Volume 53 - Number 3 - Fall 1987

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

53:30118 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. The changing shape of Soviet mortality, 1958-1985: an evaluation of old and new evidence. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 87-111, Jun 1987. 25, [11] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors examine recently released mortality data for the Soviet Union for the 1980s. They find that "most significant is the new life table for 1984-85, which shows that mortality of Soviet females improved below age 45 and deteriorated above age 45 since the last age-specific mortality data were published in the early 1970s, while mortality of males improved below age 25 and deteriorated above age 25. At the same time, the official mortality rates for persons above age 60 in 1958-59, 1968-71, and 1984-85 are implausibly low, as shown by comparisons with rates at younger ages in the Soviet Union and with the rates over the life span for Sweden and Hungary. As a result, even though the reported increases in mortality for both sexes above age 60 may be mostly due to improving data quality, the official mortality rates above age 60 in 1984-85 probably understate the actual rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30119 Bernabeu Mestre, Josep; Lopez Pinero, Jose M. Factors affecting mortality between 1800 and 1930: hygiene, health, and environment. [Condicionantes de la mortalidad entre 1800 y 1930: higiene, salud y medio ambiente.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 70-9 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The authors review the literature concerning mortality in Spain between 1800 and 1930. They discuss such subjects as factors involved in the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919, the principal causes of death, and infant mortality and the socioeconomic factors involved. They conclude with a section on semantic problems involved in describing causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30120 Bidegain, Gabriel. The history and future of life expectancy in Venezuela. [Historia y futuro de la esperanza de vida venezolana.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 26, Jul 1986. 34 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Trends in life expectancy in Venezuela are examined. The author has reviewed 289 life tables for Venezuela. Differences among the tables and the methods used to construct them are outlined. Changes in the expectation of life at birth since 1936 are traced, and some projections for the future are offered. Differences according to sex, rural or urban residence, and geographic area are noted. The impact of improvements in sanitary conditions on life expectancy is considered.
Publisher's address: Urb. Montalban, La Vega, Apartado 29068, Caracas 1021, Venezuela.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30121 Bouvier-Colle, M. H. Mortality and occupation: theoretical problems and concrete illustrations. [Mortalite et profession: problemes theoriques et illustration concrete.] Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 34, No. 4-5, 1986. 269-79 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article reviews the methods generally used when studying occupational mortality. First the different schemes of collecting data are cited; secondly, all the indexes (PMR, SMR, standardisation by direct method, etc.) that can be employed in this kind of analysis are studied, and each of them is critically evaluated. Finally, in order to compare the advantages of SMR over the effects of direct standardisation, these two indexes are combined in a brief study of the most recent data in France concerning occupational mortality. In illustration, an analysis is made of the most common causes of male deaths in 1982, among farmers, engineers, artists, teachers and those in the liberal professions."
Author's address: INSERM U164, Unite de Recherche sur l'Evaluation de l'Etat de Sante et des Systemes de Soins et de Prevention, 44 Chemin de Ronde, F78110 Le Vesinet, France.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30122 Cohn, Raymond L. The determinants of individual immigrant mortality on sailing ships, 1836-1853. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1987. 371-91 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
The determinants of mortality on immigrant ships coming to the United States in the mid-nineteenth century are investigated using logit analysis and data from New York port records concerning 28,000 individuals, of whom 435 died. "Results show that the voyage increased mortality most at younger ages, especially among infants. Mortality also varied significantly by port of origin but mortality was not significantly affected by sex or country of origin. Finally, mortality was found to vary by socioeconomic class...."
Author's address: Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30123 Del Panta, Lorenzo. Factors and conditions of mortality between 1800 and 1930: hygiene, health, and environment. The situation in Italy. [Fattori e condizioni della mortalita tra 1800 e 1930: igiene, salute e ambiente. La situazione in Italia.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 41-69 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Ita.
The author reviews the literature and examines medical, hygienic, and nutritional factors affecting mortality in Italy before and after the initiation of the modern decline in mortality. He also discusses trends toward lower mortality in the period following the uniting of the country in 1860, the continuation of geographic differences, and possible interpretive hypotheses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30124 Dissanayake, D. M. S. S. L. Decomposition of life expectancy change: a new approach. Demographic Training and Research Unit Working Paper, No. 6, Apr 1987. 12 pp. University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The author develops a method for decomposing life expectancy change and compares it with two earlier methods. "This approach is developed to measure the contribution of mortality change at each age group to the total change in life expectancy. The formulae given here can be adapted to measure changes with respect to times, region, sex or any other population sub group." The approach is applied to data from Sri Lanka for the years 1971-1979.
Publisher's address: P.O. Box 1490, University of Colombo, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30125 Fargues, Philippe. The seasonality of urban mortality in Africa: deaths in Bamako from 1974 to 1985. [Les saisons et la mortalite urbaine en Afrique: les deces a Bamako de 1974 a 1985.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 12, Sep 1987. 38 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in mortality in Bamako, Mali, from 1974 to 1985 are examined, with attention to age and seasonal differentials and causes of death. Data concerning 55,000 deaths registered at Bamako's Hygiene Office are analyzed. "There is no evidence of any increase in mortality due to dramatic droughts encountered by the region in the 1970's and 1980's. On the contrary, a downward trend appears, showing that African capitals are now well sheltered from the huge fluctuations in food production affecting their hinterland. But this decline, although strong, has remained discontinuous. Occasional returns to high mortality are associated with epidemics always occurring at the same time of year: the hot months at the end of the dry season. Thus, the mean profile of mortality is marked by strong seasonal variations." Evidence is also found of differentials in infant mortality by month of birth. Cross-sectional and cohort analyses of mortality due to measles are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30126 Feshbach, Murray. A compendium of Soviet health statistics. CIR Staff Paper, No. 5, Jan 1985. iii, 87 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This compendium of Soviet health statistics, compiled from Soviet sources, includes tables on number of deaths and death rates, 1960-1982; age-specific death rates; death rates by age and sex, 1960-1961 to 1973-1974; and causes of death, 1966-1967 to 1971-1972.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30127 Ge Rondi, Carla. Concerning differences in male and female life expectancy in Italy. [Sulle variazioni della vita media maschile e femminile in Italia.] Statistica, Vol. 45, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 251-64 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This citation corrects the information on the author's name as provided in 52:10167. The author assesses methods of estimating mortality rates of males and females in Italy during the nineteenth century. Of the methods discussed, Arriaga's index of relative change is considered the most suitable. Two methods for determining the contribution of mortality changes in different age groups to total change in life expectancy are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30128 Gravelle, H. S. E.; Backhouse, M. E. International cross-section analysis of the determination of mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1987. 427-41 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"An essential ingredient in the evaluation of policies concerning health services is knowledge of the impact of health services and other factors on the health of the population. One method for obtaining this information is from the regression analysis of international cross-section data on mortality rates, health service provision, income levels, consumption patterns, and other variables hypothesised to affect population health. The investigation of the determinants of population health is in many ways akin to the estimation of production functions which describe the relationship between the output of goods or services and the mix of inputs used in their production. The purpose of this paper is to use this analogy to discuss, and provide examples of, the problems which arise with the statistical investigation of mortality rates. Issues raised include simultaneous equation bias, multicollinearity, selection of explanatory variables, omitted variable bias, definition and measurement of variables, functional forms, lagged relationships and temporal stability. These problems are illustrated by replication and re-analysis, using new data, of the well known study by Cochrane, St. Leger and Moore."
Author's address: Economics Department, Queen Mary College, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England.
For the article by A. L. Cochrane et al., published in 1978, see 46:1171.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30129 Humblet, P. C.; Lagasse, R.; Moens, G. F. G.; Wollast, E.; van de Voorde, H. Avoidable mortality in Belgium. [La mortalite evitable en Belgique.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1987. 485-93 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The concept of avoidable mortality leads to an attempt at using specific mortality rates [SMR] as output measures of health services. The analysis covered 43 Belgian districts between the years of 1974 and 1978. Two Belgian areas were compared along a dimension defined by two axes of a correspondence factor analysis: Flanders which is associated with low SMR of avoidable mortality and Wallonia which has high rates. The persistence of high mortality in Wallonia was confirmed. Factorial scores for each district were used as indexes for geographical heterogeneity. Variations in these indices, including patient consultation rates and technical medical procedures, remained even after adjustment for socio-economic differences."
Author's address: Laboratoire d'Epidemiologie et de Medecine Sociale, Ecole de Sante Publique, 808 Route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30130 Hussmanns, Ralf. Mortality trends in the Federal Republic of Germany by sex, age, and cause of death: an international comparison of development up to the present and projections of future trends. [Sterblichkeitsentwicklung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland nach Geschlecht, Alter und Todesursache: bisheriger Verlauf im internationalen Vergleich und Vorausschatzungen kunftiger Entwicklungstendenzen.] 1987. [xxiv], 270, [40] pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Mortality trends in the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed by sex, age, and cause of death for the period from the 1950s to the early 1980s. The data are from official sources. Comparisons are also made with trends in nine other European countries, the United States, and Japan. The results are then used to develop six variant projections of sex- and age-specific mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany up to the year 2000.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30131 Johansson, S. Ryan; Mosk, Carl. Exposure, resistance and life expectancy: disease and death during the economic development of Japan, 1900-1960. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jul 1987. 207-35 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality trends in Japan from 1900 to 1960 are analyzed. The authors note that although mortality was relatively high in 1900, life expectancy did not subsequently increase as standards of living rose. However, even though the economy was partially destroyed in World War II, life expectancy increased rapidly after the war ended. "The analysis of these...trends is undertaken by means of an historical model of mortality change in which life expectancy is interpreted as the function of both the relative overall resistance of the population to disease, and the degree to which it was protected from exposure to the leading causes of death. It is argued that the early and late Japanese achievements of relatively high life expectancy at relatively low levels of income rested on the government's efficient delivery of a very high level of protection from exposure to disease. The middle period, 1910 to 1940, represented a relative failure of protection due to the concentration of financial resources on the military sector....The post-war period involved a return to higher levels of investment in public health during a period of technological progress and structural shifts which enhanced the efficiency of such investment."
