chang, Department of Sociology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10556 Cheung, H. Y.-F.; Liaw, K.-L. Metropolitan out-migration of elderly females in Canada: characterization and explanation. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 19, No. 12, Dec 1987. 1,659-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Out-migration patterns of elderly females from the 23 Census Metropolitan Areas of Canada from 1971 to 1976 are analyzed using official data. The results suggest that environmental variables are more important than housing variables in determining the choice of destination.
Correspondence: H. Y.-F. Cheung, Department of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10557 Collins, Jane L. Migration and the life cycle of households in southern Peru. Urban Anthropology, Vol. 14, No. 4, Winter 1985. 279-99 pp. Brockport, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationships between migration and the life cyle of households in contexts where the economic activities of peasant families are increasingly diversified and where off-farm labor has come to form a vital part of subsistence strategies. Research from the department of Puno, southern Peru is used to explore the issues this raises including: (a) differences between externally induced economic differentiation and the life cycle dynamics of peasant households; (b) the differing migratory patterns of rich and poor households; and (c) the effects of migration on household labor supply and productive organization. The paper concludes by suggesting that for poor families, who exercise less control over the timing of the migratory process, migration may cause disruptive effects in [production], a reorientation of the household division of labor, and changes in reproductive decision-making."
Correspondence: J. L. Collins, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13901. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10558 Cook, Annabel K. Nonmetropolitan migration: the influence of neglected variables. Rural Sociology, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1987. 409-18 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"The recessionary period of the early 1980s coincided with a decrease in the growth rate of nonmetropolitan areas [in the United States] such that these areas are once again growing more slowly than metropolitan areas. The purpose of this research is to more clearly specify the key factors affecting net migration during this time. I compare the influence of variables used in past research (employment growth and diversity, commuting, retirement migration, income, unemployment, age structure, and adjacency) with the influence of two previously neglected variables (nonfarm self-employment and percentage of the labor force that is female) reflecting recent changes in the employment structure of the United States. Results suggest that for the early part of this decade, these new variables are more important determinants of nonmetropolitan migration than are past variables."
Correspondence: A. K. Cook, Cooperative Extension and Department of Rural Sociology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4006. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10559 Cuba. Comite Estatal de Estadisticas. Instituto de Demografia y Censos (Havana, Cuba). Census of population and housing, 1981: studies on internal migration. [Censo de poblacion y viviendas, 1981: estudios de las migraciones internas.] Feb 1984. 209 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Internal migration in Cuba is analyzed based on 1981 census data. Consideration is given to volume, intensity, and direction of migration; migrant characteristics; and socioeconomic factors associated with migration.
Location: U.N. Statistical Reference Collection, New York, NY.

54:10560 Dean, Ken G. Interregional flows of economically active persons in France, 1975-1982. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 81-98 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Recent net interregional migration into southern and western France is widely appreciated, but much less is known about the composition of these flows in terms of the occupational characteristics of economically active migrants. Using results from the 1982 census, this article disaggregates net flows to reveal inflows and outflows of migrants defined by gender and occupational groups. Important differences between these groups with regard to absolute flows and geographical mobility are uncovered and discussed in relation to the new spatial division of labor perspective on counterurbanization."
Correspondence: K. G. Dean, College of St. Mark and St. John, Plymouth PL6 8BH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10561 Falaris, Evangelos M. A nested logit migration model with selectivity. International Economic Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1987. 429-43 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
A multiple-choice migration model with selectivity is presented and applied to data from the 1971 census of Venezuela. The model includes two innovations, involving a correction for the presence of selectivity in wage equations in the context of a multiple-choice migration model and a less restrictive technique for modeling multiple discrete choices. The results indicate that there is evidence of selectivity in some state-wage equations and that wages influence migration in Venezuela.
