Volume 53 - Number 3 - Fall 1987

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

53:30733 Danyi, Dezso; Monigl, Istvan. The historical antecedents of Hungarian population policy and views on population questions and their main lessons, Part 1. [Nepesedespolitikank es nepesedesi nezeteink torteneti elozmenyei es fobb tanulsagai (1).] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1986. 343-83 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The development of population policy in Hungary is traced from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Particular attention is paid to the policy initiatives taken in 1953 and 1973 and their demographic impact. The authors suggest that the policy changes of 1984 were the first to be based on the findings of demographic research. They conclude that population policy options are limited in light of the current demographic situation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30734 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Minarik, Joseph J. Demographic implications of the 1986 U.S. tax reform. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 115-27, 190, 192 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note outlines the relevant legal provisions of the [U.S. Tax Reform Act of 1986] and identifies some of the ways these changes could affect individuals' decisions to marry, have children, migrate, and invest in health and education, as well as the likely direction of the effects. The authors conclude that many of the demographic impacts are likely to be small when considered in isolation, and because they generally do not all work in the same direction, their cumulative impact is ambiguous. Using the tax code for pronatalist purposes would be likely to be prohibitively expensive. Rough estimates suggest that it would cost the U.S. Treasury at least 19 billion [dollars] per year just to raise the birth rate by 0.5 percent. To lift U.S. fertility levels to the replacement level would probably cost more than the entire national defense budget."
Author's address: Program in Demographic Studies, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30735 Kraus, Jaroslav. Research on the planning of family size (1985), Part 2. [Pruzkum planovani rodicovstvi (1985)--II.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1987. 107-13 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This is the second of two articles containing results of the 1985 demographic survey of Czechoslovakia. In the present article, the author examines attitudes of young couples toward population policy and toward possible future policy measures, women's return to work after having a child, and contraception. The results indicate the importance couples place on socioeconomic factors such as the financial conditions of the family and housing. Changes since a similar survey undertaken in 1981 are noted.
For Part 1, also published in 1987, see 53:20449.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30736 Pavlik, Zdenek; Kuchar, Ivan. Program goal access and optimization in demography. [Cilove programovy pristup a optimalizace v demografii.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1987. 97-106 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors discuss factors that need to be considered in the development of population policy. Aspects considered include goals relative to infant mortality, life expectancy, differential mortality by sex, completed fertility, and changes in age distribution. The authors note that it is difficult to establish goals concerning spatial distribution, migration, population reproduction, and population quality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30737 Podolefsky, Aaron. Population density, land tenure, and law in the New Guinea Highlands: reflections on legal evolution. American Anthropologist, Vol. 89, No. 3, Sep 1987. 581-95 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper Employs The New Guinea Highlands as a 'natural laboratory' to address questions of theoretical interest concerning legal complexity and the emergence of formal legal structures as a reflection of demographic and structural conditions....Both 19th-and 20th-century theories relate population growth to law....A recent formulation suggests that the important effect of population increase is an increase in the density of interaction. As the population increases arithmetically, the interaction density increases geometrically. The result is an increase in the need for administrative coordination and law....[The author compares] two categories of societies with regard to dispute handling processes: those characterized by high population density and individual, private ownership of land and those characterized by low population density (reinforced by a pattern of dispersed settlement) and collective ownership of land. Theory would predict that the former societies would exhibit more complex legal structures." However, this variation is not found and the hypotheses are not supported.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30738 Pulea, Mere. The family, law and population in the Pacific Islands. 1986. viii, 198 pp. University of the South Pacific, Institute of Pacific Studies: Suva, Fiji. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between legislation and population and family formation trends in nine Pacific Island countries. Specifically, "this book examines how government deals with explosive population growth rates and how law, on age of consent, marriage age, contraception and abortion, can frustrate or encourage policy objectives." Data are from a variety of official sources. Part 1 provides information on the history and sources of law in each country. Part 2 presents separate examinations of each country's population history and problems as well as attitudes toward and methods of family planning. Part 3 considers the law as it affects family planning, abortion and sterilization, legal restraints on sexual activity, marriage, divorce, adoption and illegitimacy, and economic factors affecting population. The countries concerned are Samoa, Tonga, Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, and Fiji.