Author's address: Group in Demography, University of California, 2234 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30132 Lombardo, Enzo. Mortality at the end of the sixteenth century according to the data of Jean Hudde. [La mortalita alla fine del XVI secolo secondo i dati di Jean Hudde.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 4, 1987. 43-58 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
The author presents survival probability and mortality information for Holland in the late sixteenth century based on life annuity data for the years 1586-1590, examined by Jean Hudde and discussed in a letter he wrote in 1671 to Christiaan Huygens.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30133 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). New high for expectation of life. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1987. 8-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in expectation of life at birth in the United States are examined using official data for the years 1900-1986. Sex and ethnic group differentials in life expectancy are observed. It is noted that "expectation of life at birth for the total resident population of the United States established an all-time high of 75.0 years in 1986...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30134 Mitra, S. A measure of mortality based on life expectancies. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1986. 115-21 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Two alternative measures of mortality have been proposed in this paper. These are (a) the average age of the stationary population, and (b) the area covered by the life expectancy function. The former has been shown to be equal to the average number of years remaining to be lived by the stationary population and as such can be used as a measure of mortality....The usefulness of the latter is also obvious, based as it is on the values of the life expectancies at all ages instead of that at birth alone." The measures are estimated for seven selected countries.
Author's address: Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30135 Muhsam, H. V. Mortality, population fluctuations and the nuclear danger. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 3-4, May 1987. 219-23 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author considers recent reversals in downward mortality trends and the risks involved in nuclear energy, expressing concern over prospects for mortality developments in the future.
Author's address: Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30136 Murray, Christopher J. L. A critical review of international mortality data. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 7, 1987. 773-81 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author assesses and compares the quality of mortality data contained in five U.N. and World Bank publications: "the U.N. Demographic Yearbook, World Population Prospects, World Development Report, World Population Trends and Policies Monitoring Report, and World Population. Within these statistical publications, life expectancy and the infant mortality rate are available for nearly every country each year. However, recent empirical information on mortality in most developing [countries] exists only for a handful of countries. The estimates published in the World Development Report and World Population Prospects are based on old empirical data updated with assumed rates of improvement in mortality. Neither of these sources provides technical notes explaining the original data source, estimation technique, and updating model used. Fortunately, two sources, the World Population Trends and Policies Monitoring Report and World Population, publish only empirically based data clearly identifying source, year of applicability, and estimation technique."
Author's address: Merton College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 4JD, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30137 Nam, Charles B.; Myers, George C. Introduction: an overview of mortality patterns and their policy implications. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987. 97-104 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is an introduction to six articles on mortality patterns that provide "a few illustrations of the conceptual, methodological, and policy developments that have been taking place with regard to studies of mortality." The geographic scope includes developing and industrialized countries.
Author's address: Center for the Study of Population, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30138 Olshansky, S. Jay. Simultaneous/multiple cause-delay (SIMCAD): an epidemiological approach to projecting mortality. Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jul 1987. 358-65 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Methods being used to project mortality are based on the hypothetical elimination of one or more diseases from the population or on extrapolation from observed mortality rates. This research presents an alternative projection method based on an epidemiological theory of aging and mortality change that is consistent with recent mortality transitions. The model is founded on the observation that recent mortality declines in the United States are attributable to improved life styles and advances in the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases and that the risk of dying from such diseases is being redistributed (or delayed) from younger to older ages. A test using U.S. mortality and population data indicates that this alternative method is promising--particularly for projecting mortality rates from major chronic degenerative diseases among populations in middle and older ages." Results of the methodology's application to data for white U.S. women from 1960 to 1978 are given, and results for other race and sex groups are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

53:30139 Rizgalla, M. K. Population of the Sudan and its regions: some aspects of mortality indices in the Sudan. PSC Project Paper, No. 2, Mar 1987. 17 pp. University of Gezira, Faculty of Economics and Rural Development, Population Studies Centre: Wad Medani, Sudan. In Eng.
The author discusses problems associated with the estimation of mortality in the Sudan, with the aim of determining "the level of mortality rates at different ages, the extent [to which] these rates are affected by the extension of health facilities and other development programmes, and what remedial measures should be adopted." The reliability of 1973 census and 1979 Sudan Fertility Survey data is discussed; Coale-Demeny life tables are used to prepare estimates. The study focuses on infant and child mortality and related sex and geographic factors, as well as sanitary and socioeconomic conditions. Comparisons are made with estimated infant mortality rates for selected other countries. Through indirect estimates it is found that "about 140 out of one thousand live births die within their first year of life and that out of those who do survive only 85 percent live to celebrate their second birthday."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30140 Sheri, Fiqiri. Regional distribution of life expectancy for the Albanian people. [Mbi ndryshimet gjeografiko-territoriale te zgjatjes mesatare te jetes se popullit tone.] Studime Gjeografike, No. 1, 1985. 193-206 pp. Tirane, Albania. In Alb. with sum. in Fre.
Recent changes in life expectancy in Albania are analyzed by sex and region for the period 1950-1979. Data are from official sources, including the 1979 census. The analysis indicates that average life expectancy had reached 69.2 years in 1978-1979. The author attributes this improvement and the relative homogeneity in life expectancy among regions to the country's successful efforts at socioeconomic development.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:30141 Swerdlow, A. J. 150 years of Registrar Generals' medical statistics. Population Trends, No. 48, Summer 1987. 20-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The Registrar General has collected national mortality data for England and Wales from death certification since mid 1837. This article outlines the history of these and other OPCS medical statistics, and illustrates some uses of the mortality data to examine long-term trends in cause-specific mortality." Consideration is given to changes in the range of data collected over time and in the types of analysis available.
Author's address: Medical Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, London, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30142 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Mortality levels, patterns, trends and differentials in Africa. African Population Studies Series, No. 8; E/ECA/SER.A/7, 1985. iv, 152 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
Mortality levels, patterns, trends, and differentials in Africa are analyzed. The data concern 12 African countries only and are from censuses and surveys carried out in the 1960s and 1970s, together with medical statistical records, where available. The analysis is presented separately for Eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia), Western Africa (Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), and Northern Africa (Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia). Abridged life tables are provided by sex for each of the countries considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30143 United States. Massachusetts. Department of Public Health (Boston, Massachusetts). Massachusetts mortality chart book, 1969-1971 and 1979-1981: age/sex-specific mortality rates. Pub. Order No. 1M-06-85-805381. Aug 1985. 69 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The purposes of this [report] are to compare the patterns of mortality in Massachusetts at the beginning and end of the past decade and to compare Massachusetts' mortality profile with that of the United States as a whole." The information is organized into three parts. First, "age- and sex-specific death rates for Massachusetts are reported...for 69 and 72 selected causes of death for the years 1969-1971 and 1979-1981 respectively. In Part 2, tables are presented which show age- and sex-specific rates for the two time periods, as well as the percent change for each age/sex group for each cause of death. Part 3 utilizes data from NCHS [U.S. National Center for Health Statistics] and Massachusetts to determine Massachusetts/U.S. ratios for age-specific death rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30144 Vaupel, James W.; Yashin, Anatoli I. Targeting lifesaving: demographic linkages between population structure and life expectancy. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 3-4, May 1987. 335-60 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Four different analytical approaches are used in the paper to analyze the demographic linkages between population structure and life expectancy: the comparative-statics approach, the dynamics approach, computer simulation, and a novel method that we call the 'second-chance' approach. The paper provides some discussion and illustration of the strengths, weaknesses, and interrelationships among these alternative methods of demographic analysis." It is shown that "life expectancy in a heterogeneous population can be increased by lowering mortality rates or by averting deaths at different ages, from different causes, or for different groups, as well as by changing the proportions of individuals in various risk groups, perhaps by altering the transition rates, between groups. Understanding how such changes in population structure affect life expectancy is useful in evaluating alternative lifesaving policies."
Author's address: Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30145 Woods, Robert; Hinde, P. R. Andrew. Mortality in Victorian England: models and patterns. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 18, No. 1, Summer 1987. 27-54 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors critically examine the analysis of mortality in Victorian England developed by Thomas McKeown and others. This perspective involves focusing in detail on the pattern and structure of mortality, with particular reference to variations in age-specific mortality and to regional and local differences. The authors focus on two sets of problems: "first, the estimation of model life tables which will assist the study of changes in the age-specific structure of mortality; and, second, the influence of environment on variations in the level of mortality." The authors conclude that McKeown overemphasized the importance of improvements in nutrition in the decline of mortality rates.
Author's address: Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England.
For the study by Thomas McKeown, published in 1976, see 42:3087.
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

53:30146 Arshat, Hamid; Tan, Boon Ann; Tey, Nai Peng. The effects of life cycle and family formation variables on pregnancy outcome. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 3, No. 2, Dec 1985. 115-25 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
Differentials in pregnancy wastage in two states of Peninsular Malaysia are surveyed. The authors focus on the influence of life cycle and family formation variables as revealed in a 1982 survey of 1,616 pregnancy histories. It is found that "1.1% ended in stillbirths, 6.1% in spontaneous abortions and 2.2% in induced abortions. Life cycle and family formation variables provided far sharper differentials in pregnancy wastage as compared to the ethnic and educational variables. Pregnancy wastage rate varied from just about 5% at maternal age below 20 to 24% at age 40-44, and from about 7.5% at the first two pregnancy orders to 13.8% at the seventh and higher orders. Intervals of one year or less had a wastage of 29.4%. Pregnancy outcome was also strongly associated with the outcome of the preceding pregnancy." Pregnancy outcome data for selected other countries are also presented.
Author's address: National Population and Family Development Board, P.O. Box 10416, 50712 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30147 Geronimus, Arline T. On teenage childbearing and neonatal mortality in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 245-79, 373-4, 376 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The association between teenage childbearing and neonatal mortality [in the United States] is often interpreted as evidence of true age effects. A corresponding expectation is that neonatal mortality will be reduced by prevention of teenage pregnancy. These views are reconsidered in light of new empirical findings and their synthesis with results of previous biomedical and social scientific investigations. An alternative hypothesis is proposed: that the association between teenage childbearing and neonatal mortality reflects unobserved heterogeneity in the population of first-time mothers. Specifically, in the United States, unfavorable life conditions among populations with high early fertility rates have physiological consequences that are proximate determinants of neonatal mortality. This interpretation suggests that policies promoting fertility postponement will not reduce levels of neonatal mortality if, within target populations, the prevalence and effects of important proximate determinants of neonatal mortality are constant or increase with age." The author also comments on the situation in developing countries.
Author's address: Department of Public Health Policy and Administration, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30148 Golding, Jean; Henriques, Jane; Thomas, Peter. Unmarried at delivery. II. Perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early Human Development, Vol. 14, No. 3-4, Dec 1986. 217-27 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The impact of marital status on perinatal mortality in the United Kingdom is analyzed using data from the British Birth Survey, which included 98 percent of all births occurring in one week in April 1970. The results indicate a reduction in birth weight and increased perinatal mortality among the single and previously married compared to currently married mothers.