Correspondence: E. M. Falaris, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10562 Fotheringham, A. Stewart. Hierarchical destination choice: discussion with evidence from migration in the Netherlands. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 69, Feb 1987. ix, 46 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the process by which migrants select the choice of migration destination. In particular, "it is hypothesised that due to a lack of information on many destinations, migrants make destination choices hierarchically or sequentially. This hypothesis is contrary to the standard assumption in destination choice modelling that individuals make a choice only after simultaneously evaluating all possible destinations. Following a general discussion of hierarchical destination choice, four models are examined in terms of their utility in analysing this process. Two of these models are compared both theoretically and empirically and from the theoretical comparison a method is identified by which the presence of hierarchical destination choice can be detected. This method involves an examination of the spatial pattern of origin-specific, distance-decay parameter estimates obtained in the calibration of a multinomial logit choice model." 1982 internal migration data from the Netherlands are used to demonstrate the presence of hierarchical destination choice.
Correspondence: NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, Lange Houtstraat 19, 2502 AR, The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10563 Grenier, Gilles. Earnings by language group in Quebec in 1980 and emigration from Quebec between 1976 and 1981. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 20, No. 4, Nov 1987. 774-91 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"Between 1976 and 1981 many people moved out of Quebec, especially anglophones. To the extent that a person's decision to stay or to move may be related to earnings prospects, earnings comparisons with individuals who lived in Quebec in 1981 may suffer from a selection bias. This paper analyses emigration from Quebec and earnings with a two-equation model, using a sample of men drawn from the from the 1981 [Canadian] census. It is found that a selection bias is indeed present for anglophones and that the returns to learning French may be underestimated when that bias is ignored."
Correspondence: G. Grenier, University of Ottawa, 550 Cumberland Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6NS, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10564 Heinzmann, Ute; Heidemann, Claus. Migration behavior of the population in selected rural areas using the example of the Neckar-Alb region. A short report on the results of a research project of the Institute for Regional Science of the University of Karlsruhe. [Umzugsverhalten der Bevolkerung in ausgewahlten landlichen Teilraumen am Beispiel der Region Neckar-Alb. Kurzbericht uber die Ergebnisse eines Forschungsvorhabens des Instituts fur Regionalwissenschaft der Universitat Karlsruhe.] Veroffentlichung der Forschungsgemeinschaft Bauen und Wohnen, Stuttgart, No. 159, LC 86-195573. 1985. 69, [4] pp. IRB Verlag: Tubingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a report on a research project concerning migration behavior in the Neckar-Alb region of the Federal Republic of Germany. The project was designed to investigate the reasons behind and context of shifts in the populations of rural areas and to provide information for regional development planning.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:10565 Hugo, Graeme. Some policy aspects of the relationships between internal migration and regional development in less developed countries with particular reference to Indonesia. CDS Discussion Paper, No. 9, ISBN 0-7258-0255-3. May 1985. 38 pp. Flinders University of South Australia, Centre for Development Studies: Bedford Park, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines aspects of the relationship between policy and internal migration in developing countries, with particular attention to Indonesia. "Internal migration is both caused by and has consequences for...inequalities in the spatial distribution of social and economic opportunities....At the outset the whole issue of policy intervention in migration systems to achieve developmental goals in Third World countries is discussed. This is followed by a brief consideration of the major ways in which internal migration is inter-related with regional development. Then an attempt is made to draw out some of the possible policy lessons from what little we know and understand about these internal migration-regional development linkages with reference to the case of Indonesia."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10566 McCracken, K. W. J. How many going where? Postcensal estimates of interstate migration in Australia, 1981-1986. Australian Geographer, Vol. 18, No. 2, Nov 1987. 176-9 pp. North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
Recent trends in internal migration in Australia are analyzed. The data on internal migration, derived from the Department of Social Security family allowance transfer records and the Australian Bureau of Statistics internal migration survey, are compared for the period 1981 to 1986.
Correspondence: K. W. J. McCracken, School of Earth Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10567 Morrill, Richard L. Migration regions and population redistribution. Growth and Change, Vol. 19, No. 1, Winter 1988. 43-60 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"Gross and net migration flows among...[U.S.] states for 1975-80 were used to define migration regions, or groups of states with similar patterns of net interchange. This typology may be characterized as a transition from a northeastern 'core' which lost to all other regions to a northwestern 'periphery' which gained from all other regions. Florida and California were found to have an important role in redistributing population. The typology was also valid for all age groups and across racial and ethnic categories. The typology remained meaningful when the 1975-80 data were compared to 1965-70 and 1980-85 data, despite great volatility in net migration and significant change in the placement of many states." Data are taken primarily from the 1980 census.