Publisher's address: P.O. Box 1168, Suva, Fiji.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30739 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Global population policy database, 1987. Population Policy Paper, No. 9; ST/ESA/SER.R/71, 1987. vi, 201 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This document describes a database titled Global Review and Inventory of Population Policy, 1987, abbreviated GRIPP:1987, which is available on diskette. The purpose of the GRIPP:1987 database is to provide current data on the population policies of 170 countries, drawn from the Population Policy Data Bank of the [U.N.] Population Division. The policy topics covered are population growth, mortality, fertility, internal migration, immigration, emigration, and the integration of population variables into the development planning process. [In addition to] data on population policy, the diskette contains information on selected demographic indicators, including current and projected population size, current levels of fertility and mortality, current population growth rates, and proportions foreign born. Annex I contains a summary description of the variables included on the diskette, while annex II gives a more detailed description of each variable and the meaning of the codes. Annex III provides diskette order forms which may be used for requesting copies of the database."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30740 Uyanga, Joseph. The space-time and systematic concepts in regional planning: the population aspect. Indonesian Journal of Geography, Vol. 14, No. 47, Jun 1984. 9-18 pp. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"The paper contends that it is possible to synthesise the various studies unilineally relating population processes to regional development into a comprehensive overview within which the process of differential regional development and planning and that of differential population levels can be universally assessed in a system framework. The paper presents a simple planning control system model of regional development based on its process and structure in space and the dynamics of population reactions over time."
Author's address: University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30741 Valentei, D. I. Us and our plans. [My i nashi plany.] Narodonaselenie, 1986. 285 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of papers by different authors concerning demographic development and planning in the USSR. Chapters are included on regional issues of socio-demographic development, the control of population in large cities, demographic aspects of planning social services, trends in the spatial mobility of the population, human resources planning, population and labor force dynamics, family planning and demographic policy, labor force formation and utilization, and the improvement of planning middle-level technical education.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

53:30742 Barnett, Larry D. The Constitution and governmental response to declining population in the United States: a macro-sociological perspective. Whittier Law Review, Vol. 8, 1987. 993-1,010 pp. Whittier, California. In Eng.
Constitutional questions related to pronatalist population policies, which could be enacted in response to a U.S. population decline, are discussed. Three possible federal policies are examined: one to increase fertility by requiring employers to provide paid maternity (but not paternity) leave; one to promote births within marriage and deter illegitimacy; and one to encourage migration to areas having insufficient inhabitants for the cost-efficient operation of public services. The discussion emphasizes the thesis that legal thought stems from social structure and values.
Author's address: School of Law, Widener University, P.O. Box 7474, Wilmington, DE 19803-0474.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30743 Demeny, Paul. Re-linking fertility behavior and economic security in old age: a pronatalist reform. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 128-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This note discusses the case for and outlines the broad contours of an institutional innovation that developed countries might wish to consider if they are confronted with the prospect of sustained below-replacement level fertility." The objective of the proposed reform is "to reestablish the direct relationship that existed between individual fertility behavior and individual prospects for old-age economic security before modern economic advances and concomitant cultural changes decisively weakened that linkage. To achieve that objective the reform would earmark a socially agreed-upon fraction of the compulsory contribution from earnings that flows into the common pool from which pay-as-you-go national social security schemes are now financed and transfer that fraction to individual contributor's live parents as an additional entitlement."
Author's address: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30744 Evans, David B. Economic aspects of Singapore's selective family planning policy. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 1, No. 4, Aug 1987. 1-8, 21-3 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author considers the economic aspects of Singapore's family planning policy, which was designed to encourage family planning practice among poorly educated women and to discourage the practice among university graduates. He "attempts to show that a selective program based on the expected higher productivity of a particular group may not be economically viable. Training costs and the delays before the extra production takes place can, under a variety of reasonable assumptions, outweigh the gains in production." A cost-benefit analysis for the years 1977 and 1978 based on data from official sources is provided.
Author's address: Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Newcastle, Newcastle NSW 2308, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30745 Frank, Odile; McNicoll, Geoffrey. An interpretation of fertility and population policy in Kenya. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 209-43, 373, 375-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Two decades of government antinatalist efforts in Kenya have had negligible effect on the level of fertility, which is now close to eight births per woman, higher than in the 1950s. This article seeks to explain why Kenyan fertility is so high and why efforts to reduce it have failed. It is argued that the fertility level is a consequence of a family system in which patriarchal control of households is combined with little economic responsibility by men for their children. Population policy has not been concerned with such features of the social structure. Changes in the family system are nonetheless taking place: their direction and likely fertility effects are explored."