Author's address: Department of Child Health, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, St. Michael's Hill, Bristol BS2 8BJ, England.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

53:30149 Bongaarts, John. Does family planning reduce infant mortality rates? Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 323-34, 375, 377 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note compares the proportions of high-risk pregnancies in groups of developing countries at different stages of the family planning transition. Countries with relatively high levels of contraceptive use have fewer teenage births as well as fewer births of orders over six, when compared with countries in which family planning is minimal. These differentials would by themselves result in lower infant mortality rates in the later phases of the fertility transition. This effect is offset, however, by the fact that countries with higher levels of contraceptive prevalence also tend to have higher proportions of births of order one and higher proportions of births after short birth intervals, both of which are associated with higher than average mortality risks. The net effect of these two compensating sets of factors on infant mortality rates is very small. Thus, changes in the age/order/interval distributions of births do not necessarily improve the chances of survival of infants as a society moves through a fertility transition." Data sources include selected World Fertility Survey countries; the Matlab, Bangladesh study; and other non-official sources.
Author's address: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30150 Brazil. Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica [IBGE] (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); UNICEF (New York, New York). A statistical profile of children and mothers in Brazil: socioeconomic aspects of infant mortality in urban areas. [Perfil estatistico de criancas e maes no Brasil: aspectos socio-economicos da mortalidade infantil em areas urbanas.] ISBN 82-240-0251-4. 1986. 92 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
This is the fifth in a series of reports concerning aspects of maternal and child health in Brazil. The focus of the present report is on socioeconomic aspects of infant mortality in urban areas. Chapters by different authors are included on trends in urbanization, trends in infant mortality, the impact of health policies, regional aspects, the calculation of infant mortality from available data sources, and socioeconomic factors affecting differentials in urban infant mortality.
For a previous report, published in 1982, see 51:40528.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30151 Carrilho, Maria J. On the recent decline in infant mortality in Portugal. [O declinio recente da mortalidade infantil em Portugal.] Revista do Centro de Estudos Demograficos, No. 27, 1985. 159-99 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Recent trends in infant mortality in Portugal are analyzed. The author notes that infant mortality fell 54 percent between 1975 and 1985 to reach a level of 17.7 per 1,000, and that during this period regional differences in mortality also declined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30152 Choe, Minja Kim. Sex differentials in infant and child mortality in Korea. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1987. 12-25 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a study of infant and child mortality in the Republic of Korea, a country known for a strong son preference, using the 1974 World Fertility Survey data. When the age-specific probabilities of dying for ages zero to five are compared for male and female children, an unusual pattern of relatively high female mortality is observed. The higher female mortality is more pronounced during childhood than infancy. Multivariate analysis of life tables, using a hazard model, shows that covariates influencing the mortality at young ages differ for male and female children and suggests that male and female children receive unequal care by their parents. The analysis also reveals different patterns of interaction between infant and child mortality and mother's fertility control behavior depending on the sex of the child."
Author's address: East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30153 Cramer, James C. Social factors and infant mortality: identifying high-risk groups and proximate causes. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug 1987. 299-322 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines relationships among six social factors and infant mortality in California in 1978 and seeks to explain social differentials in terms of two intervening variables. Linked birth and infant death records [for single live births in California in 1978] are analyzed to test for interactions among the social factors and mortality and for causal linkages involving the intervening variables. Social factors are related to the risk of infant mortality in a conditional manner; significant interactions involve maternal age and both birth order and marital status, and race/ethnicity and both education and marital status. Birth weight and prenatal care are important intervening variables but do not fully explain the social differentials."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 419-20).
Author's address: Sociology Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30154 Garcia Molina, Carlos. Infant mortality and social class: the case of Medellin in the 1970s. [Mortalidad infantil y clases sociales: el caso de Medellin en la decada del 70.] Ediciones del Cincuentenario, ISBN 958-9127-05-3. 1986. 103 pp. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana: Medellin, Colombia. In Spa.
Trends in infant mortality in Medellin, Colombia, are analyzed using data from the 1973 census and a 1981 household survey. The focus is on mortality differentials by social class and how they have changed over time. The author notes that the overall infant mortality rate declined from 62 to 43 per 1,000 between 1970 and 1977, although the differentials between the more privileged and least privileged social classes did not change.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30155 Hogan, Dennis P.; Kertzer, David I. The social bases of declining infant mortality: lessons from a nineteenth-century Italian town. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 3-4, May 1987. 361-85 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors use the Italian population register and related sources to investigate social forces affecting declining infant mortality. They "focus on the town of Casalecchio di Reno, an agricultural community near Bologna, for a period (1865-1921) in which the town shifted from sharecropping to a wage-labour economy, and mortality rates declined sharply. The implications of various social and demographic factors for the likelihood of infant death are examined and related to explanations of the historical decline in infant mortality."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30156 Holland, Bart. Breast-feeding, social variables, and infant mortality: a hazards model analysis of the case of Malaysia. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1987. 78-93 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study is an attempt to use a hazards model to estimate the relative risks of mortality experienced at different periods during the first year of life among Malaysian infants breast-fed for various durations. Data on mortality, breast-feeding, and social variables were obtained from the retrospective Malaysian Family Life Survey [1976] and were used after checking for quality and consistency. Using LOGLIN to calculate hazards models, essentially multidimensional life-tables, we found that breast-feeding had an effect on mortality independent of socioeconomic variables and birth cohort. There was a monotonic relationship between breast-feeding duration and lower infant mortality during each of the four subdivisions of the first year of life. Breast-feeding was a statistically significant predictor of mortality in the first six months. The results are compared with those from [a 1982] Rand study, which employed regression rather than hazards models."
Author's address: Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, 100 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07103.
For the Rand study, by W. P. Butz et al., published in 1982, see 48:30191.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30157 Khristov, Emil. Probability evaluation of yearly infant mortality. [Veroyatnostna otsenka na detskata smartnost za otdelna kalendarna godina.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1987. 67-79 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A critical survey of the most commonly used indexes of infant mortality rates by year is presented. "The most reliable index per year is Beck's coefficient. It improves with the migration balance of the external and internal migration of children which is observed in accordance with 'elementary aggregates'. The number of live-born children is corrected by two-thirds of the migration balance in the lower elementary aggregate. The number of children born during the previous year who have survived until the beginning of the current one is corrected by one-third of the migration balance in the upper elementary aggregate. These corrections can be improved by the ratio of the migration balances in the lower and upper elementary aggregates. The final results for the infantile mortality are evaluated stochastically." The method is illustrated using Bulgarian data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30158 Kunitz, Stephen J.; Simic, Snezana; Odoroff, Charles L. Infant mortality and economic instability in Yugoslavia. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 11, 1987. 953-60 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This article examines fluctuations since World War II in economic conditions and infant mortality in Yugoslavia, focusing particularly on the increases in infant mortality that have been recorded in recent years. "Efforts to manage Yugoslavia's debt crisis beginning in 1979 led to economic policies which resulted in declining real income in subsequent years. This has been associated with a slowing of the rate at which infant mortality has declined. There is no evidence, however, that populations in poor parts of the country experienced a more dramatic impact on infant mortality than did populations in more favored regions. The lack of difference is attributed to redistributive social policies among and within republics."
Author's address: Department of Preventive, Family and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30159 Mbacke, Cheikh S. M. Estimating child mortality from retrospective reports by mothers at time of a new birth: the case of the EMIS surveys. Pub. Order No. DA8703242. 1986. 181 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for deriving child mortality estimates from the retrospective child survivorship data collected through the EMIS surveys (Infant Mortality Surveys in the Sahel)." Particular attention is given to data for Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. "The methodology is [also] tested against U.S. historical data and yields infant mortality trends similar to those recorded by the Civil Registration System." The author suggests that "demographers should increasingly use the facilities of the Health System for the study of mortality in developing countries in general, and in Sub-Saharan Africa in particular, now that the techniques for estimating child mortality from conditional samples exist."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(10).

53:30160 Millman, Sara R.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C. Birth weight and the effects of birth spacing and breastfeeding on infant mortality. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 202-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The major goal of the present research is to determine more conclusively the magnitude and direction of the effects of breastfeeding and birth spacing on infant and early childhood mortality. This requires use of research methodology that takes account of the complexity of the relationships involved. Recent analyses in this area have utilized World Fertility Survey (WFS) data from a number of countries....A second goal of the present research is to validate this body of work by investigating the effect on substantive results of data limitations of the World Fertility Surveys. Data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS) are employed....Our methodological work explores the impact of a focus on last and next-to-last versus all births, and of including or omitting the control for birth weight....We begin with a discussion of the many links among birth spacing, breastfeeding, and early mortality. This is followed by a brief description of the data available from the MFLS and a discussion of the methodology employed. Results of two separate analyses are presented....We conclude with a discussion of the policy implications of our findings."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30161 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Regional variations in infant mortality in Morocco (a study by province). [Variations regionales de la mortality infantile au Maroc (etude par province).] Feb 1987. 59 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Differentials in infant mortality by province in Morocco are analyzed using 1982 census data. Following a review of existing knowledge on infant mortality in Morocco, the methodology used in the present study is outlined. Results obtained by direct and indirect methods of estimation are compared. The results highlight the situation of high mortality in rural areas. Significant differences in the levels of infant mortality among urban areas are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30162 Orekhov, K. V.; Novikov, O. M. An approach to a number of demographic indicators in the North. [K traktovke ryada demograficheskikh pokazatelei na Severe.] Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie, No. 9, 1986. 27-31 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The demographic impact on children of the severe climate of the northern USSR is examined. Particular attention is given to the relationship between length of residence in the North and infant mortality.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30163 Ram, F.; Girimaji, Jyothi H.; Umamani, K. S. Infant and childhood mortality in Karnataka: levels, trends and differentials assessed through indirect techniques. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 8, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1985. 168-80 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the levels, trends and differentials in infant and childhood mortality by analysing different surveys conducted from time to time in Karnataka [India]. It is observed that [the] infant mortality rate (IMR) for the State of Karnataka was around 200 per 1,000 live births before 1950. The estimate of IMR from [the] 1972 Fertility Survey of India is around 128 for rural and 83 for urban areas. The analysis of 1981 census data gives us the estimate of IMR as 95 for rural areas and 59 for urban areas....The IMR for males from 1981 census data is higher than females irrespective of area. The mortality differentials beyond infancy are not very clear. The analysis of 1981 census data by religion shows that infant and childhood mortality is higher for Hindus followed by Christians and Muslims."