Correspondence: R. L. Morrill, Professor of Geography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10568 Mossello, Maria T. Territorial mobility of the Italian population. Trends, prospects, and possibilities of intervention. [La mobilita territoriale della popolazione in Italia. Tendenze, prospettive, possibilita di intervento.] Rivista Geografica Italiana, Vol. 93, No. 3, Sep 1986. 285-98 pp. Pisa, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Migration trends in Italy since the early 1970s are reviewed. The author notes that a change occurred during the 1970s away from south-north migration and migration to the largest cities toward migration to the northeast and center of the country and toward medium-sized cities. Furthermore, overall mobility declined, and short-range migration as a percentage of overall migration increased. The implications of these trends for spatial policy and the implications of a growth of immigration are considered.
Correspondence: M. T. Mossello, Faculta di Magistero, Istituto di Discipline Storico-Geografiche, Universita di Ferrara, Via Savonarola 9, 44100 Ferrara, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10569 Ochocki, Andrzej. The impact of migration on the distribution of labor resources in Poland between 1970 and 1983. [Wplyw migracji na rozmieszczenie zasobow pracy w latach 1970-1983.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 221, 1986. 136 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationship between migration and the socioeconomic characteristics of the labor force in Poland is examined. The focus is on the impact of urbanization on migration and on the resulting imbalances in the labor force in certain regions between 1970 and 1983. The importance of city size for the attractiveness of regional labor markets is noted.
Correspondence: Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10570 People's University of China. Department of Population Science. Student Survey Group (Beijing, China). An analysis of population flow in Miyun County. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1985. 34-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The authors survey population flows in the mountainous area of Miyun County, China, in 1984. Particular attention is given to the situation concerning surplus labor. Periodic and short-term migrations are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10571 Pfefferkorn, Friedrich. Peculiarities of social groups in migration behavior. [Besonderheiten sozialer Gruppen im Migrations verhalten.] Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, Vol. 131, No. 4, 1987. 249-54, 287-8 pp. Gotha, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Migration patterns in the German Democratic Republic are analyzed using data on 25,000 migrants from Leipzig and Schwerin counties. The focus is on differences in migration by social class.
Correspondence: F. Pfefferkorn, Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Institut fur Geographie und Geookologie, Georgi-Dimitroff-Platz 1, Leipzig 7010, German Democratic Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

54:10572 Rakowski, Witold. Migration of the population of Radom voivodship and its impact on the depopulation of agricultural areas. [Migracje ludnosci wiejskiej wojewodztwa radomskiego i ich wplyw na proces wyludniania sie terenow rolniczych.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 195, 1985. 239 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Migration from the Polish voivodship of Radom since World War II is analyzed. This voivodship is characterized by a low level of socioeconomic development and rural overpopulation. The different patterns of migration in locations with good and bad communications, or those near major urban areas, are noted. Differences in migration patterns by sex are also considered.
Correspondence: Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10573 Raymondo, James C. Who's on first? American Demographics, Vol. 9, No. 11, Nov 1987. 38-41, 61-2 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Internal migration patterns in the United States are examined using official population estimates for counties for 1986. Tables provide lists of the 25 counties experiencing the largest population gains and losses, in both absolute and percentage terms.
