Volume 53 - Number 3 - Fall 1987

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

53:30407 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Rao, K. Vaninadha; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Krotki, Karol J. A hazard model analysis of the covariates of marriage dissolution in Canada. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug 1987. 395-406 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the probabilities of first marriage dissolution in Canada, using the marital history data [from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey] collected from a national sample of women in their reproductive years. It is found that age at marriage, year of marriage, cohabitation before marriage, a premarital birth or conception, urban-rural place of residence, and religiosity are all significantly correlated with marriage dissolution. Religion and education, on the other hand, do not seem to affect the marriage dissolution probablities when other factors are controlled. Canadian patterns are not too different from patterns in the United States."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, p. 412).
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30408 Beets, G. C. N.; Cruijsen, H. Marriages in the Netherlands, 1950-1986. [Huwelijkssluitingen in Nederland, 1950-1986.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 8, Aug 1987. 34-43 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article gives an overview of the trends of marrying people living in the Netherlands, by sex, age and previous marital status for the period 1950-1986 as well as for the birth cohorts 1930-1965." A general decline in the prevalence of marriage is noted, with marriage less inevitable for adolescents and more likely to end in divorce than previously. A trend toward later age at marriage is also observed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30409 Breault, K. D.; Kposowa, Augustine J. Explaining divorce in the United States: a study of 3,111 counties, 1980. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 3, Aug 1987. 549-58 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Three indicators of social integration--church membership, population change, and [urban status]--are tested with a group of socioeconomic variables and median population age on rates of divorce for 3,111 U.S. counties, 1980. The study replicates findings of previous studies that have shown comparatively strong effects of social integration and weak socioeconomic effects on divorce. [Urban status] was found to be most strongly related to divorce, with church membership and population change equally half as strong. Weaker correlates of divorce, in order of importance, are: median family income, median age, rate of unemployment, and percentage Hispanic. Percentage employed in professions, percentage high school graduates, and percentage black were found to be unrelated to divorce. New discussion is offered on the hypothesized relationship between [urban status] and low social integration."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30410 Csoknyay, Judit. The system of choice of partners in a small population in Eastern Hungary (Szamosangyalos) from the eighteenth to twentieth centuries. [Egy kelet-magyarorszagi kis nepesseg (Szamosangyalos) parvalasztasi rendszerenek jellemzoi a XVIII-XX szazadban.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1986. 436-45 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The process of mate selection in a small population in Eastern Hungary from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries is analyzed. Changes over time concerning the choice of endogamous and exogamous partners are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30411 Festy, Patrick; Valetas, Marie-France. Divorce and after. [Le divorce et apres.] Population et Societes, No. 215, Jul 1987. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
A brief analysis of recent divorce trends in France is presented. Data are from a variety of official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30412 Forse, Michel. The decline of marriage. [Le recul du mariage.] Observations et Diagnostics Economiques, No. 16, Jul 1986. 217-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The implications of current changes in marriage patterns in France are explored. The author notes that the growing popularity of consensual union has not significantly affected the homogamy of couples and the transfer of resources between generations. However, the social and economic consequences of these changes in nuptiality are significant, involving a decline in fertility, changes in the demand for employment, increased housing needs, changes in social security, and changes in consumer demands.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30413 Goyal, R. P. Age at marriage in India--emerging trend. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 239-48 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Estimates of the singulate mean age at marriage for India as a whole and for rural and urban areas of each of the major states are analyzed using data from the 1961, 1971, and 1981 censuses. "It is very clearly indicated by the results here that there has been a marked and consistent increase in the level of mean age at marriage of both the sexes during the last two decades. This has been the case in respect of the country as a whole, in each state and in rural and urban areas of all states."
Author's address: Population Research Centre, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 110 007, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30414 Grenier, Gilles; Bloom, David E.; Howland, D. Juliet. An analysis of the first marriage patterns of Canadian women. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1987. 47-68 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The Coale-McNeil marriage model is applied to study the evolution and determinants of female first marriage patterns in Canada with data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The results indicate a tendency toward a stablilization of the mean age at first marriage and toward a decline in the proportion of ever-marrying for younger cohorts; however, the changes reported are not as large as those shown in recent marriage vital statistics data. A major reason for that difference is that the 1981 census data include some common law marriages. An analysis of the determinants of marriage patterns shows that French mother tongue, birth in Quebec and in foreign countries, Catholic religion, education and urban residence affect positively the mean age at first marriage; while birth in Quebec, Catholic religion, education and urban residence affect negatively the probability of ever-marrying."