Author's address: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30164 Robinson, Diane; Pinch, Steven. A geographical analysis of the relationship between early childhood death and socio-economic environment in an English city. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1987. 9-18 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between early childhood death and socio-economic conditions was studied by obtaining the home address, at the time of death, of 254 infants and children between the ages of 0 to 5 years who died within the City of Southampton, England, between 1977 and 1982. The addresses were grouped into 142 'super-enumeration' districts formed by combining enumeration districts with similar socio-economic characteristics. These 'super-enumeration' districts were then categorised into 15 cluster types which highlighted the major social characteristics of the areas within Southampton. The number of deaths for each cluster type was then ascertained. A strong relationship was found to exist between high rates of early childhood death and cluster types displaying adverse social conditions--in particular, high levels of unemployment, single-parent families and poor housing amenities."
Author's address: Department of Primary Medical Care, Aldermoor Health Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton S09 5NH, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30165 Schramm, Wayne F.; Barnes, Diane E.; Bakewell, Janice M. Neonatal mortality in Missouri home births, 1978-84. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 8, Aug 1987. 930-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A study was conducted of 4,054 Missouri home births occurring from 1978 through 1984. Of the 3,645 births whose planning status was identified, 3,067 (84 per cent) were planned to be at home. Neonatal mortality was elevated for both planned (17 observed deaths vs 8.59 expected deaths) and unplanned home births (45 observed vs 33.19 expected) compared with physician-attended hospital births. Nearly all of the mortality excess for planned home births occurred in association with lesser trained attendants (12 observed vs 4.42 expected), while for unplanned home births the excess was entirely among infants weighing 1,500 grams or more (19 observed vs 3.50 expected). For planned home births attended by physicians, certified nurse-midwives, or Missouri Midwife Association recognized midwives, there was little difference between observed and expected deaths (5 observed vs 3.92 expected)....The study provides evidence of the importance of having skilled attendants present at planned home births."
Author's address: Bureau of Health Data Analysis, Missouri Department of Health, P.O. Box 570, Jefferson City, MO 64102.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30166 Stockwell, Edward G.; Bedard, Marcia; Swanson, David A.; Wicks, Jerry W. Public policy and the socioeconomic mortality differential in infancy. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987. 105-21 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper discusses some of the findings and policy implications of a recently completed study of socioeconomic differences in infant mortality in eight metropolitan areas of Ohio at three points in time. The study revealed that, in spite of a considerable decline in the overall rate of infant mortality since 1960, the inverse socioeconomic differential remains as wide as ever. This clearly suggests that, although maternal and child health has improved overall, the lower economic groups in our society still do not have equal access either to health care or to other amenities essential to maintenance of good health. Moreover, consideration of recent and current policy proposals with respect to welfare programs in general, and maternal and child health care programs in particular, leads to the conclusion that this situation is not likely to change in the near future. Finally, some policy recommendations for enhancing the health status of low-income families are offered."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30167 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations (Washington, D.C.); United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Health and the Environment (Washington, D.C.). Infant mortality rates: failure to close the black-white gap. Hearing, March 16, 1984 (98th Congress, 2nd session). Serial, No. 98-131, 1984. v, 362 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report concerns a joint hearing before the Oversight and Investigations and Health and the Environment Subcommittees of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce pertaining to differentials in infant mortality between blacks and whites in the United States. The focus of the hearing is on the extent to which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is fulfilling the goal of reducing infant mortality, particularly with respect to lowering the higher infant death rate experienced by blacks.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30168 Victora, Cesar G.; Barros, Fernando C.; Vaughan, J. Patrick; Teixeira, Ana M. B. Birthweight and infant mortality: a longitudinal study of 5,914 Brazilian children. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1987. 239-45 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In a population-based cohort study in Southern Brazil, 87.3% of 5,914 liveborn infants [born in 1982] were followed for over 12 months. The 215 infant deaths occurring in this cohort were studied in relation to birthweight, gestational age and socioeconomic status. Causes of death were ascertained through the review of case notes and interviews with the parents. As predicted, there was a strong inverse association between birthweight and neonatal and postneonatal mortality....There was an interaction between birthweight and socioeconomic status, with the relative risk of mortality associated with low birthweight being much larger among rich than among poor infants. Estimates of the magnitude of the reduction in infant mortality which would accompany a given improvement in the birthweight distribution, which have been mostly based on data from developed countries, may prove to be overoptimistic."
Author's address: Department of Social Medicine, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, C.P. 464, 96100 Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30169 Victora, Cesar G.; Vaughan, J. Patrick; Lombardi, Cintia; Fuchs, Sandra M. C.; Gigante, Luciana P.; Smith, Peter G.; Nobre, Leticia C.; Teixeira, Ana M. B.; Moreira, Leila B.; Barros, Fernando C. Evidence for protection by breast-feeding against infant deaths from infectious diseases in Brazil. Lancet, No. 8554, Aug 8, 1987. 319-22 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between type of infant nutrition and infant mortality in Brazil is explored. The data concern infant deaths in the urban areas of Porto Alegre and Pelotas collected from hospital, coroner, and health authority registers in 1984 and 1985. "Compared with infants who were breast-fed with no milk supplements...those completely weaned had 14.2 and 3.6 times the risk of death from diarrhoea and respiratory infections, respectively."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30170 Woodruff, A. W.; Adamson, E. A.; El Suni, Asma; Maughan, T. S.; Kaku, M.; Bundru, W. Children in Juba, Southern Sudan: the second and third years of life. Lancet, No. 8507, Sep 13, 1986. 615-8 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The results of a prospective study of child health in the Sudan are presented. The present report concerns morbidity and mortality in the second and third years of life. The data are for 112 children surviving to age one. The mortality rate in the second year of life is 8.1 percent, with the primary cause of death being chronic undernutrition.
Author's address: c/o Norwegian Church Aid/Sudan Programme, P.O. Box 52802, Nairobi, Kenya.
For a related report, published in 1984, see 50:30193.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

53:30171 Nault, Francois; Boleda, Mario; Legare, Jacques. Estimation of adult mortality based on the proportion of orphans: some empirical verification using data from Canada, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. [Estimacion de la mortalidad adulta a partir de la proporcion de huerfanos: algunas verificaciones empiricas basadas en datos del Canada, siglos XVII y XVIII.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 14, No. 42, Dec 1986. 9-23 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors use data on mortality in Canada during the period of French rule from 1608 to 1765 to test indirect methods of estimating adult mortality developed by Henry and by Brass and Hill. The study is based on family data for Quebec reconstituted by the Program in Historical Demography at the University of Montreal. The results indicate that both methods yield very acceptable results.
Author's address: University of Montreal, CP6128, Succarsale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada.
This is a translation of the French article, also published in 1986 and cited in 52:40642.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

53:30172 Armstrong, Robert J. U.S. decennial life tables for 1979-81. Volume I, Number 4: some trends and comparisons of United States life-table data: 1900-1981. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1150-4. LC 85-600190. Jun 1987. iv, 10 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the fourth in a series of reports concerning the U.S. decennial life-table program. "Decennial life tables have been periodically constructed for the years 1900-1981, with the first set of tables covering the period 1900-1902 and the ninth set, 1979-81. This report presents data for 1979-81 and examines the trends in life expectancy occurring since 1900. Each set of the life tables is based on data from the U.S. decennial population census (conducted 1900...1980) and from deaths occurring in the death-registration States during the 3-year period surrounding the census year." Tables include data on average lifetime by race and sex for the country as a whole and for individual states.
For related publications concerning the referenced life tables, see 52:10215, 52:10216, and 53:20181.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30173 Armstrong, Robert J. U.S. decennial life tables for 1979-81. Volume 1, Number 4. Some trends and comparisons of United States life table data: 1900-1981. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1150-4. LC 85-600190. Jun 1987. iv, 10 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Decennial life tables [for the United States] have been periodically constructed for the years 1900-1981, with the first set of tables covering the period 1900-1902 and the ninth set, 1979-81. This report presents data for 1979-81 and examines the trends in life expectancy occurring since 1900." This is the fourth in a series of reports containing life tables for 1979-1981. Tables provide sex- and race-specific data on average life expectancy and differences in longevity by state. For comparative purposes, figures on sex-specific average life expectancy and excess of female over male life expectancy are furnished for selected other countries.
For a related publication by Armstrong and Lester R. Curtin, also published in 1987, see 53:20181.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30174 Enriquez de Salamanca Navarro, Rafael; Conquero Gago, Aurora. Recent evaluations of mortality among pensioners, due to work accidents. [Evaluaciones recientes de la mortalidad en los pensionistas derivadas de accidentes de trabajo.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, Vol. 44, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 483-501 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
New life tables applicable to pensioners in Spain having work-related accidents are calculated using data for 1974 and 1978. Differences between these new tables and those used previously are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30175 Golata, Elzbieta. Integrated life tables by marital status: Poland, 1982-1984. [Zintegrowane tablice trwania zycia wedlug stanu cywilnego. Polska 1982-1984.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 31-57 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author constructs integrated, multi-radix life tables by marital status for Poland for the years 1982-1984 using the Rogers-Willekens algorithm. A comparative analysis is presented of number of survivors and expectation of life for cohorts of never married, married, widowed, and divorced by five-year age group and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30176 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 3. Geographical mortality differentials in Hungary, 1983 (complete and abridged life tables). 1987. 90 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of annual publications that will contain life tables for Hungary by sex. Abridged life tables are also included for cities and towns, villages, Budapest, and counties. The life tables presented are for 1983.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30177 Malaysia. Jabatan Perangkaan (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Revised life tables by sex and ethnic group for Peninsular Malaysia, 1970 and 1980. [Kajian semula jadual-jadual hayat mengikut jantina dan kumpulan etnik bagi Semenanjung Malaysia, 1970 dan 1980.] Kajian Mengenai Subjek Demografi dan Penduduk/Studies on Demographic and Population Subjects, No. 3, Jul 1986. v, 34 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng; Mal.
Life tables are presented for Peninsular Malaysia for 1970 and 1980. A review of previously published life tables is included. The life tables are presented by major ethnic group and sex.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

53:30178 Matsushita, Keiichiro; Inaba, Hisashi. Hazard function and life tables: an introduction to failure time analysis. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 182, Apr 1987. 36-50 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors discuss failure time analysis with respect to demographic studies. "It can be viewed as a part of regression analysis with limited dependent variables as well as a special case of event history analysis and multistate demography....The concept of hazard function in comparison with life tables is briefly described, where the force of mortality is interchangeable with the hazard rate. The basic idea of failure time analysis is summarized for the cases of exponential distribution, normal distribution, and proportional hazard models. [The] multiple decrement life table is also introduced as an example of lifetime data analysis with cause-specific hazard rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30179 Mitra, S. On "A new look at entropy and the life table". Demography, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug 1987. 439-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent paper by Noreen Goldman and Graham Lord concerning the entropy of the life table. A reply by Goldman and Lord (pp. 441-2) is also included.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Emory University, Annex C, Fishburne Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322.