Correspondence: J. C. Raymondo, Center for Business and Economic Research, University of Alabama, University, AL 35486. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10574 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Stark, Oded. Consumption smoothing, migration and marriage: evidence from rural India. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 32, Sep 1987. 30 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Migration in rural India for the purpose of marrying is studied. The authors "hypothesize that the marrying out of daughters to locationally distant, dispersed yet kinship-related households, are manifestations of implicit inter-household contractual arrangements aimed at mitigating income risks and facilitating consumption smoothing in an environment characterized by information costs and spatially covariant risks. Analysis of longitudinal South Indian village data lends support to the hypothesis. Marriage cum migration contributes significantly to a reduction in the variability of household food consumption. Farm households afflicted with more variable profits tend to engage in longer distance marriage cum migration." The analysis is based on data collected between 1975 and 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10575 Sandefur, Gary D.; Tuma, Nancy B. How data type affects conclusions about individual mobility. Social Science Research, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1987. 301-28 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
The authors examine the implications of using different types of panel data to study individual mobility through empirical analyses of data on intercounty migration of white male household heads for 1975-1980 from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The consequences of different panel designs involving varying numbers and spacings of waves and of different timings of the measurements of explanatory variables are considered. "The results indicate that: (1) measuring the covariates at the end of an interval can be misleading, especially if these covariates are likely to change during the interval as a consequence of mobility; (2) a study of the mobility of a group of individuals during a single short interval can lead to different conclusions from a study of mobility of the same group of individuals during a single long interval; and (3) multiwave panel data have clear advantages over data from a single short interval or a single long interval."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: G. D. Sandefur, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, 3412 Social Science Building, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10576 Sharma, H. L. A probability distribution for rural out-migration at micro-level. Rural Demography, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1985. 63-9 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"Under certain simplifying assumptions an inflated geometric distribution has been proposed to study the trends in rural out-migration at micro-level. The distribution involves two parameters. A procedure for finding the estimates of parameters is outlined. Asymptotic expressions for variances and covariances of the estimates are obtained." An example is provided using 1978 survey data concerning 3,514 households near Varanasi, India.
Correspondence: H. L. Sharma, AICRP on Poultry Project for Eggs and Livestock Farm, Adhartal, J. N. Agricultural University, Jabalpur 482 004, MP, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10577 Slottje, D. J.; Hayes, K. J. Income inequality and urban/rural migration. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, Spring 1987. 53-6 pp. Clemson, South Carolina. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the consequences of [U.S.] migration trends from 1970-1980, focusing on the relationship of income inequality within a state with population shifts within and across states. Furthermore, we wish to determine if the movement of wealth and the changing employment opportunities [have] had any effect on the distribution of income within the four census regions and for urban and rural populations across all fifty states." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses.
Correspondence: D.J. Slottje, Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10578 Soepono, Prasetyo. Interprovincial migration in Indonesia: an economic analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8713484. 1987. 140 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"There are two kinds of interprovincial migration in Indonesia: government-sponsored migration (transmigration) and voluntary/spontaneous migration. The purpose of this study is to examine how far each of the variables of the Todaro migration model and its extended version affected the voluntary migration in Indonesia in 1971. This study also takes into account the effects of those variables on both the male and the female migrations separately."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Tennessee.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (48)3.

54:10579 Soffer, Arnon. Residential and internal migration patterns among the Arabs of Israel: issues in social geography. Monograph Series on the Middle East, No. 4, 1986. 64, viii pp. University of Haifa, Gustav Heinemann Institute of Middle Eastern Studies, Jewish-Arab Center: Haifa, Israel. In Heb. with sum. in Eng.
This publication presents three separate studies on the social and settlement geography of Arabs in Israel. The first study is concerned with residential patterns of Arabs in the Little Triangle region between 1949 and 1980. The second study examines Arab migration to Haifa and their spatial distribution in the city. The third deals with Arab migration to Jewish urban areas, using the example of Upper Nazareth.
Correspondence: Jewish-Arab Center, Gustav Heinemann Institute of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Haifa, 31999 Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10580 Stolarczyk, Krystyna. Socioeconomic factors affecting migration of the elderly in Poland. [Spoleczno-ekonomiczne czynniki warunkujace migracje osob w starszym wieku w Polsce.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 188, 1985. 210 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Migration of those over age 60 in Poland during the late 1970s is studied. The data are from a survey of 2,752 persons residing in seven voivodships. Comparisons are made between the elderly who did migrate and those who did not. In general, elderly migrants are older, female, single, of low educational status, and poor. Two types of migration are identified: that of the relatively affluent, who choose to migrate to improve the quality of their lives, and that of the relatively poor, who are driven to migrate, generally back to their rural areas of origin, by necessity. The need for appropriate social policy to assist migrants in this latter category is noted.