Author's address: University of Ottawa, 550 Cumberland Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30415 Gurak, Douglas T. Family formation and marital selectivity among Colombian and Dominican immigrants in New York City. International Migration Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, Summer 1987. 275-98 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Utilizing data from a 1981 survey of Dominican and Colombian immigrants to New York City, and from 1975 marriage certificates for the entire city, this article describes the extent of family formation in the U.S. and patterns of marital selectivity of recent Hispanic immigrants residing in New York City. A core goal of the analysis is the provision of indicators of the extent of and nature of integration processes at an early stage of the immigration." It is found first that "Hispanic immigrants in New York City are clearly long-term settlers, although not necessarily permanent ones. They are forming nuclear families in this country to a considerably greater extent than they are either transferring families from the origin country or residing as unattached temporary migrants. Second, a significant minority of marriages contracted in this country are with spouses of different national origin groups, indicating an openness in ethnic boundaries in the host society context."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30416 Haskey, John. Trends in marriage and divorce in England and Wales: 1837-1987. Population Trends, No. 48, Summer 1987. 11-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article describes some of the trends in marriage and divorce [in England and Wales] during the last 150 years using statistics which the General Register Office has compiled from marriage registrations and court divorce records." Topics considered include changes in the number of marriages over time, the proportion of individuals marrying, the remarriage of the widowed and divorced, and divorce rates.
Author's address: Population Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, London, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30417 Imaizumi, Yoko. Factors influencing the frequency of consanguineous marriages in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 182, Apr 1987. 1-17 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines factors affecting the number of consanguineous marriages in Japan using data from a 1983 survey of 9,225 couples. Regional variations in rates of consanguineous marriage are noted. "The rates of consanguineous marriages were estimated according to marital distance between birthplaces, socioeconomic classes, religion, marriage form, opportunity of encounter, and motivation towards marriage." Attention is also given to educational status and occupation in relation to consanguineous marriage. "Recommendation by parents or relatives was the most frequent reason for consanguineous marriage, for both husbands and wives, followed by knowledge of the partner by relatives."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30418 Koch-Nielsen, Inger. Divorces. Socialforskningsinstituttet Publikation, No. 148, ISBN 87-7487-279-6. 1985. 48 pp. Socialforskningsinstituttet: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
These are the results of a 1981 survey of divorce and its consequences in Denmark. The survey was based on a national sample of 1,000 divorced parents with children. Consideration is given to recent changes in family patterns, the impact of divorce on the family structure and living conditions, and the situation of the single parent.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30419 Kocurova, Miloslava. Development of divorciality in Czechoslovakia during 1980-1985. Demosta, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1987. 31-2 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of trends in divorce in Czechoslovakia between 1980 and 1985. Information is included on total numbers of divorces, divorces per 1,000 inhabitants, and divorces per 100 marriages. Differences are noted in numbers of divorces granted in the Czech and Slovak republics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30420 Kulkarni, P. M.; Savanur, L. R.; Gokhale, C. V. Increase in age at marriage in rural Karnataka: evidence from a repeat survey. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 149-63 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine changes over time in the age at marriage among the rural population of Karnataka, India, using data from a 1963 survey of 1,330 households and a 1980 survey of 2,158 households in the same 12 villages. Data from censuses and other surveys conducted in this region are shown to support the finding of a trend toward older age at marriage. Factors underlying the observed increase in marriage age are discussed, including changes in norms and traditions, economic reasons, and a marriage squeeze. Significant differences in marriage age according to educational status and caste are noted.
Author's address: Institute for Social and Economic Change, Nagarbhavi, Bangalore 560 072, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30421 Martin Ruiz, Juan F. A model of nuptiality in Andalusia. The example of the province of Cadiz. [El modelo de nupcialidad en Andalucia. El ejemplo de la provincia de Cadiz.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, Vol. 44, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 563-77 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes marriage patterns in the Andalusian province of Cadiz, Spain. Aspects considered include changes in nuptiality indexes since 1900; changes in marriage age, 1941-1979; proportions not married, 1960 and 1981; dissolution of marriages, 1960-1981, and seasonal variations in nuptiality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30422 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Female nuptiality in Morocco: spatial and temporal variations. [La nuptialite feminine au Maroc: variations dans le temps et dans l'espace.] Mar 1987. 32 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Trends in nuptiality in Morocco between the census years of 1960 and 1982 are analyzed. The significant changes noted over this period include a rise in mean age at first marriage from 17.7 to 22.23 years, an increase in unmarried females aged 20-24 from 6 to 40 percent, and a decrease in never-married females from 15 to 8 percent. Data for the study are from the censuses of 1960, 1971, and 1982. Consideration is given to differences among regions and between rural and urban areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30423 Nagnur, Dhruva; Adams, Owen. Tying the knot: an overview of marriage rates in Canada. Canadian Social Trends, Autumn 1987. 2-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in marriage and nuptiality in Canada since the 1920s are reviewed. Topics considered include common-law union, remarriage, marriage rates for different age groups, average age at marriage, the probability of marrying, and religious intermarriage. It is found that "while both the marriage rate, and the probability of ever marrying have declined in Canada in recent years, the great majority of Canadian men and women--around 9 in 10--continue to marry at least once in their lifetime."
