Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

A. General Population Studies and Theories

Works of a general and comprehensive nature. Studies that are limited to well-defined problems of demography are cited under the relevant topic and are cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

A.1. General Population

Global population studies.

A.1.1. General Population--Long Studies

Comprehensive, book-length surveys of the present status of demography and its principal branches, including the historical development of these studies, analytical studies of demography as a whole, and global population studies.

54:10001 Caldwell, John; Caldwell, Pat. Limiting population growth and the Ford Foundation contribution. ISBN 0-86187-576-1. LC 85-16975. 1986. viii, 194 pp. Frances Pinter: Dover, New Hampshire/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines the contribution of the Ford Foundation in the field of population. Specifically, the authors examine the impact of the 45 million dollars the Foundation spent on the development of graduate education in the population field in the areas of social science and public health from 1960. The report describes the growth of the scientific study of population in the period between the two world wars, the first population programs in developing countries, and the efforts of institutions such as the Ford Foundation to promote the growth of such programs. Consideration is also given to the reasons for the decline in Ford Foundation support in the 1970s due to factors such as the decline of available funds, the growth of government funding, and the breakdown in the consensus regarding the role of population growth in the development process. The authors conclude by summarizing both what has been achieved and what remains to be done.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:10002 Hartmann, Betsy. Reproductive rights and wrongs: the global politics of population control and contraceptive choice. ISBN 0-06-055065-1. LC 86-46070. 1987. xv, 368 pp. Harper and Row: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is "a critique of the economic, political, health, and human rights consequences of population control as practiced by the U.S. population establishment, national governments, and international agencies." The author argues that the goal of reducing birth rates has distorted contraceptive development in the United States and undermined family planning programs in developing countries. She goes on to argue that the solution to population problems lies in the improvement of living standards, women's status in society, and the quality of health and family planning services. She suggests that programs should aim to expand rather than restrict individual reproductive choices. Topics covered include "the evolution of the U.S. population establishment, China's one-child policy, sterilization abuse in South Asia and Latin America, the neglect of barrier contraception and its potential beneficial role in the fight against AIDS, the Reagan Administration's attack on abortion rights overseas, and the impact of the reproductive rights movement on the population field."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:10003 Johnson, Stanley P. World population and the United Nations: challenge and response. ISBN 0-521-32207-3. LC 87-5126. 1987. xxxviii, 357 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book is about the challenge posed by the unprecedented growth of the world's population and the response which has been made to that challenge by the United Nations and its system of agencies. It focusses in particular on the creation, in 1969, of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the principal instrument for the United Nations' population programmes and on the work undertaken by the United Nations and its specialized agencies, including the World Bank, in this field. A substantial part of the book is devoted to discussing the actual achievements, in terms of demographic policies and falling birth rates, which have been realized in different parts of the developing world, with special emphasis being given to a discussion of recent events in selected countries of Asia (including China and India), Latin America and Africa. There are major chapters on the two international conferences on population which have been held during the period under consideration: namely the World Population Conference which took place in Bucharest in August 1974, and the International Conference on Population which was held in Mexico City ten years later."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.1.2. General Population--Short Studies

Short (fewer than 100 pages), general works on population and global population studies. Items on activities of research institutions in demography are also included.

54:10004 Strohbach, E. On the connection between demographic reproduction and population development. [Zum Zusammenhang zwischen demografischer Reproduktion und Bevolkerungsentwicklung.] Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1987. 161-2 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Extraordinarily divergent conceptions exist about the importance, cause and effect of an unsecured reproduction of the population. The spectrum of the misunderstandings and false interpretations covers the field from unjustified dramatisation to the total misjudging and ignoring...of those consequences which arise if the population of a country does not reproduce itself sufficiently for a long time."
Correspondence: E. Strohbach, Hochschule fur Okonomie "Bruno Leuschner", Sektion Sozialistische Volkswirtschaft, Wissenschaftsbereich Arbeitsokonomie, Lehrstule Demografie, Hermann-Duncker-Strasse, 8, Berlin 1157, German. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

A.2. Population Theory

Discussions of the main principles of demography and population theory not applied to actual data, including such concepts as Malthusianism, the demographic transition, overpopulation, optimum population, and stable and stationary population models as distinct from methodological studies and models using data, which are classified under N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models .