Correspondence: Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10581 Stpiczynski, Tadeusz. Internal migration of population in the years of fluctuating dynamics in the economic development of Poland. [Wewnetrzne migracje ludnosci w latach zmiennej dynamiki rozwoju gospodarczego Polski.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 177-89 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The impact of changing economic conditions on internal migration trends in Poland is reviewed from 1939 to the present. The author notes that the postwar period involved a trend toward migration from rural to urban areas. The 1950s and 1960s involved high levels of migration, although rural-urban migration did not reach its peak until the 1970s, in conjunction with economic growth. The economic difficulties of the 1980s have led to a decline in migration flows.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10582 Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki. Instytut Statystyki i Demografii (Warsaw, Poland). Socio-demographic and economic aspects of contemporary migration in Poland. [Spoleczno-demograficzne i ekonomiczne aspekty wspolczesnych migracji w Polsce.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 212, 1986. 361 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
These are the proceedings of a seminar on migration in Poland, held at Waszeta from May 31 to June 2, 1985. The 27 papers are organized under four main topics: the demographic, social, economic, and regional aspects of migration. The primary focus is on internal migration, but two papers are concerned with migration from Poland to the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the discussion that took place at the seminar is included.
Correspondence: Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10583 Wagner, Michael. Education and migration. [Bildung und Migration.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 45, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 97-106 pp. Cologne, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a study of the relationship between education and internal migration in the Federal Republic of Germany, specifically the influence of educational level on the likelihood and type of move. Theoretical considerations concern regional variations in education and type of employment, feelings about location and social factors, and values and awareness of options. The theory is applied to people in the birth cohorts of 1929-1931, 1939-1941, and 1949-1951. Size of town of origin, type of schooling and year completed, distance moved, and population density of towns of origin and destination are among the factors examined. It is found that level of education is a significant determinant of spatial mobility. Results of the interplay of specific factors are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10584 Wilson, Franklin D. Components of change in migration and destination-propensity rates for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas: 1935-1980. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 129-39 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article focuses on components of change in out-migration and destination-propensity rates of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas [in the United States]. The results indicate that changes in subgroup-specific rates were the driving force behind the changing patterns between and within these two areas. Composition effects played a secondary role, mainly counteracting the negative impact of changing rates. Although the rate of change in out-migration from metropolitan areas has been reduced and out-migration from nonmetropolitan areas declined during the most recent period, the propensity to select metropolitan areas increased over the period studied. Finally, rate-specific changes vary by age and education, indicating a change in migration's impact on population composition at origin and destination."
Correspondence: F. D. Wilson, Center for Demography and Ecology, Social Science Building, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10585 Wood, Lisa. The economic consequences of migration in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of the U.S. Pub. Order No. DA8714154. 1987. 317 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines the economic consequences of migration in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of the U.S. In order to do this a regional model is developed which incorporates economic base theory into a labor market analysis. An econometric two-sector regional model is estimated for the metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in each of the 9 Census regions of the U.S. using three stage least squares."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (48)3.

54:10586 Zagrobs'ka, A. F. Professional education and migration processes. [Profesiina osvita i migratsiini protsesi.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 50-8 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author discusses labor migration trends in the Ukrainian SSR, with emphasis on improving the supply of qualified workers in rural areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

54:10587 Mathieu, Jacques; Therrien-Fortier, Pauline; Lessard, Renald. Mobility and settlement: family strategies in New France. [Mobilite et sedentarite: strategies familiales en Nouvelle-France.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 1987. 211-27 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The factors affecting the decisions of French settlers in North America during the colonial period to stay put or to keep moving on are analyzed. The importance of family strategies in migration decisions is noted.
Correspondence: J. Mathieu, CELAT, Universite Laval, Cite Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10588 Morgan, Scott M.; Colson, Elizabeth. People in upheaval. ISBN 0-934733-17-1. LC 86-33354. 1987. viii, 241 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The 11 essays in this volume are the outcome of a year-long seminar at the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1983-1984. They are concerned with aspects of major population movement in the contemporary world, the emphasis being on refugees and their resettlement. Population groups covered include refugees from Laos, Viet Nam, Tibet, and the USSR; U.S. migrants from Mexico and South Korea; educated Chinese sent to rural areas during the Cultural Revolution; and transmigrants in Indonesia. A final essay considers eugenic aspects of early twentieth-century immigration to the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10589 United States. Committee for Refugees [USCR] (Washington, D.C.). World refugee survey: 1986 in review. ISBN 0-936548-05-4. 1987. 80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This annual report reviews the global situation concerning refugees for 1986. In addition to a selection of articles on issues and problems concerning refugees, it contains a selection of regional and country reports which include estimates of the number of refugees. A directory of organizations and a selective bibliography are also provided.