Author's address: Social and Economic Studies Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30424 Pillai, Vijayan K. Predicting age at first marriage in the U.S.A.: a review of recent models. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1983. 238-49 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
An overview of recent models concerned with the prediction of age at marriage in the United States is presented. Consideration is given to both individual and aggregate level measures. The focus is on the problems involved in the prediction of future trends in age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30425 Proebsting, Helmut. Recent changes of nuptiality in the Federal Republic of Germany. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 30. September bis 3. Oktober 1985 in Dijon. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 49, 1986. 25-32 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author describes a method for estimating nuptiality, designed to accommodate changing marriage practices in the Federal Republic of Germany. Tables extracted from the complete nuptiality table and reviewed here provide estimates for marriages and legitimate and illegitimate births, 1966-2010; summary results of nuptiality tables for single German nationals by sex for four time periods; nuptiality tables for singles for three time periods; and the probability of single men and women marrying for three time periods. The tables are constructed, for the most part, for ages 15-65 at five-year intervals.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30426 Srivastava, J. N. Factors in female age at marriage in India with special reference to literacy status: inter-state analysis for 1981. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 228-38 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of the literacy statuses of husband, wife, and parents on female age at marriage in India using data from the 1981 census and a variety of other official sources. Linear multiple regression analysis is used to assess the significance of 13 socioeconomic and demographic variables. It is found that the literacy levels of both marriage partners and guardians have a highly significant positive influence on female marriage age; the relative impacts of the various individuals' literacy levels are also assessed.
Author's address: Population Research Centre, Department of Economics, Lucknow University, Lucknow, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30427 Tanfer, Koray. Patterns of premarital cohabitation among never-married women in the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 3, Aug 1987. 483-97 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the patterns of heterosexual cohabitation among 20-to-29-year-old never-married women in the United States, using data from a national sample survey conducted in 1983. First, estimates of the incidence and prevalence of cohabitation are presented; then, cohabitors and noncohabitors are compared on the basis of four groups of variables. Finally, logistic regression models are utilized to examine the factors that are associated with cohabitation. The results indicate that heterosexual cohabitation among never-married women is a common occurrence....But cohabitation, as now practiced among single women in their twenties, does not appear to be a permanent replacement for marriage. For most women it seems to be a new dimension and a part of the courtship process, but not a long-range lifestyle."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 453).
Author's address: Institute for Survey Research, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30428 Tas, R. F. J. Marriage dissolution tables by duration of marriage, 1971-1975, 1976-1980, and 1981-1985. [Huwelijksontbindingstafels naar duur van het huwelijk, 1971-1975, 1976-1980 en 1981-1985.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 6, Jun 1987. 21-30 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Marriage dissolution tables for the Netherlands are presented for the periods 1971-1975, 1976-1980, and 1981-1985 using official data. Changes in the duration of marriage over time and in its likelihood of termination by death or divorce are noted. Consideration is also given to the validity of the marriage dissolution quotients on which the estimates of marriage duration are based.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30429 Teachman, Jay D.; Polonko, Karen A.; Leigh, Geoffrey K. Marital timing: race and sex comparisons. Social Forces, Vol. 66, No. 1, Sep 1987. 239-68 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In this paper, we explore the determinants of marital timing for males and females, separately by race, using a sequential model and data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Results indicate that background factors are relatively unimportant in determining directly when marriage will occur. Rather, events and circumstances that are more current are the determining factors as to whether marriage will occur. In addition, the factors important in determining marital timing vary systematically according to sex and race. The models for blacks are distinct in that few measured predictors of marital timing show consistently significant effects, contrary to the case for whites. This suggests a much different marriage market for each of the races."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30430 Trebici, Vladimir. Family, stability, and divorce. [Familia, stabilitatea si divorturile.] Viitorul Social, Sep-Oct 1986. 467-76 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Divorce trends in Romania are analyzed for the period 1948-1985. Information is included on the total divorce rate, remarriage rates, differences in divorce patterns between rural and urban areas, and differentials by province and county. The impact of changes in divorce laws on divorce trends is examined. Consideration is given to divorce rates by duration of marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30431 Trebici, Vladimir. Nuptiality and the cultural model. [Nuptialitatea si modelul cultural.] Viitorul Social, Jan-Feb 1986. 39-46 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Nuptiality trends in Romania are examined using data from official sources. The results indicate that nuptiality has remained relatively stable over time and that marriage patterns conform to the general Eastern European pattern. Consideration is given to age at marriage and marriage rates. Geographic variations are insignificant. The author suggests that the stability of nuptiality trends over time is due primarily to cultural factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30432 Vavro, Istvan. Marriages, 1984-1985. [Hazassagi perek 1984-1985-ben.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 2-3, 1986. 241-52 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This article examines the problem of divorce in Hungary from the legal point of view. The data concern the years 1984 and 1985. Consideration is given to duration of marriage, the impact of children on divorce, and the custody of children following divorce.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30433 White, James M. Premarital cohabitation and marital stability in Canada. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 3, Aug 1987. 641-7 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Increases in the number of people premaritally cohabiting raise questions regarding the effect of premarital cohabitation on marriage. One question that has not been adequately addressed is the effect of premarital cohabitation on later marital stability. This effect is investigated with data from a probability sample of 10,472 ever-married Canadians. Results suggest that premarital cohabitation has a positive effect on staying married. This positive effect remains when length of marriage and age at marriage are controlled. The difference between previous studies and the present study are discussed.