54:10005 Artzrouni, Marc. The rate of convergence of a generalized stable population. Journal of Mathematical Biology, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1986. 405-22 pp. Heidelberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The purpose of this paper is "to derive a measure of the rate of convergence to stability of an [age-structured] exponential population, and to see how the results specialize to the classical case of constant vital rates."
Correspondence: M. Artzrouni, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-1907. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10006 Coleman, David. Population regulation: a long-range view. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 14-41 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter is concerned with the ways in which populations adapt, or fail to adapt, their numbers and growth rates to their environment. Four main concepts are considered: the dissociation of demographic response from population pressure; the evolution of systems of population feedback and regulation and the adaptive nature of changes; the existence of a variety of feedback mechanisms, both positive and negative, and their development in different kinds of societies; and absolute limits to population size, on both regional and global scales, and the exogenous factors affecting them.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10007 Coleman, David; Schofield, Roger. The state of population theory: forward from Malthus. ISBN 0-631-13975-3. LC 85-26668. 1986. vi, 311 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is the product of a conference titled "Forward from Malthus: The State of Population Theory in 1984", held in Cambridge, England, in 1984. It consists of eight papers presented at the conference, supplemented by four additional papers. The purpose of the conference was to take stock of developments in population theory since Malthus's death and to see how far they could be unified. The emphasis is on external theory relating population processes to conditions in the world rather than on internal theory concerning the mathematical core of demography.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10008 Dasgupta, Partha. The ethical foundations of population policies. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 631-59 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Optimum population theory is considered as an aspect of social choice theory involving different number choices, which are defined as those that affect both the identities and numbers of future persons. "First, the genesis problem, in which all persons are assumed to be potential, was surveyed....Next, the discussion focused on the repugnant conclusion, which is implied by classical utilitarianism when applied to different number choices....The discussion further addressed various types of social welfare functions that violate the Pareto-plus principle when applied to different number choices and thus avoid the repugnant conclusion. The chapter then turned to actual problems concerning different number choices."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10009 Kreager, Philip. Demographic regimes as cultural systems. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 131-55 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter is concerned with population theory in the context of the social structures of traditional rural communities. The author begins by establishing why the study of rural social structures is of specific demographic interest today. The emphasis is on various strategies that individuals and groups pursue in order to adapt to changing demographic trends. The process by which social groups control their vital processes are seen as restricted demographic regimes that should be considered in their local context.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10010 Lee, Ronald D. Malthus and Boserup: a dynamic synthesis. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 96-130 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The compatibility of the macro-demographic population theories developed by Malthus and Boserup is examined. The author "examines the behaviour of a system governed by the mechanisms of both theories, and, in particular, considers the broad qualitative features of the dynamics of such a system." A theoretical analysis using the phase diagram indicates that a formal synthesis of the two theories is possible and provides a framework for analyzing historical population change.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10011 Lee, Ronald D. Population dynamics of humans and other animals. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 4, Nov 1987. 443-65 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the text of the Presidential Address presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. It is concerned with the concept of population equilibrium or homeostasis, and with density-dependent checks on human population growth. The concept of homeostasis is discussed. The author attempts to estimate the strength of homeostasis, or negative feedback, in human populations and to what extent density affects vital rates; the implications of this relationship are elaborated. The interaction of climatic change with demographic equilibrium is considered. The consequences of homeostasis for the contemporary world are examined, with specific reference to long swings in fertility as a manifestation of homeostasis. The author concludes that homeostasis has governed human population dynamics up to the nineteenth century, even though in a less obvious way than for animal populations. However, it disappeared during the course of economic development. The circumstances of its eventual return are considered.
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, Graduate Group in Demography and Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10012 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Endogenous population with public goods and Malthusian fixed resources: efficiency or market failure. International Economic Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Oct 1986. 601-9 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
A theoretical population model is developed, which takes into account both the desire of a nation for a large population for political and economic reasons, as well as the Malthusian pressures that suggest that there is a natural tendency toward overpopulation. The model assumes that parents care about both the number and well-being of their children. The results show that these two possible sources of externality do not lead to market failure, nor to unfettered, competitive individual decisions concerning childbearing that are detrimental to society.
Correspondence: M. Nerlove, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10013 Ng, Yew-Kwang. Social criteria for evaluating population change: an alternative to the Blackorby-Donaldson criterion. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 29, No. 3, Apr 1986. 375-81 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"An ethical objection is raised against the Blackorby-Donaldson criterion of optimum population maximizing the sum total of utilities in excess of some critical level, since it may disprefer a social state with more people and with more worthwhile lives. However, the criterion may serve as a practicably reasonable compromise between maximizing total and average utility. Nevertheless, an alternative compromise (the maximization of number-dampened total utility) is proposed that is free from the above objection."
Correspondence: Y. K. Ng, Department of Economics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3168 Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10014 Okolski, Marek. Reflections on the mechanism of demographic transition. [Refleksje nad mechanizmem przejscia demograficznego.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 33-46 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Some assumptions inherent in the concept of demographic transition are considered. "In accordance with many of these assumptions, reproduction of the population is characterized by homeostasis towards [the] ecological and social environment. Long-term ecological, social and demographic stability is reached as a result of the process of adaptation, in which births, deaths and migration, jointly or independently, play a main part. In this process numbers of births and deaths equalize in principle one another. The old stability is destroyed by processes connected with modernization and by establishment of the environment on [a] higher level than before...." The process of demographic transition is seen as an adaptation by the population to meet new conditions, primarily involving the control of fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10015 Piskunov, V. P.; Steshenko, V. S. Social monism in the study of population reproduction. [Sotsial'nii monizm u vivchenni vidtvorennya naselennya.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 16-24 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The study of population reproduction as a social process is examined, with emphasis on social monism as opposed to biosocial dualism.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10016 Schofield, Roger; Coleman, David. Introduction: the state of population theory. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 1-13 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is the introduction to a collection of 12 studies on various aspects of population theory. The complete work is the product of a conference on developments in population theory since Malthus, held in Cambridge, England, in 1984. The introduction includes a summary of the main points from each of the 12 studies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10017 Smith, R. M. Transfer incomes, risk and security: the roles of the family and the collectivity in recent theories of fertility change. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 188-211 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines Malthusian population theory in the context of the role of the family and society rather than the individual in controlling fertility. The emphasis is on the experience of Western Europe and of England in particular. Consideration is given to the ways government and local authorities intervened in times of dearth and to the demographic impact on both fertility and mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10018 Valentei, D. I. The fundamentals of population theory. [Osnovy teorii narodonaseleniya.] LC 86-218424. 1986. 374 pp. Vysshaya Shkola: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a revised edition of a textbook outlining Marxist-Leninist population theory and is authorized for use in the USSR. It includes a consideration of population issues in a variety of socioeconomic settings as well as a critique of bourgeois concepts in population studies.
For a previous edition, published in 1977, see 45:2030.
Location: Princeton University Library.