For a previous report concerning 1984, see 51:30564.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

54:10590 Basu, Alaka M.; Basu, Kaushik; Ray, Ranjan. Migrants and the native bond: an analysis of microlevel data from Delhi. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 19-21, May 1987. 145-54 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper studies the role of economic variables and culture in determining a migrant's decision to (a) return to his place of origin, and (b) remit money. It is based on a sample of nearly two thousand migrant households from Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, now living in a resettlement colony in Delhi. The data are used to examine many questions: Does ethnicity matter? How does the length of stay in Delhi affect a migrant household's propensity to return to its origin and its propensity to remit money? How does caste affect behaviour? Is there a connection between remittance and a household's income? The extent to which these variables are compatible with the economist's scheme of analysing migration and remittance is then explored."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

54:10591 Becker, Charles M.; Mills, Edwin S.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. Dynamics of rural-urban migration in India: 1960-1981. Indian Journal of Quantitative Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1986. 1-43 pp. Amritsar, India. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes a multi-sectoral simulation model of the Indian economy designed to isolate the sources of Indian economic growth and urbanization since 1960. The model shares many common traits with other computable general equilibrium (CGE) simulation models, and its underlying framework is neoclassical. The model stresses spatial issues so that it can provide predictions on rural/urban labor demands, and hence on migration flows. The central issue we seek to evaluate is whether a neoclassical development paradigm can explain adequately the somewhat paradoxical patterns of urbanization and economic growth observed in India since 1960. Our conclusion is a qualified, affirmative response, based on the model's ability to replicate key macroeconomic variables."
Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

54:10592 Chen, Xiangming. Magic and myth of migration: a case study of a special economic zone in China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1987. 57-76 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The town of Shenzhen, China, experienced rapid economic and demographic growth following the government's creation of four Special Economic Zones in 1980. The role of migration in the Shenzhen phenomenon is examined as a practicum for policymakers and demographic specialists. Specifically, the paper is concerned with "the sources and mechanisms of migration, and characteristics of migrants to Shenzhen in order to clarify the relationship between rapid economic growth and its demographic consequences in China. It also briefly assesses the problems associated with migration to Shenzhen and how they may affect the city's future."
Correspondence: X. Chen, Department of Sociology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10593 Costello, Michael A. Slums and squatter areas as entrepots for rural-urban migrants in a less developed society. Social Forces, Vol. 66, No. 2, Dec 1987. 427-45 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The author criticizes the conception that the majority of rural-urban migrants in developing countries are likely to settle in low-income neighborhoods immediately on their arrival in the city. Data from the Philippines are used to show that "migrants are neither heavily segregated in certain districts of the city nor particularly likely to settle in a slum community, with these findings persisting even when the sample was restricted to lower-status, rural-urban migrants. These patterns are chiefly attributable to heavy rates of inmigration among young married persons (especially females), many of whom reside in nonslum neighborhoods as servants, lodgers, or extended relatives."
Correspondence: M. A. Costello, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10594 Day, Richard H.; Dasgupta, Sudipto; Datta, Samar K.; Nugent, Jeffrey B. Instability in rural-urban migration. Economic Journal, Vol. 97, No. 388, Dec 1987. 940-50 pp. New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Following decades of large-scale, rural-urban migration in developing countries, the authors note the recent growth in reverse migration, or migration from urban centers to suburban or rural areas, which suggests that the labor market adjustment process may be unstable. "It is our purpose here to investigate the question of stability using some recent developments in nonlinear dynamic analysis and to do so within a framework which closely resembles the original Harris-Todaro model. We find that instability is indeed a possibility, and that regular or irregular, nonperiodic fluctuations can be propagated--even in the absence of any exogenous shocks. The source of these results is the lag in adjustment on labour markets combined with the nonlinearity of the labour supply function."
Correspondence: R. H. Day, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10595 Dematteis, Giuseppe. Urbanization and counter-urbanization in Italy. Ekistics, Vol. 53, No. 316-317, Jan-Apr 1986. 26-33 pp. Athens, Greece. In Eng.