Author's address: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30746 Fraser, Stewart E. China: population education and people. ISBN 0-858-16625-9. 1987. xvii, 193 pp. La Trobe University, School of Education: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This book is concerned with population policy and family planning developments in contemporary China. It is divided into two main parts. Part 1 consists of an overview "which presents sections on such themes as the development of population policy, family planning practices during the past thirty years, the implementation of the highly controversial 'one child family policy', census taking in China and demographic projections." Part 2 consists of translations from the Chinese of selected documents, including selections from the work of Ma Yinchu and a senior middle school text and curriculum guide on population education.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30747 Hooz, Istvan. Certain problems of family allowances. [A csaladi potlek nehany problemaja.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 65, No. 7, Jul 1987. 643-55 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author deals with the influence of family allowance on the behaviour of the population [in Hungary]....In the author's opinion the system of family allowance, in which parents receive the same amounts of money for each child, does not promote equally the fertility of all strata of the society. Its economic incentive is most pronounced in the lowest income classes and decreases gradually in higher income families, as the allowance amounts, in their case, to an increasingly smaller part of the family income....The author proposes a further improvement of the system of family allowance which would take into account the income of the family..., ensure value-stability, change with the child's age and...[begin] from the diagnosis of pregnancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30748 Kogan, V. L.; Pogorelov, Ya. D.; Korotkikh, R. V. Moral and legal aspects of regulating demographic processes. [Moral'no-pravovye aspekty regulirovaniya demograficheskikh protsessov.] Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie, No. 9, 1986. 66-9 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The authors suggest that in light of rapid population growth in developing countries and family planning measures adopted in some of those countries, the question of abortion and sterilization has become acute. The legal and moral issues associated with these measures are discussed, and the issue of euthanasia is reviewed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30749 Leeuw, Frans L. On the acceptability and feasibility of pronatalist population policy in the Netherlands: an empirical approach. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 3-4, May 1987. 307-34 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The major goal of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about population policy in European countries from an empirical perspective. It begins with a short description of Dutch population policy since 1945. Next, data on the social acceptability of pronatalist policy are summarized. Attention is then given to several conditions that must be met by pronatalist policies if they are to be politically feasible. Results from a study assessing the impact of pronatalist policies on actual fertility are also presented. The conclusion is that although a number of policy measures appear to be socially acceptable in the Netherlands, the chances of their being implemented are small given both their limited political feasibility and their limited demographic potential."
Author's address: Leiden Institute for Social Policy Research, University of Leiden, Stationsplein 242, 2312 AR Leiden, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30750 Molnar, Edit S.; Pataki, Judit. Changes in public opinion between 1983 and 1985: the reception of population policy measures. [Valtozasok a kozvelemenyben 1983-1985 kozott: a nepesedespolitikai intezkedesek fogadtatasa.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 2-3, 1986. 169-92 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The results of a 1985 public opinion survey conducted in Hungary concerning population policy are presented and compared to results of a similar survey carried out in 1983. Particular attention is paid to the impact of population policy measures adopted in 1984. The results indicate that people generally are aware of declining fertility, but uncertain of how the policy measures adopted will rectify the situation. Improved housing conditions are seen as the major factor that might induce people to have more children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30751 Sharma, B. B. L.; Singhal, D. S. Fertility related policy in India. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1983. 193-208 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Fertility changes occurring among the states of India from the 1960s to 1980 are reviewed. The focus is on the evaluation of the impact of policies designed to affect fertility, both directly, such as family planning programs, and indirectly, such as laws governing age at marriage. The authors conclude that family planning programs need to be developed differently to meet regional needs and that the enforcement of existing laws on age at marriage would affect fertility significantly.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30752 Sun, Te-Hsiung. An overall review of fertility control policies in Taiwan, R. O. C. Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning Research Report, No. 21, Mar 1987. ii, 52 pp. Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
The author reviews the characteristics and effectiveness of family planning programs and policies in Taiwan. "The family planning program implemented 2 five-year plans, 2 three-year plans, and one four-year plan since 1965, and is currently implementing the 2nd four-year plan. With its strong organizational set-up, scientific planning, implementation, evaluation and continuous improvement, the program was able to achieve the targets set in the plan. The natural increase rate decreased from 30 per thousand in 1963 to 13 per thousand in 1985, and total fertility rate from 5,350 to 1,885, below replacement level." An introduction is followed by chapters devoted to fertility control policies and strategies, family planning management development, the family planning evaluation program, and future policy directions and strategies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

53:30753 Anstett, Suzel. 1946-1986: 40 years of immigration policy as seen through the articles in the Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales. [1946-1986: quarante ans de politique d'immigration vus au travers des articles parus dans la Revue francaise des Affaires sociales.] Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales, Vol. 40, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 115-32 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author traces developments in French immigration policy since 1946 as revealed in articles published in the Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales. The main themes identifed are the need for manpower, 1946-1967, and the problems of migrant assimilation, 1968-1978.