Author's address: Division of Family Sciences, School of Family and Nutritional Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1W5.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

53:30434 Barbagli, Marzio. Systems of family formation in Italy. [Sistemi di formazione della famiglia in Italia.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 80-127 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Ita.
The author presents data on variations in family structure in Italy in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Among the factors considered are the inclusion of household servants in the family structure, territorial variations in age at marriage, the family typologies developed by Hajnal and Laslett, and rules covering family formation among the agricultural populations of north-central Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30435 Burch, Thomas K.; Dewit, David J. Effects and consequences of orphanhood in past populations: North America. [Efectos y consecuencias de la orfandad en poblaciones del pasado: America del Norte.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 14, No. 42, Dec 1986. 25-49 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine how North American societies have historically handled the problem of orphanhood. A preference for adoption by individual families over the institutionalization of orphans by the state is noted. The development of the family solution to orphanhood over the course of the nineteenth century and the extension of the system to deal with orphans brought in from the United Kingdom are discussed. The development of an institutional system for orphans in the late nineteenth century is also described.
Author's address: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario NKA 3K7, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30436 Cain, Mead; McNicoll, Geoffrey. Population growth and agrarian outcomes. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 128, Oct 1986. 25 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents and argues the case for the thesis that agrarian economic and demographic performance is governed in large measure by patterns of family structure and other elements of local social organization. Family systems can be distinguished by how they deal with household formation and property devolution, and by their marital fertility responsiveness to the changing economics of children; forms of community organization and local administration vary by how effectively they provide feedbacks or facilitate interventions that promote rural development and demographic transition, particularly in situations where family roles in those domains are weak. Broad regional differences in agrarian performance can be traced to these institutional configurations."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30437 Cain, Virginia S. Changing fertility expectations of American youth. Pub. Order No. DA8709050. 1986. 228 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study tested the hypothesis that changes in fertility plans are related to other events occurring in the lives of the young adults. This research examined changes in fertility plans between 1979 and 1983 among a large national sample of [U.S.] young adults between 14 and 21 years old in 1979....Multinomial logit was used to examine whether an increase, decrease, or no change in number of births expected could be explained by changes in various aspects of the work and family arenas of life....Almost 50 percent of the sample reported a change in fertility plans, with the majority of those reducing the number of children expected. Variables most important for explaining changes in birth expectations were those related to family formation....Among women who had a first birth between the two interviews, factors associated with their children were most important for explaining change."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Maryland at College Park.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(1).

53:30438 Callan, Victor J. Choices about children. Australian Studies, ISBN 0-582-71137-1. LC 86-100011. 1985. vii, 178 pp. Longman Cheshire: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This study examines the factors affecting family size and the decision to have children in Australia. The author "examines the social, economic and psychological motivations for having children, the costs incurred, as well as the alternative sources of satisfaction which compete with large families. He pays special attention to the views of those who have deliberately avoided having children." The data are from a variety of research projects carried out by the author over the past eight years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30439 Croll, Elisabeth. New peasant family forms in rural China. Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 14, No. 4, Jul 1987. 469-99 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article explores the responses of peasant households in China to the quite new and radical demands made on their resources as a result of the various recent rural economic reforms....[It attempts] to identify current changes in size, structure and activity of domestic and kin groups, and to analyse the new socio-economic relations within and between households. It argues that in order to mobilise and maximise their labour and other resources to arrange for the production, consumption and welfare of household members, close kin and neighbouring peasant households have combined to give rise to a new family form, the aggregate family. This study analyses the factors leading to its formation, identifies the characteristics of this new family form and examines its relations both within and beyond the village."