Counter-urbanization in Italy is examined, using data from 1958-1964, 1968-1974, and 1974-1980 from a recent study by the Association of Italian Geographers. "The paper, divided into four parts, deals consecutively with an examination of the new patterns of dispersed demographic growth; a review of the factors involved in this phenomenon; a discussion of the principal spatial models which describe counter-urbanization; and finally an assessment of the more general significance--social and political--of the process."
Correspondence: G. Dematteis, Department of Urban and Regional Geography, Polytechnic of Turin, Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Press (UES).

54:10596 Ernste, Huib; Jaeger, Carlo. New trends in Swiss migration flows. Part 1: an overview of the literature on the phenomenon of counterurbanization. [Neuere Tendenzen schweizerischer Migrationsstrome. Teil 1: eine Literaturubersicht zum Phanomen der Entstadterung.] Geographica Helvetica, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1986. 111-6 pp. Zurich, Switzerland. In Ger.
A brief review of the literature on turnaround migration is presented. The implications of this review for the study of migration in Switzerland are considered.
Correspondence: H. Ernste, Gruppe Humanokologie, Geographisches Institut ETH, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: New York Public Library.

54:10597 Frenkel, Izaslaw; Rosner, Andrzej. Conceptions and attempts to classify the factors associated with migration from agriculture. [Pojecie i proba klasyfikacji czynnikow migracji z rolnictwa.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 115-29 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"This article is devoted to the specification of notions relating to migration from agriculture and contains an attempt at systematization of causative factors of this process." The authors present definitions for terms used in the analysis of such migration. Four groups of causative factors are identified: "factors forming external demand for a labour force from agriculture, factors forming balance of labour force in agriculture, income-social disparities between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors and psychosocial factors. Directions and character of influence of separate factors on migratory processes [are] discussed, with regard to the forms of organization of [the] agricultural economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10598 Kallan, Jeffrey E. The assimilation of internal migrants to large cities of the third world: a comparative study. Pub. Order No. DA8711124. 1986. 198 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation focuses on the occupational, housing, and social assimilation of male and female internal migrants to large Third World cities. The survey data used here were collected in Bangkok, Bogota, and Cairo by the Carolina Population Center and collaborating institutions in 1977 (and 1980). In each city, a detailed questionnaire and life-history module was administered to approximately 1,000 respondents, aged 18-55....To study assimilation, or the increasing similarity of migrants to nonmigrants over time in the city, the nonmigrants are used as a standard of comparison and a synthetic cohort approach is used to introduce the time variable....The consistent findings are that in each country and for males and females, farm-origin migrants attain lower levels of occupational status and housing facilities relative to nonmigrants, while nonfarm-origin migrants attain higher levels than the nonmigrants....The key variable in almost all analyses is educational attainment (in years)."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (48)2.

54:10599 Oucho, John O. Rural orientation, return migration and future movements of urban migrants: a study of Kisumu town, Kenya. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3-4, Aug-Nov 1986. 207-19 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents evidence to the effect that a large majority of urban migrants exhibit rural orientation and expect to return to their home areas on completion of their sojourns. It is based on a survey of 568 rural-urban migrants in Kisumu town, Kenya carried out in 1972-73. Evidence presented includes the fact that migrants consider their origins to be their homes; the presence of 'location-specific capital' in home areas induces migrants to return there eventually; periodic visits home help in sustaining kinship networks and reflect possible return migration; and it is difficult to identify the most preferred destination from the present one, although out-migrating from the former is inevitable. The expected future moves including return migration have far-reaching implications for rural development efforts in Kenya. The paper concludes that evidence presented is by no means limited to Kisumu; rather it is a fact most consistent with Kenya's present stage of demographic transition including mobility transition."
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10600 Perry, Ronald; Dean, Ken; Brown, Bryan; Shaw, David. Counterurbanisation: international case studies of socio-economic change in the rural areas. ISBN 0-86094-205-8. 1986. xiii, 246 pp. Geo Books: Norwich, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with counter-urbanization, which is defined as the tendency for households to move from urban to rural areas in developed countries. The work is in four parts. "In the first we explore some of the theoretical and methodological issues surrounding the concept of 'counter-urbanisation', as urban to rural movement is often called. The second part summarises the results of a major survey carried out by the authors into the economic, social and cultural effects of pre-retirement age migration into West Cornwall, an example of the turnaround from long-drawn-out population decline to sudden expansion. Section three examines some other regions in Britain, [Ireland], France and America that have undergone apparently similar experiences. In our final section we try to organise and interpret our findings as a guide for future action."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10601 Porpora, Douglas; Lim, Mah Hui. The political economic factors of migration to Bangkok. Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1987. 76-89 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
Political and economic factors affecting migration to Bangkok from the rest of Thailand are examined. The focus is on migration to the capital from the northeastern region.
