Volume 53 - Number 3 - Fall 1987

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

53:30056 Craig, John. Population potential and some related measures. Area, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1987. 141-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"It is argued that population potential is best expressed as an average distance; and that two other closely related measures should usually also be calculated especially when potential is being used as an indicator of average density. These procedures would help in the interpretation of potential calculations for a single country--and would enable more meaningful comparisons between countries to be contemplated." The work is based on official data for the United Kingdom.
Author's address: Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30057 Fielding, Anthony. Counterurbanisation in Western Europe. In: West European population change, edited by Allan Findlay and Paul White. 1986. 35-49 pp. Croom Helm: Dover, New Hampshire/London, England. In Eng.
This paper updates the empirical results of a previous paper by the same author. It examines the extent to which the model of the transition from urbanization to counter-urbanization developed in that paper using French census data is supported by 1982 census data, the extent to which generalizations concerning counter-urbanization in Europe should be changed in light of data from the 1980-1982 census round, and the need to reassess the picture of population distribution in Western Europe since 1980 using data from population registers.
Author's address: School of Social Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, England.
For the earlier article by Fielding, published in 1982, see 49:20594.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30058 Khorev, B. S. Population distribution in the USSR: regional aspects of population dynamics and policies. [Razmeshchenie naseleniya v SSSR: regional'nyi aspekt dinamiki i politiki narodonaseleniya.] 1986. 221 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Regional differences within the USSR concerning migration, population density, and the development of settlements are analyzed. Data are from the censuses of 1970 and 1979 and from special surveys. Consideration is given to the links between observed demographic differences and the socioeconomic development of the regions concerned. The study concludes with emphasis on the need for optimization of the spatial distribution of population as part of an active population policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30059 Kolodny, Emile. Recent data on the distribution of the Greek Cypriot population: the census of 1982. [Donnees recentes sur la repartition de la population chypriote grecque--le recensement de 1982.] Mediterranee, Vol. 58, No. 3, 1986. 19-29 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The results of the 1982 census of Cyprus, covering the Greek Cypriot-controlled part of the island, are presented. The author notes that of the total population of 512,000, 39 percent are refugees from the Turkish-controlled part of Cyprus. The extent of urbanization in Cyprus is described.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:30060 Ledent, J.; Rogers, A. Spatial dynamics of populations with changing birth, death, and migration rates: a generalization of multiregional stable population theory. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 19, No. 6, Jun 1987. 819-28 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paper begins with the use of a vector notation to describe the age-region distribution of any multiregional population and develops generalized multiregional Lotka equations that converge, over time, to the corresponding equations for a stable multiregional population. But the vector notation does not lead to a method for estimating relevant demographic parameters. To overcome this difficulty, a more powerful notation is introduced: one that substitutes matrices for vectors. This extension is carried out by defining a second subscript that designates the place of residence at some previous fixed moment in time. Such an extension, however, creates alternative generalizations that depend directly on the characteristics of the available data." The authors discuss generalizations of the theory given either two sets of lifetime migration data or a single set of period migration data.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 422).
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:30061 Schwartz, Lee R. Regional population redistribution and national homelands in the USSR. Pub. Order No. DA8703082. 1986. 286 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis applies measures of population redistribution in an attempt to determine the relationship between ethnicity, modernization, and regional settlement patterns in the USSR. The scale of analysis used is the tertiary level, comprising the autonomous republics (ASSRs) and autonomous oblasts (AOs)....This study uses indices of population redistribution along with surrogate measures of modernization in a territorial pattern designed so as to reveal local trends in settlement patterns within the context of broader union-wide tendencies." It is found that "the patterns of ethnic redistribution at the local level appear significantly different from those based on aggregate measures."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Columbia University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(10).

53:30062 Sit, Victor F. S. The population geography of Hong Kong, 1949-1981. Indonesian Journal of Geography, Vol. 13, No. 45, Jun 1983. 1-23 pp. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"This paper attempts a comprehensive account of the changes in population of Hong Kong in 1949-81. It has given detailed treatment to the two major factors: migration and natural growth, that underly such changes. The spatial process of population is also examined against the government's post-war urban development policies."
Author's address: Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