Author's address: Department of Anthropology, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HP, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30440 Dale, Angela; Evandrou, Maria; Arber, Sara. The household structure of the elderly population in Britain. Ageing and Society, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1987. 37-56 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses nationally representative data from the General Household Survey for 1980 to investigate the household structure of the elderly in Britain. Household structure is analysed in terms of its relationship to the marital status, age, gender and physical disability of the elderly person." The results indicate that 79 percent of the elderly live alone or with their spouse only, and 95 percent of the noninstitutionalized elderly retain their own households.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, England.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30441 de Guzman, Eliseo A. Family household and nuptiality changes: a search for some explications from the recent past. Philippine Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1985. 45-66 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
"Changes in household size and structure in the Philippines have occurred in close assocation with or parallel to demographic changes. Data from three national demographic surveys indicate increases in the proportions of nuclear family households and therefore, concomitant reductions in the proportions of extended family households. The analysis of differentials by the characteristics of household heads and the age at marriage of their wives has revealed interesting patterns which presage some structural changes in family households in the future. Given the very close links between family household formation and marriage, important determinants of nuptiality were examined using multivariate analysis on census provincial data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30442 Hall, Ray. Household trends within Western Europe 1970-1980. In: West European population change, edited by Allan Findlay and Paul White. 1986. 18-34 pp. Croom Helm: Dover, New Hampshire/London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends concerning households in the countries of Europe, excluding Eastern Europe, are analyzed. "The main points to be considered in this chapter are: data and definitions; trends in average household size and the size distributions of households; and some consideration of the processes involved in these changes especially with reference to the family household and one-person household." The data are primarily from the 1980-1982 census round. The author notes that "the past two decades in particular have seen an acceleration of trends leading to a convergence of household patterns over a wide area, away from the heterogeneity that was evident as recently as the 1960s."
Author's address: Department of Geography and Earth Science, Queen Mary College, University of London, London, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30443 Hopflinger, Francois. Transformation of family formation in Western Europe. [Wandel der Familienbildung in Westeuropa.] ISBN 3-593-33808-4. 1987. 295 pp. Campus: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Recent trends in marriage and reproductive behavior are discussed, and theoretical explanations for the changes in family formation processes are compared for 17 European countries. Data are taken primarily from official birth and marriage records since the 1960s. A social demographic approach combines demographic data analysis methods and family sociology issues. The first section includes a discussion of central concepts and hypotheses pertaining to family formation. In the second section, the author analyzes changes in marital behavior, particularly the trend toward cohabitation outside marriage. In Section 3, fertility trends are examined. In Section 4, issues pertaining to both marriage and fertility and the changing relationship between the two are studied. Section 5 focuses on selected variables related to changing family formation processes such as social and economic development, education, and female labor force participation. The author differentiates between trends common to all countries studied and those that occur only under specific national conditions.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30444 Horton, Susan. Child nutrition and family size in the Philippines. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 23, No. 1, Sep 1986. 161-76 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses household data from the Philippines to examine jointly household decisions on family size and child quality, using nutritional status as a measure of quality. The results suggest that there are significant substitutions away from larger families and towards higher quality children with higher maternal and paternal education. Similar but less significant substitutions occur with higher maternal occupational status, and lower child mortality in the locality. However the paper finds only limited support for the idea that parents are concerned about average child quality, since the results show that there are strong birth order effects on nutritional status."
Author's address: University of Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:30445 Hunsalzer, Roland. The transformation of family transitions: selected changes in the legal regulations concerning families in Germany in the twentieth century and their effects on the family. [Familiale Ubergange im Wandel: ausgewahlte Veranderungen rechtlicher Regelungen, die sich auf die Familie Beziehen, in Deutschland im 20. Jahrhundert und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Familie.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 10, 1987. 71 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The author gives an overview of changes in selected legal regulations concerning the family that have been enacted in the German Empire and in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1896 and their effects on whole families and individual members. Legal areas studied include marriage, divorce, laws of property ownership, legitimate and illegitimate children, equal rights, and parents' and children's rights. Pertinent literature from the social sciences is highlighted. The purpose is to reveal the relationship between changes in laws regulating the family and social changes within the family. A further purpose is to demonstrate the need for interdisciplinary cooperation in such studies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30446 Janssens, A. A. P. O. Family and social change: the extended family and the family life cycle, Tilburg, 1880-1920. [Gezin en sociale verandering: het uitgebreide gezin en de family life cycle, Tilburg, 1880-1920.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1986. 25-50 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This essay examines the structural evolution and composition along the life cycle of a cohort group of parental households in the industrial textile town of Tilburg [Netherlands] during the period 1880-1920 in the light of...structural-functionalist theories" concerning the relationship between family characteristics and social structure. "The rapid demographic and industrial developments the town had been going through before and during this period did not lead to a destruction of the traditional pattern of extended family households and the rise to dominance of the nuclear family....The results presented in this paper suggest a model of social change in which family change is not directly and immediately linked to structural social change."