For the paper by Goldman and Lord, published in 1986, see 52:20207.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30180 Moussa, M. A. A. Analysis of underlying and multiple-cause mortality data: the life table methods. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 3-19 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The stochastic compartment model concepts are employed to analyse and construct complete and abbreviated (1) total mortality life tables, (2) multiple-decrement life tables for a disease, under the underlying and pattern-of-failure definitions of mortality risk. (3) cause-elimination life tables, (4) cause-elimination effects on saved population through the gain in life expectancy as a consequence of eliminating the mortality risk, (5) cause-delay life tables designed to translate the clinically observed increase in survival time as the population gain in life expectancy that would occur if a treatment protocol was made available to the general population and (6) life tables for disease dependency in multiple-cause data." Data from Kuwait are used to illustrate these concepts in an appendix.
Author's address: Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30181 Namboodiri, Krishnan; Suchindran, C. M. Life table techniques and their applications. Studies in Population, ISBN 0-12-513930-6. LC 86-17213. 1987. xii, 275 pp. Academic Press: Orlando, Florida/London, England. In Eng.
This book is an introduction to life table methods and their applications. "Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are concerned with the traditional life table focusing on death (exit from life). Departing from the usual treatment, attention is given in Chapter 3 to viewing the life table as a Markov process....Chapter 4 is concerned with life tables based on survey and observational data, while Chapter 5 is devoted to comparisons of life tables....Chapters 6, 7, and 8 are devoted to multiple-decrement life tables....Chapter 9...is concerned with multistate life tables, traditionally known by the term increment-decrement life tables....In Chapter 10, lifetime is viewed as a random variable, and Chapters 11, 12, and 13 cover various approaches to examining factors affecting the 'length of life.'"
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

53:30182 Alexander, Freda E.; O'Brien, Fiona; Hepburn, Wilma; Miller, Margaret. Association between mortality among women and socioeconomic factors in general practices in Edinburgh: an application of small area statistics. British Medical Journal, Vol. 295, No. 6601, Sep 26, 1987. 254-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between various socioeconomic factors and mortality in Edinburgh, Scotland, is analyzed. The data concern women aged 45 to 64 who were followed up for five to seven years, among whom 2,231 deaths occurred. "High positive correlations were found between standardised mortality ratios and the socioeconomic variables, with the highest being for percentage overcrowding." The results indicate that the relationship between measures of deprivation and excess mortality can be shown for women without reference to their husbands' occupations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30183 Barnet, C.; Bouvier-Colle, M. H. Female mortality and occupational activity in France (a comparison, 1975-1982). [Mortalite feminine et activite professionnelle en France (comparaison 1975-1982).] Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 34, No. 4-5, 1986. 345-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The study of the relationship between occupation and health in [France in] 1975, indicated a high excess mortality among inactive females. The decline of mortality and the increase in the number of working women recorded recently, have not changed the thrust of the relation. The analysis of the 1982 data shows a rise in the excess mortality of inactives, caused by an increase of the selection effect. The study of...mortality taking into account...marital status shows that it is the transition to working status of many married--therefore preselected--women that has increased the differences in the state of health between active and inactive women."
Author's address: INSERM U164, Unite de Recherche sur l'Evaluation de l'Etat de Sante et des Systemes de Soins et de Prevention, 44 Chemin de Ronde, F78110 Le Vesinet, France.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30184 Das Gupta, Monica. Selective discrimination against female children in rural Punjab, India. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 77-100, 189, 191 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Sex differentials in child mortality in rural Punjab persist unexpectedly despite relative wealth, socioeconomic development including rapid universalization of female education, fertility decline, and mortality decline. The most striking finding is that discrimination against girls is not generalized but highly selective: sex differentials in mortality are affected far more by birth order than by socioeconomic factors....Fertility reduction appears to heighten such selective discrimination. Sex discrimination has often been attributed to a lack of female participation in productive activities and also to economic hardship. This analysis emphasizes the role of women's structural marginalization in this patrilineally organized society in explaining the existence as well as the persistence of sex discrimination."
Author's address: National Council of Applied Economic Research, New Delhi, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30185 Evans, Ronald; Bidegain, Gabriel; Lopez, Diego; Ubilla, Guacolda. Mortality under the microscope: mortality differentials by cause, socioeconomic group, and municipality in the Sucre district of the State of Miranda, Venezuela. [La mortalidad bajo el microscopio: diferenciales de la mortalidad por causas, grupos socioeconomicos y por municipios en el distrito Sucre Estado Miranda, Venezuela.] 1987. x, 354 pp. Consucre: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The authors analyze mortality trends in the Sucre district of Miranda state, Venezuela. Data are based on information from all birth and death certificates issued during 1984. Aspects considered include social class, life expectancy, infant mortality, and causes of death. Health and demographic characteristics of the area are investigated, including geography, population growth, educational level, economic activity, and sanitary conditions. Data are also presented on age and sex differentials in mortality, family patterns, accidents, and occupational deaths.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30186 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 2. Area mortality differentials, IX. An ecological study of mortality differentials in Budapest, 1980-1983, Part I: mortality differentials of the male subpopulations of the districts of Budapest. 1987. 109 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is one of a series of reports concerning differential mortality in Hungary. It presents an analysis of male mortality differentials among the 22 districts of Budapest during the period 1980-1983. Significant differences in life expectancy, ranging up to 5.5 years, are identified. These differences are most apparent in the age group 40-59 years of age. It is concluded that the primary causes of the observed differences are socioeconomic in origin.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30187 Iversen, Lars; Andersen, Otto; Andersen, Per K.; Christoffersen, Kirsten; Keiding, Niels. Unemployment and mortality in Denmark, 1970-80. British Medical Journal, Vol. 295, No. 6603, Oct 10, 1987. 879-84 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Relative mortality in the period 1970-80 was studied among Danish men and women who were unemployed and employed on the day of the 1970 census. The study population consisted of the total labour force in the age range 20-64 on 9 November 1970--that is, about 2 million employed and 22,000 unemployed people. Relative mortality was analysed by a multiplicative hazard regression model (as a natural extension of the standardised mortality ratio) and a multiplicative regression model with extra-Poisson variation. A significantly increased death rate (40-50%) was found among the unemployed after adjusting for occupation, housing category, geographical region, and marital state. Analysis of five main causes of death showed increased mortality from all causes, but especially from suicide or accidents. In areas where the local unemployment rate was comparatively high the relative mortality among the unemployed was lower."
Author's address: Institute of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30188 Jarvis, George K.; Northcott, Herbert C. Religion and differences in morbidity and mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 7, 1987. 813-24 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Religion and its effects on morbidity and mortality (with particular emphasis on mortality) are reviewed as are special issues which have in the past made the study of religion and death difficult. The morbidity and mortality experience of various religious groups is portrayed, including Protestants, Catholics, Jews, Muslims, the clergy, Seventh-day Adventists, Latter-day Saints, Parsis, Jehovah's Witnesses and Hutterites. Studies of religious effects on morbidity and mortality have broadened in focus from the study of specific health practices, or health-related behaviors, to include the study of social support, religious participation and health-related attitudes. Gaps in the literature are identified and a preliminary model of religion's effect on morbidity and mortality is discussed." The geographic focus in on Europe and North America, with some consideration also given to groups in Israel and India.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30189 Jozan, Peter. An ecological study of mortality differentials in Budapest, 1980-1983. [A Budapesti halandosagi kulonbsegek okologiai vizsgalata, 1980-1983.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 2-3, 1986. 193-240 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality differentials in Budapest, Hungary, during the period 1980-1983 are analyzed. Significant differences in life expectancy among districts of the city are noted, ranging up to five years for males. "By causes of deaths the greatest mortality differences can be observed...[in] mortality caused by cirrhosis of the liver originating from alcohol, suicide, cerebral haemorrhage, malignant neoplasm of the stomach and violence." The main factors affecting differential mortality are identified as differences in socioeconomic status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30190 Karkal, Malini. Differentials in mortality by sex. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 32, Aug 8, 1987. 1,343-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author argues that although the gap between male and female life expectancy in India has diminished since 1961, this is not a significant indication of an improvement in the overall health status of women, since most of the gain has occurred among older-aged women. "Moreover, the continuing high rates of infant mortality, especially in the perinatal period, and the large proportion of low birth weight babies with poor chances of survival is a clear indication of the poor health of women in India."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30191 Kenen, Regina; Hammerslough, Charles R. Reservation and non-reservation American Indian mortality in 1970 and 1978. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1987. 26-36 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Mortality rates by age and sex of American Indians living in reservation and non-reservation counties were compared for 1970 and 1978. An apparent overcount in the 1980 census enumeration of American Indians curtails rigorous comparisons, but broad differences can be delineated. The main improvement in American Indian mortality during the decade was in age group 0-4. In 1970, non-reservation death rates were not different from reservation rates. By the end of the decade, non-reservation deaths had diverged downward from reservation deaths. An analysis of 1978 death rates by poverty status showed that non-reservation death rates are sensitive to county poverty level, whereas reservation death rates are not."
Author's address: Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Trenton State College, Trenton, NJ 08625.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30192 Krishnaji, N. Poverty and sex ratio: some data and speculations. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 23, Jun 6, 1987. 892-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This note is concerned with the question: how are mortality differentials and the imbalance between the sexes [in India] related to poverty? In other words, are the differences wider in poor families than in rich families? Two relationships are analysed: the first, sex ratio variations across families with landholdings of different sizes and between agricultural labour and other rural households; the second, between poverty, defined by per capita consumption of families, and the sex ratio."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30193 Kurtz, Richard A. Demographic patterns and Kuwaiti--non-Kuwaiti mortality differentials, 1977-1981. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1985. 96-104 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Kuwait is characterized by two significant demographic features. One is its position in the transitional growth stage of population change, and the other is its ethnic diversity. These features have led to particular types of mortality experiences. Consistent with transitional growth, mortality rates are very low, among the lowest in the world. Ethnic diversity is evident in the observation that more than one-half of the population is non-Kuwaiti, most of whom are employable-age males who have migrated to the country for work. Across-the-board, Kuwaiti mortality rates are much higher than non-Kuwaiti rates, primarily because of migration selectivity." Data are from official sources.
Author's address: Kuwait University, Kuwait.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:30194 Marmot, M. G.; McDowall, M. E. Mortality decline and widening social inequalities. Lancet, No. 8501, Aug 2, 1986. 274-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
Trends in mortality from heart disease and other major causes in the United Kingdom are examined using data from the Decennial Supplements on Occupational Mortality, with the focus on mortality differences by sex, socioeconomic status, and geographic region. "With the use of 1979/83 death rates as standard, mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes, lung cancer, CHD [coronary heart disease], and cerebrovascular disease in 1979/83 were compared with SMRs in 1970-72. Despite the general fall in the mortality the relative disadvantage of manual compared with non-manual classes has increased for each of these 4 cause groups. The regional differences in CHD mortality persist."