Author's address: Direction de la Population et des Migrations, Ministere des Affaires Sociales et de l'Emploi, Paris, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30754 Bedford, R. D.; Farmer, R. S. J.; Trlin, A. D. The immigration policy review, 1986: a review. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1987. 49-70 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"The Review of Immigration Policy, August 1986 is the first substantive statement on a wide range of aspects of immigration policy by a New Zealand Government since 1974 when major changes were made to the conditions governing permanent entry to the country. Several important departures from previous immigration policy are outlined in the Review, and in our review we highlight some of these in a critical assessment of five areas of immigration policy: permanent entry on occupational grounds, family reunification, refugee entry, short-term migration for visits and work, and procedures relating to the settlement of migrants in New Zealand. Some comments on our assessment of these aspects of immigration policy were received from the Immigration Division of the Department of Labour, and these are appended to the review."
Author's address: Department of Geography, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30755 de Wenden, C. Wihtol. France's policy on migration from May 1981 till March 1986: its symbolic dimension, its restrictive aspects and its unintended effects. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1987. 211-9 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Changes in France's migration policy between 1981 and 1986 are described. The period is divided into two phases: from summer 1981, starting with the election of Francois Mitterand, to summer 1983; and from summer 1983 to the beginning of 1986. Topics considered for the first period include a policy for improving the situation of immigrants who are already settled, the limitations of an institutional policy, the implemented reforms, and the effects of institutional mechanisms. Aspects of the second period include clandestine immigration and frontier control, asylum and the reunification of families, and problems related to policy, jurisprudence, and implementation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30756 Dinand, Jean-Michel. French policy in the matter of clandestine immigration: 1981-1986. [La politique francaise en matiere d'immigration clandestine: 1981-1986.] Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales, Vol. 40, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1986. 1-17 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author describes developments in French policy concerning illegal immigration between 1981 and 1986. Consideration is given to the means by which illegal immigrants can regularize their situation, how controls are enforced, sanctions against employers of illegal immigrants, and international cooperation on immigration matters.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30757 Drewe, P.; Hulsbergen, E. D. Ethnic groups as the subject of categorical, territorial, and integral policy-making and research. Recent trends in the Netherlands. [Etnische groepen als onderwerp van categoraal, territoriaal en integraal beleid en onderzoek. Recente ontwikkelingen in Nederland.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Aug 1987. 1-30 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors discuss trends related to immigration to the Netherlands, particularly to Rotterdam. "Starting with the immigration of workers from the Mediterranean from about 1960 onward the focus of policy-making and research has been on ethnic groups. It has continued throughout the seventies....The spatial pattern of ethnic residential segregation has played an important part in the policy of 'clustered concentration'. With the publication of the first large-scale study on segregation, i.e. the one in Rotterdam around 1980, however, the emphasis has shifted to the meaning and significance of residential differentiation and the adoption of a choice/constraint framework....Since 1983, we witness a new focus on deprived areas, the grounds for which have been prepared by the study of segregation in Rotterdam, among others. Most recently, a third focus seems to emerge. Light is thrown on the impact of the distributional effects of broad-based policies on the position of ethnic groups as well as deprived areas--against the background of the present economic crisis."
Author's address: Berlageweg 1, 2628 CR Delft, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30758 Isaacs, Stephen L.; Holt, Renee J. Redefining procreation: facing the issues. Population Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 3, Sep 1987. 39 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The ethical, legal, and social issues raised by modern reproductive technologies are reviewed. These include artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogate motherhood. "Descriptions of the reproductive technologies, attitudes and arguments pro and con, and legal and legislative action in the U.S. and various other countries lead to a discussion of what should be included in general guidelines for the protection of all parties involved, and their rights and obligations."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.