Author's address: Vakgroep Economische en Sociale Geschiedenis, K. U. Nijmegen, Erasmusplein 1, 6500 HD Nijmegen, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30447 Kamaras, Ferenc. One-parent families. [Egyszulos csaladok.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 2-3, 1986. 253-66 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The paper tries to reveal mainly the situation and characteristics of the one-parent families rearing minor child(ren) [in Hungary] on [the] basis of the data of the population census and the recent microcensus [and] the results of the different sample surveys." The reasons for the increase in the number of one-parent families are reviewed, including divorce, the death of a parent, and having children outside marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30448 Khan, Jahangir. Household composition in Sind, Pakistan: has it changed or persisted? Dirasat Sukkaniyah/Population Studies, Vol. 12, No. 73, Apr-Jun 1985. 27-42, 29-31 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Recent changes in family characteristics in Southern Asia are analyzed using data from nearly 300 rural and 400 urban households in Sind province, Pakistan. The results indicate the persistence of the extended family system despite the growing number of nuclear families.
Author's address: College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30449 Kraus, Jaroslav. Results of demographic study. Demosta, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1987. 28-30 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng.
The author summarizes the results of a 1985 nationwide survey of married women in Czechoslovakia. Findings are presented on number of children by age of woman and on realized and desired family size by age of woman. Comparisons are made with similar data for the years 1978 and 1981.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30450 Kumagai, Fumie. Modernization and the family in Japan. Journal of Family History, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1986. 371-82 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyze and to identify the elements of modernity and tradition in the institution of the Japanese family. Two critical hypotheses will be examined: (1) that external or demographic characteristics of the Japanese family today resemble those of Western counterparts; and (2) that the internal structure of the Japanese family household maintains traditional elements of its own."
Author's address: Graduate School of International Relations, International University of Japan, Yamato-machi, Minamiuonuma-gun, Niigata-ken 949-72, Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30451 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Meekers, Dominique. Value changes and the dimensions of familism in the European Community. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 3-4, May 1987. 225-68 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly, opportunity structures), but also by ideational changes: the economic factors produce period fluctuations that are superimposed on long-term (and often cohort-driven) ideational effects. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries [of the European Economic Community in 1981] and across age groups using the internationally-comparable data sets provided by the European Values Studies....Theoretical links are made both with Easterlin's hypothesis which implies fluctuating fertility levels and with Simon's thesis concerning the importance of 'civil religion' in supporting fertility. The results are, however, largely in line with Aries' thesis of two successive and quite distinct fertility transitions in the West, and suggest that fertility is very likely to remain at below-replacement levels."
Author's address: Centrum voor Sociologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30452 Levine, Nancy E. Differential child care in three Tibetan communities: beyond son preference. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 281-304, 374, 376 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the cultural and social-structure factors associated with assessments of child value, patterns of differential child care, and child survival among ethnic Tibetans in northwest Nepal. Factors implicated in this assessment include not only sex biases, but also child sibling position, parents' marital stability, child legitimacy, and the state of the household economy. The article evaluates the expressed rationales for discriminating between children and how they are supported by the notion that rights to limited household resources depend on the individual's value to that household and by a complex of folk beliefs that obscure responsibility for child illness and death. Because of the complex factors involved and intra- and intercommunity variations, informant-originated models of differential child care become especially valuable for identifying potential children at risk, the mechanisms likely to be involved in differential care, and the household members responsible for child value assessments and household resource allocations." Data concern three communities in Humla, northwestern Nepal, and are based on anthropological field research conducted in 1982-1983.
Author's address: Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30453 Madan, Ashok K. The demographic modeling of household cycles: analytical and microsimulation approaches. 1986. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation first identifies the household cycle as the core concept in formal household demography, and presents a simple model of the determinants of the size distribution and the average size of the household. In this model, the proximate processes which govern the end points of the household cycle are fission, fusion and fission-fusion of households and the joint mortality of household members." Several analytical models for researching household cycles are developed and applied to data for Canada.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(10).