Author's address: Middlesex Hospital Medical School, London WC1E 6EA, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30195 Mazur, Alicja. Differentials in mortality and life expectancy among large cities in Poland (1982-1984). [Zroznicowanie umieralnosci i trwania zycia w przekroju wielkich miast w Polsce (1982-1984).] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 59-85 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes mortality differentials for the years 1982-1984 in 38 Polish cities with populations greater than 100,000. Standardized death rates and indicators of dissimilarity in age structure among the towns are calculated. "Using...abridged life tables [for the years] 1982-1984 for large cities, the correlation coefficients were calculated between selected parameters: mean length of life, mean length of life of one year old children, infant death probability, [and] crude and standardized mortality rates. The analysis was made separately for men and women...." No significant correlation between mortality rates and size of town is found.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30196 Nathanson, Constance A.; Lopez, Alan D. The future of sex mortality differentials in industrialized countries: a structural hypothesis. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987. 123-36 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper advances the hypothesis that the future of sex mortality differentials in industrialized countries may depend on the future mortality rates of blue collar men. Data are presented to support the argument that mortality rates from ischemic heart disease for this population subgroup play a significant role in current differentials and, furthermore, that sex-social class-mortality differentials correspond to social structure differences in protection against and/or exposure to health risks. Research and policy implications of this argument are addressed briefly." Data from official and other U.S. and Canadian sources are used to illustrate the hypothesis.
Author's address: Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21218.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30197 Pocock, S. J.; Shaper, A. G.; Cook, D. G.; Phillips, A. N.; Walker, M. Social class differences in ischaemic heart disease in British men. Lancet, No. 8552, Jul 25, 1987. 197-201 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
Social class differences in ischemic heart disease mortality in the United Kingdom are examined using data on 7,735 middle-aged men from the British Regional Heart Study, who were followed up over a six-year period. The increased level of heart attacks among manual workers compared with that of nonmanual workers is largely explained by differences in cigarette smoking, levels of blood pressure, obesity, and physical activity during leisure hours.
Author's address: Department of Clinical Epidemiology and General Practice, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30198 Porter, Jane B.; Jick, Hershel; Walker, Alexander M. Mortality among oral contraceptive users. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 70, No. 1, Jul 1987. 29-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze mortality among oral contraceptive users in the United States using data for two study groups of women aged 15-44. Results are recorded for age group and cause of death, including malignancy, cardiovascular disease, other, and external causes. It is found that "the occurrence of fatal conditions was substantially similar in a large population of recent, healthy oral contraceptive users and comparable nonusers at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound during the years 1977-1981. There were no deaths from cardiovascular disease among those who were oral contraceptive users at the onset of their cardiovascular illness; there was one death from liver cancer, probably attributable to oral contraceptive use; and there were no deaths from complications of pregnancy among either users or nonusers."
Author's address: Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Boston University Medical Center, 400 Totten Pond Road, Waltham, MA 02154.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, MD.

53:30199 Vagero, Denny; Persson, Gunnar. Cancer survival and social class in Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 3, Sep 1987. 204-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A study of 98,000 cases in the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1961 to 1979 was undertaken. The relative survival by social class was calculated. There was a higher survival probability for white collar workers than for blue collar workers or self-employed farmers for all cancer, as well as for particular cancers, such as, for instance, cancer of the breast and cervix among women and cancer of the rectum among men. For lung cancer, cancer of the stomach, and pancreatic cancer there were no detectable differences in survival probability. The findings can be considered in the light of various possible explanations, for instance, early detection, differential treatment, and host factors."
Author's address: Department of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

53:30200 Anatra, Bruno. The plague of 1647-1658 in the Western Mediterranean: the Italian side. [La peste del 1647-1658 nel Mediterraneo occidentale: il versante italiano.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 3-13 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Ita.
The author first describes the geographic diffusion of the plague that occurred in the Western Mediterranean in the mid-seventeenth century. He then discusses the effects of the outbreak in various parts of Italy and its demographic and socioeconimic consequences.
Author's address: Piazza S. Giuseppe 3, Cagliari 09100, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30201 Angelini, Lauretta; Guidi, Enrica; Carletti, Corrado. Verification of the quality of death certificates: comparing municipal data and data from ISTAT. [Verifica della qualita della certificazione di morte: confronto fra dati comunali e dati ISTAT.] Statistica, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 121-8 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors compare the accuracy of death certification data from the municipality of Ferrara and data from a machine-readable tape produced in 1980 by the Italian Statistical Office (ISTAT). The results show a close similarity in data from the two sources, with some discrepancies, which are discussed.
Author's address: Commune di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30202 Avalos Triana, Octavio; Rodriguez Soto, Agustin. Premature mortality by selected causes, Cuba 1981. [Mortalidad prematura por algunas causas de defuncion seleccionadas, Cuba 1981.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 103-17 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors estimate premature mortality due to selected causes of death for different age groups, particularly at early ages, using an indicator of potential years of life lost by a population. Premature mortality in Cuba in 1981 is calculated by sex for 10 selected causes of death and for all causes.
Author's address: Calle 12, No. 305 entre 3a y 5a, Miramar, Municipio Playa, Havana, Cuba.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30203 Baker, Susan P.; Whitfield, R. A.; O'Neill, Brian. Geographic variations in mortality from motor vehicle crashes. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 316, No. 22, May 28, 1987. 1,384-7 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Using a new technique to study the mortality associated with motor vehicle crashes, we calculated population-based death rates of occupants of motor vehicles during the period 1979 through 1981 and mapped them according to county for the 48 contiguous states of the United States. Mortality was highest in counties of low population density...and was also inversely correlated with per capita income....Differences in road characteristics, travel speeds, seat-belt use, types of vehicles, and availability of emergency care may have been major contributors to these relations."
Author's address: Injury Prevention Center, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30204 Barker, D. J. P.; Osmond, C. Death rates from stroke in England and Wales predicted from past maternal mortality. British Medical Journal, Vol. 295, No. 6590, Jul 11, 1987. 83-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine geographic patterns of maternal mortality and death rates from stroke in England and Wales. It is found that "geographical differences in maternal mortality in England and Wales during 1911-4 correlate closely with death rates from stroke in the generation born around that time. The geographical distribution of stroke is more closely related to past maternal mortality than to any leading cause of death, past or present, except ischaemic heart disease, for which correlation coefficients with stroke are similar. This relation is new evidence that poor health and physique of mothers are important determinants of the risk of stroke among their offspring."
Author's address: Medical Research Council Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO9 4XY, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30205 Boerma, J. Ties. Levels of maternal mortality in developing countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 213-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper is aimed at improving our ability to assess the magnitude of maternal mortality in developing countries, where reliable data on maternal deaths are scarce. First, the upper and lower limits of maternal mortality in a population are determined based on the general levels of mortality and fertility in a population. The relative importance of maternal deaths as a proportion of death among women of reproductive ages may, therefore, vary from less than 1 percent in low-mortality countries to about 25-30 percent in high-mortality countries. Second, the analysis and interpretation of maternal mortality data from health facilities and vital registration systems can be improved if a variety of other data sources are used, such as coverage of deliveries in hospitals and at home, and all causes of death among women of reproductive age. It is estimated that approximately 515,000 women died annually due to pregnancy-related causes in developing countries between 1980 and 1985. Ninety percent of these deaths took place in Africa and South Asia, where births are frequent and maternal mortality levels are high."
Author's address: Primary Health Care, UNICEF/WHO, P.O. Box 44145, Nairobi, Kenya.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30206 Boszormenyi, Ede. On the history of suicides in Hungary, Part 2. [A magyarorszagi ongyilkossagok tortenetehez (II).] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1986. 417-35 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Suicide mortality in Hungary is reviewed. The author notes an increase in recorded suicides after 1820 and 1860, but with differences between Catholics and Protestants in the characteristics of suicides. The analysis is continued up to 1985.
For a related citation by the same author, published in 1975, see 43:3281.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30207 Brenner, M. Harvey. Economic change, alcohol consumption and heart disease mortality in nine industrialized countries. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1987. 119-32 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the question of whether economic changes--including economic growth, unemployment and business failures--and alcohol consumption by beverage type are independently related to heart disease mortality. Controls for cigarette and animal fat consumption are also employed in a multivariate time series analysis. Data for nine countries in the post World War II era are investigated: Australia, Canada, England and Wales, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Sweden and the United States. In all nine countries unemployment and business failures are positively related to heart disease mortality, and in eight countries the trend of economic growth shows an inverse relationship. The relation of alcohol consumption to heart disease mortality depends on beverage type."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30208 Capocaccia, R.; Farchi, G.; Mariotti, S.; Verdecchia, A.; Angeli, A.; Morganti, P.; Panichelli Fucci, M. L. Mortality in Italy in 1981. [La mortalita in Italia nell' anno 1981.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 86/42, Dec 1986. iv, 55 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The authors analyze causes of death in Italy in 1981. They examine 45 different causes of death by age and sex for the country as a whole, the three major geographic regions, and individual provinces. This volume is the third in a series, previous issues of which covered the periods 1970-1979 and 1980.
Publisher's address: Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30209 Charlton, John; Lakhani, Azim; Aristidou, Maria. How have "avoidable death" indices for England and Wales changed? 1974-78 compared with 1979-83. Community Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 4, Nov 1986. 304-14 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Changes in age-standardized mortality ratios for eight major disease groups in England and Wales are compared for the periods 1974-1978 and 1979-1983 for the country as a whole and its regions. "For each of the causes of death studied, except asthma, the death rates have declined substantially. The degree of geographic heterogeneity remains high, and for all disease groups apart from appendicitis and maternal death, is greater than is likely to have occurred by chance. Most of the increase in asthma deaths was in the age group 15 to 34 years. For hypertension and stroke, tuberculosis, chronic rheumatic heart disease and appendicitis the relative decline has been fairly uniform across age groups. For cervical cancer there has been a rise in mortality amongst women aged less than 44 years and a fall in the older age groups."