53:30063 Ales, Milan. Demographic situation of Prague. Demosta, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1987. 33-6 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng.
The author discusses population trends in Prague, Czechoslovakia, providing information concerning the growth of the urban area and its population since 1869. Attention is then given to fertility, mortality, migration, and natural increase from 1980 to 1985. Figures are also presented on the distribution of the population within Prague for 1961, 1970, 1980, and 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30064 Atzema, O. A. L. C.; Bargeman, C. A. Demographic aspects of urbanization in the Netherlands; changes and stability in the period 1970-1985. [Demografische aspecten van verstedelijking in Nederland; veranderingen en stabiliteit in de periode 1970-1985.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Aug 1987. 65-93 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The process of demographic urbanization in the Netherlands during the period 1970-1985 has been characterized by decreasing deconcentration of population on both the national level and regional level. Within the peri-urban areas and extra-urban areas, there is concentration of population. The regional differences in population growth have decreased over the years as a result of the levelling off of net-internal migration. The [movement out of] the cities has declined and more and more non-urban regions show an out-migration surplus. The changes in net-migration do not mean, however, that the spatial structure of migration has changed strongly. The probability that a household will move has declined, but the probability [of] where...it will move has largely remained the same. The only change that has occurred in recent years is the increasing [concentration of] migrants within the city regions. The result is that the extra urban areas are becoming more and more isolated in the (national) migration system."
Author's address: Postbus 9044, 6500 KD Nijmegen, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30065 Becker, Charles M.; Mills, Edwin S.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. Modeling Indian migration and city growth, 1960-2000. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 35, No. 1, Oct 1986. 1-33 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper uses a multisectoral model of the Indian economy to isolate the sources of Indian economic growth and urbanization since 1960. The model is in the computable general equilibrium tradition. It stresses spatial issues so that it can provide predictions on rural/urban labor demands, which, when combined with unequal labor supplies, generate migration flows." The model is used to replicate India's urban growth experience during the 1960s and 1970s and to project further growth to 2000. Factors affecting urbanization considered include "the scarcity of arable land, agricultural productivity advance, public investment in agriculture, population pressure, and productivity performance in manufacturing."
Author's address: Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30066 Bobkov, I. V. Development trends among Moscow Oblast cities and some issues in the regulation of the growth of Moscow. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 4, Apr 1987. 244-55 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
Reasons for the continuing growth of central Moscow in comparison with little growth in subsidiary cities in the surrounding Moscow Oblast are examined. The author attributes this uneven growth to the concentration of shopping facilities in central Moscow. It is noted that past attempts to slow the growth of central Moscow have failed and that the only strategy likely to succeed in the future would involve developing the infrastructure of the surrounding subcenters.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya (Moscow, USSR), No. 5, 1986, pp. 52-61.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30067 Bogue, Donald J.; Hartmann, David J. The ecology of race and class in metropolitan America: 1980. ISBN 0-89836-020-X. 1987. vi, 352 pp. University of Chicago, Community and Family Study Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic residential patterns within U.S. standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs) as of the 1980 census are analyzed. The unit of analysis is the census tract, and data are from the 1980 census. Empirical tests of standard theories of spatial location are performed for 128 variables, which are linked to socioeconomic status or racial/ethnic classification. The authors develop a new set of generalizations concerning the determinants of class and racial/ethnic ecological patterning in U.S. metropolitan areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30068 Ettlinger, N.; Archer, J. C. City-size distributions and the world urban system in the twentieth century. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 19, No. 9, Sep 1987. 1,161-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we trace and interpret changes in the geographical pattern and city-size distribution of the world's largest cities in the twentieth century. Since 1900 the geographical distribution of these cities has become increasingly dispersed; their city-size distribution by rank was nearly linear in 1900 and 1940, and convex in 1980. We interpret the convex distribution which emerged following World War 2 as reflecting an economically integrated but politically and demographically partitioned global urban system. Our interpretation of changes in size distribution of cities emphasizes demographic considerations, largely neglected in previous investigations, including migration and relative rates of population change."
Author's address: Department of Geography, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0135.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:30069 Fiala, Robert; Kamens, David. Urban growth and the world polity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: a research agenda. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1986. 23-35 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The impact of political factors on urbanization is considered. The scope of the study is worldwide. The authors outline how political power, particularly the rise of the nation-state, can influence the growth and characteristics of urban systems. Comparisons are made between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30070 Geshev, Gesho. Some aspects of demographic development in the district of Sofia City. [Nyakoi aspekti na demografskoto razvitie na okrag Sofiya-grad.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1987. 50-66 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The demographic development of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, is analyzed. The author notes that the rapid growth of the city has disrupted the country's urbanization plans as a whole and that the mountains surrounding the city preclude the development of a satellite system of smaller urban centers. A plan to divert production, education, and administration functions to regional capitals to encourage their growth at Sofia's expense is described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30071 Kesteloot, Christian. Concentration of foreigners and urban policy in Brussels. [Concentration d'etrangers et politique urbaine a Bruxelles.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 2, No. 3, Dec 1986. 151-68 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Dut.
The distribution of the foreign population of Brussels, Belgium, is analyzed by nationality for the period 1970-1981. The author notes that despite the increase in the number of foreigners during this period, their concentration in specific areas did not increase. The ethnic and socioeconomic factors affecting the residential location of foreigners are discussed. Urban policy concerning the foreign population is reviewed.
Author's address: Institut voor Sociale en Economische Geografie, Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, de Croylaan 42-B, 3030 Heverlee, Belgium.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30072 Michev, Nikolai. Town formation and demographic development of the towns along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. [Gradoobrazuvane i demografsko razvitie na gradovete po Balgarskoto chernomorsko kraibrezhie.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1987. 40-9 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Urban development trends along the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria are reviewed. Both historical trends and developments since World War II are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30073 Miyao, T. Long-run urban growth with agglomeration economies. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 19, No. 8, Aug 1987. 1,083-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"It is widely recognized that agglomeration economies are a crucially important factor in explaining the existence and growth of urban areas, and therefore should be explicitly taken into consideration in long-run urban growth analysis. Once such economies are introduced, however, the urban economy tends to diverge from a steady state equilibrium and may 'explode' without limit. A possible way to solve this dilemma is shown. First, a simple urban growth model with production and factor migration functions in the presence of agglomeration economies is set up....Then, land is introduced to show that the availability of the third factor of production will make it more likely to achieve a steady growth equilibrium in the presence of agglomeration economies. Last, the model is generalized to include many factors of production."
Author's address: Institute of Socio-Economic Planning, University of Tsukuba, Sakura, Ibaraki 305, Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:30074 Portes, Alejandro; Johns, Michael. Class structure and spatial polarization: an assessment of recent urban trends in Latin America. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 77, No. 5, 1986. 378-88 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, we review those major trends characteristic of peripheral urbanization as they are reflected in the recent Latin American experience. Such trends include: urban primacy and the relative absence of secondary city systems, the character and dynamics of the informal sector, housing deficiencies and state housing policy, and the recent rise of popular organizations oriented toward self-sufficiency or militant demand-making. These trends are important because they represent the form in which continuity and change of peripheral class structures are reflected in space, both at the national and local levels....[The authors conclude that] the political economy of Latin American cities is one where the resolution to the plight of underdevelopment promised by accelerated capitalist industrialization has not materialized. Instead, the process has produced a more complex and more contradictory social fabric."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30075 Rakowski, Witold. Areas of urbanization in Poland. [Obszary urbanizowania w Polsce.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 27, No. 3-4, 1984. 67-86, 207, 216 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Current urbanization trends in Poland are analyzed. "In the first part of the article the author presents the changes in the settlement network in 1945-1980 together with the process of concentration of population. In the second part he describes the influence exerted by the big and average towns."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30076 Scharping, Thomas. Urbanization in China since 1949. China Quarterly, No. 109, Mar 1987. 101-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author comments on the different conclusions reached by various scholars concerning urbanization trends in China since 1949. In particular, he comments on a recent article by Kam Wing Chan and Xueqiang Xu and a book by R. J. R. Kirkby. A reply by Kam Wing Chan (pp. 104-9) is included.
For the study by Chan and Xu, published in 1985, see 52:30076; for the study by Kirkby, also published in 1985, see 52:10079.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30077 Shrestha, H. B. Projections of urbanization in Nepal: the replacement dynamics approach. Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 8, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1985. 33-5 pp. Kathmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
The author uses a replacement dynamics model to decide the urbanization process as a phenomenon in which the rural population is being replaced by the urban population. The model is then used to project urbanization in Nepal for the years 1952-1981 using 1952-1954 census data.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