53:30454 Mozny, Ivo. Some new phenomena of culturally legitimate examples of family formation. [K nekterym novym jevum v kulturne legitimnich vzorcich rodinnych startu.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1987. 114-24 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Recent changes in the process of family formation in Czechoslovakia are described. These include a reversal of the trends toward lower rates of illegitimacy and lower ages at marriage and increases in the number of divorces, the popularity of consensual unions, and the percent of marriages following pregnancy. Factors affecting consensual union are considered, including educational status, birth order, and marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30455 Nelissen, J. H. M. Household formation by microsimulation: the Dutch household structure generated. Department of Sociology Working Paper Series, No. 18, 1987. 14 pp. Tilburg University, Department of Sociology: Tilburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author outlines the demographic module of a microanalytic simulation model developed in the course of research concerning social security and income distribution in the Netherlands. "Our model makes it possible to generate the household structure at any given moment and in order to do this it uses the household history of individuals. Because it is part of a complete socio-economic model, it is also possible to incorporate socio-economic variables affecting demographic processes....We will use this version of the demographic module to simulate the household structure for the Netherlands for the period 1947-1981....To evaluate the model these simulation results are compared with the data resulting from censuses and surveys."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30456 Paydarfar, Ali A. Marital fertility and family structure among the urban population of Iran. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 18, No. 3, Autumn 1987. v-vi, ix-x, 389-402 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The relationship between family type and fertility in Shiraz, a southern city of Iran, is inconsistent with the general proposition, which argues that extended family encourages high fertility and the nuclear family does not. In this analysis several socio-demographic variables (duration of marriage, marital age of couples, and the educational/occupational status of wife) were controlled. The findings indicate that the couples living in nuclear families have significantly larger numbers of live births than the couples living in the extended families. A plausible explanation might be that the couples' privacy in the nuclear families and their social and psychological needs for children encourage high fertility while the economic burden of dependents in extended families discourages the couples [from having large families]. This study is based on 1,062 household interview cases collected in a random sample survey conducted in the city of Shiraz by the author in 1968-69."
Author's address: Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514.
Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

53:30457 Pickens, Gary T.; Jacobson, Marc E. Demographic effects of sex preselection: a formal model. International Journal of Environmental Studies, Section A: Environmental Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1986. 21-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The demographic effects of sex preselection technology are studied by means of mathematical models for completed family size and the sex ratio at birth. It is shown that in the case of an indefinite amount of time available to achieve desired family composition, sex preselection has a substantial effect on completed fertility. When a finite reproductive period is introduced (for example, due to distributions of age at marriage and secondary female sterility) the impact of sex preselection on fertility is greatly reduced. The effect of sex preselection on the sex ratio at birth is pronounced, as illustrated by several hypothetical examples."
Author's address: Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:30458 Porto, Cornelia N.; Da Costa, Iraci del N.; Nozoe, Nelson H. Demo-economic characteristics of Brazilian rural families. [Caracteristicas demo-economicas das familias rurais brasileiras.] 1987. 208 pp. Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas [FIPE]: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
The authors analyze the structure of the rural Brazilian household and family. They examine factors such as age, marital status, educational level, income, and labor force activity, using sample data from the 1983 National Household Survey. Chapters are included on survey objectives, scope, and limitations; definitions and classification methods; a retrospective survey of past work; urban and rural populations; lines of convergence and quantitative differences; an interregional analysis; families and households; and income, occupation, and level of education. Bibliographic references and a statistical appendix are also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30459 Qvist, Jan; Rennermalm, Bo. Family formation: consensual union, marriage, and childbearing among Swedish women born between 1936 and 1960. [Att bilda familj: samboende, aktenskap och barnafodande bland kvinnor fodda 1936-60.] Urval, No. 17, ISBN 91-618-0085-6. 1985. 188 pp. Statistiska Centralbyran: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
"The present report covers two Swedish studies on family formation. The purpose of the first one is to examine the relations between fertility and changes in marital status. It is based on the current official population statistics (up to 1978)....The second study is based on data collected (1981) in an interview survey. It illustrates changes in the first stage of family formation, i.e. either the formation of a couple or the birth of a child." The focus is on women born between 1936 and 1960. The authors find that "the increased childlessness resulting from the fertility decline is related to changes in the marital-status pattern. The fertility within each marital status group (single, consensual union, married, divorced) has largely remained constant in the early stages of family formation. The only factor that has changed is the propensity to marry."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30460 Ro, Kong-Kyun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Roh, Shin Young. Household consumption behaviour and fertility in Korea. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 179-201 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors focus on the family's perception of the value of children in light of consumption and work-leisure patterns. The analysis uses data for the Republic of Korea and a theoretical framework based on Kevin Lancaster's theory of consumer behavior and Gary Becker's economic theory of fertility. The data are from 1,014 households from 12 census enumeration districts, selected to provide three contrasting socioeconomic groups. Ordinary and two-stage least squares regression analyses as well as path analysis are used to assess the relationships among fertility, socioeconomic factors, and family value variables. It is found that "the household which spends a great proportion of family budget for the necessities of life such as food and housing tends to have a greater number of children than the household which spends a smaller proportion of budget for the necessities of life."