Correspondence: D. Porpora, Department of Psychology and Sociology, Drexel University, 32nd and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10602 Shukla, Vibhooti; Stark, Oded. Urban external economies and optimal migration. Research in Human Capital and Development, Vol. 4, 1986. 139-46 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we utilize urban economics to identify socially optimal levels of urbanization and, by implication, optimal levels of rural-to-urban migration. Our analysis addresses, first, the case where there is only one urban center (region) in the economy and, second, where there are two. Since in this latter case inter-urban migration flows are possible as well, we examine the rationale underlying dispersal from the larger urban center to the smaller one. After identifying the reason that private actions do not add up to the social optimum, we offer an analysis of instruments that could confer efficiency gains by closing the gap(s) between the privately efficient and socially optimal urban concentrations."
Correspondence: V. Shukla, Department of Economics, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92634. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10603 Singh, J. P. Educational differentials in cityward migration in India. Man in India, Vol. 67, No. 1, Mar 1987. 23-35 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"This paper is intended to examine two propositions with regard to the educational characteristics of migrants to cities [in India]: Firstly, migration to urban areas is highly selective of educated persons. Secondly, most educated female migrants are more likely to be dependents of male migrants than workers at the place of destination. It is suggested that these two propositions hold differently in different cultural regions of India." Data are from the 1971 census.
Correspondence: J. P. Singh, Patna University, Patna 800 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10604 Skeldon, Ronald. Hong Kong and its hinterland: a case of international rural-to-urban migration? Asian Geographer, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1986. 1-24 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
"The historical background of migration to Hong Kong from China is reviewed. The focus is, however, on the 'wave' of migration that occurred in the late 1970s. Two distinct streams of migration are identified, legal and illegal, each with different characteristics." Data are primarily from official Hong Kong sources. The author notes the high levels of education among immigrants and the relative ease with which they have been absorbed into the labor force. "Political conditions in China are seen to be a major factor in explaining fluctuations in the volume of migration to Hong Kong. No relaxation of controls on future movement is seen as Hong Kong becomes part of China."
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, Lecturer in Geography, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: University of Iowa Library, Ames, IA.

54:10605 Vorlaufer, Karl. Female migration and social change in Africa. The case of Kenya. [Frauen-Migrationen und sozialer Wandel in Afrika. Das Beispiel Kenya.] Erdkunde, Vol. 39, No. 2, Jun 1985. 128-43 pp. Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Causes of the recent increase in female rural-urban migration in Kenya are investigated. "Reasons for this additional migration-wave are to be found in a general weakening of traditional values and authorities, the increasing land shortage and the resulting population pressure in the rural areas, which are factors that do in fact force women to migrate to towns." Comparisons are made with male migration flows. Regional differences in migration patterns are also noted. The author concludes that the increase in female migration is not a result of greater emancipation of women but rather a symptom of increasing poverty among Kenya's female population.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10606 Weidlich, Wolfgang; Haag, Gunter. A dynamic phase transition model for spatial agglomeration processes. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1987. 529-69 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
A nonlinear model of population migration is presented in order to provide a dynamic explanation for the formation of metropolitan areas. "In Section 2 the model is introduced in terms of the rate equations for the mean values of the regional population numbers with specifically chosen individual transition rates. Section 3 gives a survey of concepts and results for the convenience of the reader not interested in the details of the mathematical derivations. Section 4 derives the stationary solutions of the rate equations, that is, the equilibria of the system. Section 5 treats the time dependent solutions of the model equations focussing on the exact analytic solutions along so-called symmetry paths. Section 6 analyzes the dynamic stability of the symmetry path solutions and decides which stationary states are unstable and which are stable equilibrium states."
Correspondence: W. Weidlich, Professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Stuttgart, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Kepler Str. 7, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

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