Author's address: Department of Community Medicine, United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals, St. Thomas' Campus, London SE1 7EH, England.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30210 de Freitas, Eduardo. Suicide and the young population. [Suicidio e populacao jovem.] Revista do Centro de Estudos Demograficos, No. 27, 1985. 137-57 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in suicide among age groups 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 in Portugal are analyzed for the period 1963-1983. Differences are noted between the north and south and between urban and rural areas. Consideration is also given to the impact on suicide rates of changes over time in the educational system and in the economy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30211 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Mezzanotte, Guerrino; Cislaghi, Cesare. Birth cohort, time, and age effects in Italian cancer mortality. Cancer, Vol. 59, No. 6, Mar 15, 1987. 1,221-32 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Italian death certification data from 1955 to 1979 for total cancer mortality and 30 cancer sites in the population aged 25 to 74, were analyzed using a log-linear Poisson model to isolate the effects of birth cohort, calendar period of death, and age. The most frequent cohort pattern was characterized by increases up to the generations born between 1920 and 1930, followed by stabilization or a slight decrease." Differences in cancer mortality by major site and sex over time are described. The authors note that "total cancer mortality trends over the calendar period of death were moderately increasing for men, and slightly decreasing for women."
Second author's address: Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30212 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. The probability of cancer death in Italian males and females. Tumori, Vol. 73, No. 2, Apr 30, 1987. 91-7 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"Probabilities of cancer death in Italian males and females over the calendar period 1955 to 1980 were computed from age-specific death certification rates for various neoplasms and contemporary general life tables of the whole Italian population. There were substantial increases in eventual probabilities of total cancer mortality: from 16.9 to 27.1% for males and from 15.2 to 19.3% for females. The upward trends were particularly large for lung (from 1.9 to 7.2%) and other tobacco-related sites in males. In females, the largest increases were for neoplasms of the intestines (from 1.6 to 3.0%) and breast from (1.9 to 3.1%). Separate analyses of probabilities of cancer death in specific age intervals showed more limited changes in middle age, and some moderate decrease at younger ages, probably attributable to improved treatment."
Author's address: Istituto di Biometria dell'Universita, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30213 Duchene, Josianne. A methodology for the joint study of cancer morbidity and mortality: application to Sweden, 1961-1980. [Une methodologie pour l'etude conjointe de la morbidite et de la mortalite par cancer: application a la Suede 1961-80.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 136, ISBN 2-87085-113-8. Apr 1987. 26 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The benefits and drawbacks of a method developed by A. H. Pollard to analyze both morbidity and mortality from the same cause are described. The data are for cancer in Sweden from 1961 to 1980. The results show that although the occurrence of cancer has increased, mortality from cancer has declined. The relationship between cancer mortality and deaths from other causes is considered.
For the article by Pollard, published in 1980, see 47:2215.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30214 El-Bolkiny, Mohamed T. A demographic analysis of heterogeneous coronary heart disease mortality rates over space and time. Pub. Order No. DA8709026. 1986. 183 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines variability in mortality rates due to coronary heart disease among U.S. counties for the period 1968-1978 using maximum likelihood estimation, the minimum chi square method, and quasi likekihood estimation. Variations by ethnic group, sex, and age group are also investigated. The findings in each analysis are what is expected under a beta binomial model.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Connecticut.
Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(1).

53:30215 Farchi, G.; Menotti, A.; Conti, S. Coronary risk factors and survival probability from coronary and other causes of death. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 126, No. 3, Sep 1987. 400-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The analysis concerns the two rural Italian cohorts of the Seven Countries Study and includes [1,537] men who, at the entry examination in 1960, were aged 40-59 years and whose 20-year follow-up examinations were complete for life status, dates, and causes of death....The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied with a forward procedure to include the entry risk factors in the model. First, total mortality was used as the endpoint. Then the risk factors identified as being related to total mortality were used to predict specific causes of death, i.e., coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, violent death, and other causes. Blood pressure appeared as a nonspecific risk factor for all causes, including cancer and violence, forced expiratory volume and arm circumference appeared as nonspecific risk factors, smoking habits could not be easily classified, and cholesterol was definitely specific only for coronary deaths. Models for estimating survival probabilities from total mortality and from any of several causes of death are provided."
Author's address: Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30216 Fortney, Judith A.; Gadalla, Saad; Saleh, Saneya; Susanti, Inne; Potts, Malcolm; Rogers, Susan M. Causes of death to women of reproductive age in two developing countries. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987. 137-48 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this study, deaths among women of reproductive age (15 to 49) in two areas in developing countries were located, and family members were interviewed. Local physcians reviewed the completed interviews and determined the cause of death. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth were the cause of 23% of the deaths in Menoufia, Egypt and Bali, Indonesia. In Egypt, the first cause of death was circulatory system disease (28%) followed by complications of childbirth and pregnancy (23%), and trauma (14%, primarily burns). In Indonesia, complications of pregnancy and childbirth was the first cause of death, followed by infectious disease (22%), primarily tuberculosis), and circulatory system disease (13%)."
Author's address: Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30217 Greenberg, Michael R. The changing geography of major causes of death among middle age white Americans, 1939-1981. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1987. 223-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Urban areas, especially the Northeast, are assumed to have the highest death rates from chronic diseases in the United States. Based on analysis of age-adjusted death rates of the white population 35-64 from 1939-1941 through 1979-1981, it is shown that chronic disease rates in the urban Northeast and Midwest have declined compared to the rest of the United States. High rates of chronic as well as traumatic causes of death now characterize the South. Hypotheses are offered to explain these changes, including changes in lifestyle, differences in state government policies, the changing geography of industry and ethnic populations, and the spread of medical care."
Author's address: Department of Urban Studies, Kilmer Campus, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30218 Hanai, Aya. Estimation of the number of cancer survivors in Japan. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research (Gann), Vol. 77, No. 7, Jul 1986. 648-56 pp. Toyko, Japan. In Eng.
"The authors estimated the numbers and rates of survivors from cancer ('prevalence') in Japan as of January 1, 1985 based on the number of cancer patients for all sites diagnosed since 1960. 1) The number of cancer patients in Japan diagnosed during the period from 1960 to 1984 was estimated to be 4,686,352 (both sexes). 2) Of these, the number of cancer survivors as of January 1, 1985 was estimated to be 952,870 (both sexes). 3) Among the survivors 430,940 were diagnosed in the final five years from 1980-1984. 4) The results were compared with those reported from the USA and Finland."
Author's address: Department of Field Research, Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka, 3-3, Nakamichi-1, Higashinari-Ku, Osaka 537, Japan.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30219 Hardy, Ann M.; Starcher, E. Thomas; Morgan, W. Meade; Druker, Julie; Kristal, Alan; Day, Jeanne M.; Kelly, Chet; Ewing, Earl; Curran, James W. Review of death certificates to assess completeness of AIDS case reporting. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 386-91 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To assess the level of reporting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, the authors reviewed death certificates for periods of 3 months during July through December 1985 in each of four cities: Washington, DC, New York City, Boston, and Chicago. Since reporting began in 1981, these cities have reported 38 percent of all AIDS cases in the United States. Death certificates were selected and matched to the AIDS surveillance registries in each city, and medical records of those not on the AIDS registry were reviewed to determine if AIDS had been diagnosed. The estimated completeness of AIDS case reporting to AIDS surveillance systems was high in all four cities (ranging from 83 percent to 100 percent.)"
Author's address: Special Projects Section, Surveillance and Evaluation Branch, AIDS Program, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30220 Hernandez Avila, Mauricio; Walker, Alexander M. Age dependence of cohort phenomena in breast cancer mortality in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 126, No. 3, Sep 1987. 377-84 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Breast cancer mortality has increased in most parts of the world, and many explanations have been postulated. In this paper, the authors examined the evolution of mortality rates for white and nonwhite females in the United States from 1950-1979. Using both graphic techniques and Poisson regression models, they found that there has been strong modification of apparent cohort effects by age. For both white and nonwhite females, they observed an increase in mortality rates limited to the postmenopausal ages."
Author's address: Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30221 Horner, Ronnie D.; Chirikos, Thomas N. Survivorship differences in geographical comparisons of cancer mortality: an urban-rural analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1987. 184-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The survival experience of white male cancer patients residing in rural and urban areas is examined using cancer registry data." The data are for 1,178 white U.S. males whose first primary malignancy was recorded between 1977 and 1981. "A multi-variable proportional hazards model is specified to determine the unique effect of geographical residence on survival. Only for cancers of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract are there statistically significant differences in survivorship by geographical residence. This suggests that for most cancers, survival differences are not likely to play a confounding role in geographical comparisons of cancer mortality rates. However for GI cancers, survival differences should probably be considered in geographical-oriented analyses and their interpretation."
Author's address: Department of Family Medicine, East Carolina University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 1846, Greenville, NC 27834.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30222 Junge, B.; Hoffmeister, H. Mean age at death for selected causes of death and the mortality rate in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1958 and 1978. [Das mittlere Sterbealter fur ausgewahlte Todesursachen und die Mortalitatsstruktur in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1958 und 1978.] Lebensversicherungsmedizin, Vol. 39, No. 2, Mar 1, 1987. 50-5 pp. Karlsruhe, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The mean age at death from various major causes of death, in the Federal Republic of Germany for 1958 and 1968 are compared. The causes of death considered include heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, lung cancer, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and motor vehicle accidents. The implications for life expectancy of changes in the mean age at death from these causes are considered.
Author's address: Institut fur Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des BGA, General-Pape-Strasse 62-66, 1000 Berlin 42, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30223 Kern, Klaus D.; Braun, Werner. A regional comparison of mortality from selected causes. [Sterblichkeit an ausgewahlten Todesursachen im regionalen Vergleich.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 4, Apr 1987. 319-25 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
In this study of mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany, the author describes methods used in and results of a regional study of causes of death by state. The data analyzed are for the years 1980-1985. Causes compared include carcinoma; circulatory, respiratory, and digestive system diseases; accidents; and suicide. Tables provide information on death according to selected causes and state, 1980-1985; life expectancy at birth by state, 1970-1972 and 1980-1985; and deaths by cause and state for people up to age 75 based on the 1980-1985 life tables. Results indicate that despite general decreases in mortality and increases in life expectancy, regional differences persist.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30224 Kono, Suminori; Isa, Abdul R.; Ogimoto, Itsuro; Yoshimura, Takesumi. Cause-specific mortality among Koreans, Chinese and Americans in Japan, 1973-1982. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1987. 415-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortalities from selected causes from 1973 to 1982 among Koreans, Chinese, and Americans residing in Japan were compared with those of Japanese. In the Korean population, besides the well-documented excess in mortalities from liver cancer, lung cancer, liver cirrhosis and male tuberculosis, a rather prominent elevation was observed for mortalities from female tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in both sexes. Distinctive features in the Chinese population were increased mortalities from liver cancer and female lung cancer and lowered mortality from stomach cancer, and these findings are consistent with the observations among Chinese in other areas. Americans in Japan by and large showed a mortality pattern similar to that in the U.S. although mortality from stroke among female Americans was rather elevated during the period 1973-1977."