Author's address: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang-Ri, P.O. Box 150, Seoul 131, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30461 Robinson, Warren C. The time cost of children and other household production. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jul 1987. 313-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the relative time cost of children compared to other types of household tasks, and the relative time cost of producing quantity rather than quality of children is examined....We employ household time-use data from a study of a large metropolitan area in the United States. Our results cast doubt on the notions that: (a) child-services are more time-costly than other household tasks; (b) that quantity of child-services is more time-costly than quality of child-services. Moreover, there appear to be strong complementarities between child-services and other household tasks, and time spent on child care does not seem to act as an obstacle to working outside the home. Finally, we suggest another economic interpretation of the fertility transition centred not on changes in objective factors exogenous to the household, but, instead, on the internal economic power structure of the household itself."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30462 Rowland, Robert. Nuptiality, the family, the Mediterranean. [Nupcialidade, familia, Mediterraneo.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 128-43 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines the theories and hypotheses of Hajnal, Laslett, and others concerning the relationship between nuptiality and family formation in Southern Europe. He presents two maps of Portugal showing the complexity of domestic aggregates in 1900 and 1960 and three maps of Portugal, Italy, and Spain, one showing age at marriage in the late nineteenth century, one showing nuclear families in the period following World War II, and one showing family complexity also in the post-war period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30463 Stokes, C. Shannon; LeClere, Felicia B.; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng. Household extension and reproductive behaviour in Taiwan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1987. 273-82 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The influence of household type on reproductive behaviour is examined for a [1980] national probability sample of Taiwanese women. In spite of remarkable social and economic development over the past three decades, extended families are still widely found in Taiwan. Women in extended households have only slightly higher fertility preferences and current fertility than women in nuclear families once marital duration is controlled. Although women in extended households marry earlier and receive more family help with child care than women in nuclear households, such factors are no longer sufficient to produce major differentials in reproductive behaviour. The findings suggest that preferences for smaller families and low fertility need not await a transformation to a nuclear family structure."
Author's address: Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30464 Sysenko, V. A. Youth enters marriage. [Molodezh' vstupaet v brak.] 1986. 255 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Issues related to the preparation of young people for marriage in the USSR are discussed. Topics considered include how and where couples first meet, educational status, and housing. Information is also included on young people's opinions concerning ideal family size, child rearing, sharing household chores, and material well-being.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30465 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Households, families, marital status, and living arrangements: March 1987 (advance report). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 417, Aug 1987. 9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data from the Current Population Survey concerning families and households in the United States in March 1987 are presented. Consideration is given to marriage age, age of householders, marital status, and family characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30466 van de Giessen, G. J. The reliability of the expectation (not) to have a child within three years. [De betrouwbaarheid van de verwachting binnen drie jaar (g)een kind te krijgen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 7, Jul 1987. 13-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the reliability of fertility expectations in the Netherlands over a three-year period starting in 1982. The data are from the 1982 and 1985 Netherlands Fertility Surveys. "On the individual level the expectations of 86% of all women turned out to be consistent with the demographic behaviour in the following three years. Of the women who had expected to have a child 63% had had one. Of the women who had not expected to have a child 92% indeed did not....On the aggregate level the forecast was reasonably accurate: 21% of all women had expected to have a child whereas 20% had had one. Obviously the forecast error is larger for some categories of women than for others: the most deviant are the cohabiting women who show a rather large overestimation. But generally speaking the results of this analysis are promising for the use of short-term birth expectations in population forecasts."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30467 Wijewickrema, S. Family status life tables for Belgium: construction and ensuing simulations. IPD Working Paper, No. 1987-5, 1987. 74 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
" The present article reports on the use of Belgian data for the construction of family status life (FSL) tables, and their subsequent simulated modifications. Data from the censuses of 1970 and 1981 together with registration data for the calendar years adjoining...each census enabled the construction of FSL tables for synthetic female cohorts subject to the nuptiality, fertility and mortality conditions prevailing at each census....A second series of FSL tables incorporating the state of cohabitation (CO) was then constructed using NEGO 4 survey data." The author notes a decline in the incidence of marriage, an increase in the incidence of consensual unions, and an increase in the prevalence of one-child families.
Publisher's address: Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30468 Wingen, Max. The transformation of the family: overview of the effects of demographic, economic, and social changes on the family and society (special publication). [Familie im Wandel: Uberblick uber Auswirkungen demographischer, wirtschaftlicher und sozialer Veranderungen auf Familie und Gesellschaft (Sonderveroffentlichung).] 1985. 2, 62, [5], 6 pp. Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wurttemberg, Familienwissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The impact of various demographic, economic, and social changes on the family and society is investigated. The study focuses on the Federal Republic of Germany, particularly Baden-Wurttemberg. A section on demographic trends is concerned with family structure in the past, present, and future. Subsequent sections are devoted to the connection between changing social values and family relationships, the changing roles of families and society in education, economic development and the nature of labor force participation, and the changing involvement of women in the labor force. In a segment on social security, the author discusses functional changes in the family and the development of a social welfare system, as well as other shifts in social roles and their demographic consequences for the future financing of the social security system. Social policy pertaining to the family is also mentioned.
Publisher's address: Boblinger Strasse 68, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Postfach 898, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: New York Public Library.

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.