53:30078 Suh, S. H. On the size distribution of cities: an economic interpretation of the Pareto coefficient. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 19, No. 6, Jan 1987. 749-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Both the hierarchy and the stochastic models of size distribution of cities are analyzed in order to explain the Pareto coefficient by economic variables. In hierarchy models, it is found that the rate of variation in the productivity of cities and that in the probability of emergence of cities can explain the Pareto coefficient. In stochastic models, the productivity of cities is found to explain the Pareto coefficient. New city-size distribution functions, in which the Pareto coefficient is decomposed by economic variables, are estimated."
Author's address: Department of Economics, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:30079 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). The prospects of world urbanization, revised as of 1984-85. Population Studies, No. 101; ST/ESA/SER.A/101, Pub. Order No. E.87.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151163-1. 1987. ix, 268 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report is the most recent biennial update of U.N. data on trends in urban and rural population growth worldwide. "It includes estimates and projections of the aggregate urban and rural populations for all countries and areas of the world, of the [99] individual urban agglomerations that had population of 2 million or more in 1985, and of the capital cities of those countries having a total population of 2 million or more in 1985. For urban and rural populations, the estimates and projections cover a 75-year span from 1950 to 2025, while for urban agglomerations, the coverage is a 50-year span, from 1950 to 2000." The final chapter "describes the methodology and assumptions used in the estimations and projections. Detailed tables for different urbanization indicators for all countries in the world are given in the annex tables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30080 Veron, Jacques. Urbanization in India (1901-1981). [L'urbanisation indienne (1901-1981).] Population, Vol. 42, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 485-502 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
A review of urbanization trends in India over the course of the twentieth century is presented. The author notes that although the rate of urbanization has only increased from 11 to 23 percent, the number of urban dwellers has grown from 26 million in 1901 to 126 million in 1981. Differences in the level of urbanization by state are considered. The growing importance of cities with over 100,000 population is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30081 Wakabayashi, Keiko. Regional development planning and migration: the Fourth Comprehensive National Development Plan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 182, Apr 1987. 18-35 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses urbanization, rural-urban migration, and urban planning in Japan. The focus is on the Fourth Comprehensive National Development Plan, issued in 1986; some references to urbanization and economic growth since the 1940s are included. The growing size and increasing economic importance of the Tokyo Metropolitan Region are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

No citations in this issue.

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.