Author's address: Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-01, Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30225 Leboucher, L.; Arrighi, J.; Valleron, A. J. The impact of alcoholism mortality on the entire population and on the employed French population. [Impact de la mortalite par "alcoolisme" sur l'ensemble de la population et sur la population active francaises.] Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 34, No. 6, 1986. 382-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of alcohol on mortality among the population of France as a whole and among the economically active population in particular is reviewed. The demographic indexes are life expectancy and active life expectancy; the data concern 1978. The results indicate that mortality from alcohol, particularly among men, is twice that calculated by simply adding deaths due to alcoholism and liver cirrhosis and that it approaches the magnitude of accident mortality.
Author' address: INSERM U263, Unite de Recherches Biomathematiques et Biostatistiques, Tour 53, 1er etage, 2 Place Jussieu, F 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30226 Lester, David. The stability of national suicide rates in Europe: 1875-1975. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 3, Apr 1987. 208 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
This one-page article "compares suicide rates of European nations in the period 1871-1875...with the suicide rates of those nations in 1975....[It is found that] national suicide rates are relatively stable and thus suitable as target variables for sociological theories that seek to account for suicide rates. Furthermore, the stability of national suicide rates over such a long period of time argues for their accuracy, since national certification-of-death procedures by medical examiners would be expected to vary over such a long period."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30227 MacKenzie, Betsy. The decline of stroke mortality. Canadian Social Trends, Autumn 1987. 34-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author traces the decline in the number of deaths due to stroke in Canada between 1950 and 1985. Age and sex differences in stroke mortality are noted, and the role of treatment for hypertension is discussed. For comparative purposes, stroke death rates for selected other countries are provided.
Author's address: Canadian Social Trends, 11th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30228 Manton, Kenneth G.; Myers, George C. Recent trends in multiple-caused mortality 1968 to 1982: age and cohort components. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987. 161-76 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Declines in mortality at advanced ages have been observed recently in the United States. These declines have been related to a reduction in the risk of major circulatory diseases, such as stroke and heart disease. In this paper we examine the contribution of two additional major factors in those declines. The first is the effect of conditions associated with circulatory diseases. This effect can be examined by using multiple-cause mortality data in which all conditions reported by the physician on the death certificates are recorded. The second is the contribution of cohort mortality differentials to temporal changes. If major cohort differentials are identified, we may be able to determine if recent declines in mortality are likely to continue--and to what levels. Such insights would be useful both in improving projections of the size and age structure of the U.S. elderly population and its entitlement groups and in helping to identify future patterns of needs for preventive and other health services."
Author's address: Center of Demographic Studies, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30229 McLoone, P.; Crombie, I. K. Trends in suicide in Scotland 1974-84: an increasing problem. British Medical Journal, Vol. 295, No. 6599, Sep 12, 1987. 629-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A detailed investigation of trends in suicide rates in Scotland from 1974 to 1984 showed a complex pattern. Overall rates for men increased by 40% with the greatest increases in those aged 45-64. In contrast, rates for women showed a small decline, which was most noticeable in those aged 15-24." Data are from official sources. Changes in method of suicide over time are also analyzed.
Author's address: Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30230 Menotti, A.; Mariotti, S.; Seccareccia, F.; Torsello, S.; Dima, F. Determinants of all causes of death in samples of Italian middle-aged men followed up for 25 years. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 3, Sep 1987. 243-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A total of 1,712 men aged 40 to 59 years in two rural cohorts of northern and central Italy have been followed up for 25 years after an entry examination in 1960. Forty one individual characteristics have been considered as possible predictors of death in the next 25 years. After exclusion of 55 men with life threatening diseases (cardiovascular and cancer) and of 161 men because of missing measurements, 1,495 men have been analysed for relation between entry factors and subsequent death (n=670). Twelve factors eventually emerged as powerful predictors of future death: in hierarchical order, age, blood pressure, forced expiratory volume, cigarette smoking, xanthelasma, mother life-status, arm circumference, father life-status, shoulder-pelvis ratio, vital capacity, arcus senilis, and serum cholesterol."
Author's address: Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30231 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Homicide: a current overview. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 13-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Differentials by age, race, sex, and region in mortality by homicide in the United States during the 1980s are analyzed. The data are from official U.S. sources. It is noted that some 21,000 deaths from this cause were recorded in 1986 and that this was the fourth leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 65 in 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30232 Perez Moreda, Vicente. The plague of 1647-1657 in the Western Mediterranean. [La peste de 1647-1657 en el Mediterraneo occidental.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 14-25 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a survey of the literature concerning the plague outbreak that occurred in the Western Mediterranean in the mid-seventeenth century. The author first reviews the chronology and itinerary of the epidemic, which began in Valencia in June 1647. He then examines loss of life in the affected areas. Finally he discusses various topics related to the epidemic, including the reliability of data in parochial registries, the impact of the epidemic on nuptiality and family structure, apparent female excess mortality, medical and sanitary efforts dealing with the epidemic, and its demographic and socioeconomic consequences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30233 Reed, Janie; Camus, Joan; Last, John M. Suicide in Canada: birth-cohort analysis. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 76, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1985. 43-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Analysis of suicide mortality in Canada by birth cohort shows that the mortality rates have been higher at all ages in each successive generation of birth. Among the most recently born cohorts, for whom information is available so far only until early adult life, the increase over earlier-born generations has been particularly sharp. The mortality differentials from one birth cohort to the next are considerably higher for males than females. The analysis also reveals the impact of the Great Depression (elevation of rates) and of World War II (decline of rates) on age-specific suicide mortality rates in the generations in early adult life during those periods."
Third author's address: Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, 451 Smyth Road, Ottowa K1H 8M5, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30234 Stack, Steven. The effect of female participation in the labor force on suicide: a time series analysis, 1948-1980. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring 1987. 257-77 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author considers two approaches to studying the impact of female labor force participation (FLFP) on suicide in the United States. One approach is based on the assumption that female labor force participation creates stress and increases suicide among both men and women; the other assumes that the benefits, including higher income, outweigh the cost and should cause a decrease in the suicide rate. The author "formulates a third, synthetic view on the effects of FLFP on suicide based on the cultural context surrounding FLFP. Control variables are included from the domestic integration and economic paradigms." A time-series analysis is given for the periods 1948-1963 and 1964-1980 and for contemporary males and females.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30235 Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Marti, Bernard; Jalkanen, Laura; Puska, Pekka; Nissinen, Aulikki; Wolf, Eva. Body weight and risk of myocardial infarction and death in the adult population of eastern Finland. British Medical Journal, Vol. 295, No. 6599, Sep 12, 1987. 623-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Body mass index...and its association with the risk of myocardial infarction and death from all causes were studied prospectively in a randomly selected population sample in eastern Finland aged 30-59 at outset in 1972. The study population consisted of 3,786 men and 4,120 women." Over nine years of follow-up, 223 men and 92 women died from various causes. "Independent of age, men with a body mass index of 28.5 or more had a significantly higher incidence of acute myocardial infarction. This effect was also independent of smoking but not independent of biological coronary risk factors--that is, serum cholesterol concentration and blood pressure....Body mass index did not contribute significantly to the risk of either acute myocardial infarction or death in women. It is concluded that a body mass index of around 29.0-31.0 or more is not only a marker for coronary risk factors but is also a predictor of acute myocardial infarction in men."
Author's address: Department of Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, SF-00280 Helsinki, Finland.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:30236 Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Torppa, Jorma. WHO MONICA Project: geographic variation in mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Baseline data on selected population characteristics and cardiovascular mortality. [Projet MONICA de l'OMS: variation geographique de la mortalite par maladies cardio-vasculaires. Donnees de base relatives a certaines caracteristiques demographiques et a la mortalite par maladies cardio-vasculaires.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1987. 171-84 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
Patterns of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in populations included in the MONICA project are analyzed by age and sex. The MONICA project, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), involves 40 centers in 26 countries, which have been collecting data since at least 1984 in order to measure trends in mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Data are from surveys, coronary and stroke registers, and official sources.
Author's address: MONICA Data Centre, National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Helsinki, Finland.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30237 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France; Nizard, Alfred. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978: reclassification according to etiologic and anatomic categories. 1. Distribution of deaths. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1978: reclassement par categories etiologiques et anatomiques. 1. Repartition des deces.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, Annexe VI, 1987. 471 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the sixth in a planned series of seven reference documents to be prepared by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) in conjunction with a forthcoming publication concerning causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. In the present document, the authors reclassify all deaths during this period according to both etiologic and anatomic criteria. The two types of categories are defined, and a table is presented showing the correspondence between these categories and those contained in the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Tables and graphs are used to present information concerning annual changes in the number of deaths by sex and age according to etiologic and anatomic category.
For Annexe V by Vallin and Mesle, also published in 1987, see 53:20226.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30238 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978: reclassification according to etiological and anatomical categories. 2. Results following the distribution of deaths by indeterminate cause. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1978: reclassement par categories etiologiques et anatomiques. 2. Resultats apres repartition des deces de cause indeterminee.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, Annexe VII, 1987. 263 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the last in a series of seven reference documents prepared by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) in conjunction with a forthcoming publication concerning causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. In this document, the authors present tables and graphs concerning the distribution of deaths of indeterminate cause. Nine etiologic categories and 15 anatomic categories are analyzed. A method for distributing deaths of indeterminate cause among these categories is used. Annual mortality rates by sex and age for various causes of death are compared.
For Annexe VI by Vallin, Mesle, and Alfred Nizard, also published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30239 Winikoff, Beverly; Sullivan, Maureen. Assessing the role of family planning in reducing maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 128-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the impact of family planning in averting maternal deaths, and discusses the overall ability of risk strategies to address the bulk of maternal mortality. The practical difficulties of providing effective contraception to populations with high maternal mortality are addressed, and the need for maternal health care services as an adjunct to useful family planning programs is emphasized. Although family planning cannot by itself cause a substantial reduction in risk of pregnancy, the combined strategies of general fertility reduction, abortion services, and family planning for high-risk groups might effectively address about half of all maternal mortality in the developing world." The geographic focus is worldwide.
Author's address: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30240 Wrigley, J. Michael; Nam, Charles B. Underlying versus multiple causes of death: effects on interpreting cancer mortality differentials by age, sex, and race. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987. 149-60 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The conventional approach to measuring the medical; cause of death in mortality analysis bases death on a single, underlying cause. An alternative approach, which makes use of all of the medical conditions cited by a physician on the death certificate and treats them in a multiple-cause framework, is compared with the conventional approach in studying differential mortality among those 45 years of age and older in Florida. The two approaches are seen to provide different patterns of information that have analytical as well as policy ramifications." Data are for 1980.
Author's address: Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee, FL 32301.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.