54:10019 von Tunzelmann, G. N. Malthus's "total population system": a dynamic reinterpretation. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 65-95 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author attempts to identify the core of Malthus's theoretical approach to population. "The main thrust of the present paper...is to sketch out a very simplified version of the 'total population system' to demonstrate that Malthus was pre-eminently concerned with the behaviour of that system when out of equilibrium, i.e. what happened when its long-run properties were disturbed." The author argues for "the relative unimportance of diminishing returns except as a long-run tendency, and the relative importance of short-run disturbances. These cyclical fluctuations occur both in the economic sphere and in the demographic, and their interrelationship is the core of the Malthusian model. My final section shows that the cyclical return to a subsistence equilibrium can be evaded by the exercise of 'prudential restraint', and this is why the latter is such a vital addition to the model when introduced into the second Essay."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10020 Wrigley, E. A. Elegance and experience: Malthus at the bar of history. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 46-64 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"I have attempted in this essay to subject some of the fundamental assumptions [Malthus] made in the first Essay, his postulata, to the test of modern historical knowledge of the behaviour of economic and demographic variables in England in the centuries immediately before he wrote. By his own criteria this is the most appropriate and searching test to be made. In the main Malthus stands the test well, though there are grounds for questioning some of the elements in his model which he believed to be sound: for example, the reality of declining marginal returns on the land, at least in the time scale of early modern history."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10021 Wu, Zhongguan. Issues on the strategy of population development. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1986. 2-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author discusses the strategy of population development based on the theory of Marxism. The strategy consists of three elements--the quantity, quality, and structure of population. Three theoretical issues are analyzed: the guiding ideology of the strategy of population development, the role of the strategy of population development in economic and social development, and the law and rules that should be followed in the strategy-making process.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.3. Interrelations with Other Disciplines

Interdisciplinary studies of demographic problems and studies of the interaction of demography with other disciplines. This coding is also used for reports, studies, and surveys from other disciplines that include information of demographic interest.

No citations in this issue.

A.4. Textbooks and Teaching Programs

Major demographic textbooks and teaching aids, general surveys and collections of readings that are particularly suitable as supplements to coursework, studies on the organization and coverage of training programs in demography, and selected items on population education.

54:10022 Blangiardo, Gian C. Elements of demography. [Elementi di demografia.] Nuova Scienza: Serie di Scienze Sociali, ISBN 88-15-01265-6. 1987. 237 pp. Il Mulino: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
This is a basic introductory textbook on demography. It contains four substantive chapters, which concern the dimensions and structure of a population, determinants of population change, demographic analysis, and population projections. The data used to illustrate the text generally concern Italy. An appendix presents a facsimile of the 1981 Italian census questionnaire and a selective bibliography.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10023 Latuch, Mikolaj. Social and economic demography. [Demografia spoleczno-ekonimiczna.] 2nd rev. ed. ISBN 83-208-0476-0. 1985. 451 pp. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
This second revised edition, intended as a textbook for students in demography and economics, deals with the relatively new discipline of socioeconomic demography. Chapters are included on the contemporary subject of demography and its broadened sources of information; population records and reporting systems; contemporary population censuses and their programs; marital status; marriages; family and household; distribution of population by economic activity, profession, socioeconomic group, and source of income; migration as a mechanical socio-demographic process; elements of social pathology; and disability and other handicaps and the social process of rehabilitation. The primary focus is on Poland.
For the first edition, published in 1980, see 47:4658.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.