Volume 53 - Number 2 - Summer 1987

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

53:20711 Baker, John. Comparing national priorities: family and population policy in Britain and France. Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 15, No. 4, Oct 1986. 421-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Policies affecting demographic conditions and the family in the United Kingdom and France are compared. The author notes that the recent discussion concerning the State Earnings Related Pension Scheme in terms of unfavorable demographic forecasts for the twenty-first century has emphasized that British politicians and social policy analysts pay little attention to population size and structure. "Further, the attention is normally confined to the question of how policy should adapt to demographic change, rather than how to modify it, although Britain has an implicit policy of restricting family size." The contrast between France and the United Kingdom is observed "first, over the priority given to demographic issues by statesmen and academics; and second, over the advantages and problems seen in different demographic futures. [The author] argues that family policy needs to be seen in a demographic context."
Author's address: Department of Social Policy and Professional Studies, University of Hull, HU6 7RX, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

53:20712 Kempeneers, Marianne; Poirier, Jean; Gauvreau, Danielle; Neill, Ghyslaine. Demography and society: a research note concerning population policies. [Demographie et societe: une note de recherche a propos des politiques de population.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 15, No. 2, Oct 1986. 287-95 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
A review of the current debate concerning population policies appropriate for the province of Quebec is first presented. The authors conclude that population decline is a symptom of a social malaise that cannot be cured by the adoption of a pro-natalist policy and that the primary objective of population policies should be to reduce social inequalities and improve the quality of life, thus creating a social climate in which people would choose to have children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20713 Klinger, Andras; Monigl, Istvan. Long-term concepts of Hungarian population policy. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1986. 457-72 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The development and long-term effects of current population policy in Hungary are examined. Based on recommendations of Hungarian demographers, the policy was established in 1985 in response to fertility decline, mortality increase, decreased nuptiality, and increased divorce. Its key goals are to combat relatively high mortality, to promote stability of families, to improve the population structure, and to promote higher fertility levels. Specifics of the planned short-, medium-, and long-term measures are discussed. An increase in the number of births since policy implementation is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20714 Laroque, Pierre; Lenoir, Remi. Family policy in France since 1945. [La politique familiale en France depuis 1945.] ISBN 2-11-001531-4. LC 86-181455. Jun 1985. 386 pp. Ministere des Affaires Sociales et de la Solidarite Nationale: Paris, France; Documentation Francaise: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general interdisciplinary review of developments in family policy in France since 1945. The first chapter describes the major changes in policy that were adopted over this period and the economic, political, and social factors associated with those changes. The following chapters describe the transformations that have affected family structures, civil and family law, family allowances, and social policy in general.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:20715 O'Reilly, William M. The deadly neo-colonialism: report on population control in Bangladesh. [1985?]. 37 pp. Human Life International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines population activities funded by the United States in Bangladesh. The process whereby U.S. funds are channeled through multilateral and host country organizations down to local family planning clinics is described. The author concludes that "the government of Bangladesh is moving towards the Chinese model of population control with a national policy designed to reduce the birth rate drastically [and that] U.S. foreign aid is used to fund abortions and monetary incentives for sterilization in violation of the Foreign Assistance Act."
Publisher's address: 418 C Street NE, Washington, DC 20002.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20716 Peru. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CNP] (Lima, Peru). Population policies in Peru (annotated bibliography). [Politicas de poblacion en el Peru (bibliografia anotada).] Bibliografias Tematicas, No. 1, 1985. viii, 91 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This is an annotated bibliography of 140 works published since 1970 concerning the study and analysis of population policy development in Peru. Sections are included on methodological, theoretical, and conceptual studies; experiences of other Latin American countries in policy development; policy development in Peru, with a focus on interrelations between population and factors including education, employment, health, quality of life, and national planning; reports on national and international conferences; documents outlining legal standards of policy in Peru and other countries; and sources to be used for in-depth studies of population policy. Indexes of authors, subjects, and conferences are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20717 Richards, Guy. An essay on Canada's population with remarks on Roderic Beaujot's observations. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1986. 193-200 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent article by Roderic Beaujot concerning the development of population policy in Canada. A reply by Beaujot (pp. 199-200) is included
Author's address: University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
For the article by Beaujot, published in 1985, see 52:30778.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20718 Rodriguez, Daniel; Yocelevzky, Ricardo. Politics and population in Latin America: a review of the conclusions of PISPAL. [Politica y poblacion en America Latina: revision de los aportes del PISPAL.] ISBN 968-12-0344-5. 1986. 141 pp. Programa de Investigaciones Sociales sobre Poblacion en America Latina [PISPAL]: Mexico City, Mexico; Colegio de Mexico: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
An attempt is made to summarize the results of research conducted under the Program of Social Investigations Concerning Population in Latin America (PISPAL) regarding the relationship between population and policies in the region. Consideration is given to policies pertaining to the reduction of fertility and to spatial distribution. The general conclusion drawn is that research to date has outlined issues rather than provided guidelines for practical policy development.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20719 Swan, George S. The political economy of American family policy, 1945-85. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 739-58, 822, 824 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The division of labor between spouses, both in principle and as practiced in the United States today, is discussed and its implications for public policy, especially in regard to divorce, are explored. Various public policies of recent decades have enhanced the sway of the central political authority over the family. Overt political manipulation of the economic climate enveloping American families caused (or in any case preceded) widespread subsequent changes in the typical family. Changes such as those in family configuration caused (or in any case accompanied) shifts in public opinion on several legal issues, such as those related to abortion and women's rights. It is argued, however, that if afforded a free field of action in political economy terms, the family unit will be strengthened and inequalities between men and women will tend to lessen."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20720 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population policy briefs: the current situation in developed countries, 1985. Population Policy Paper, No. 3; ST/ESA/SER.R/63, 1987. v, 43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the fourth in a series of reports on population policies around the world. The present report concerns 35 developed countries and is compiled from data collected from the Fifth U.N. Population Inquiry among Governments: Monitoring of Government Perceptions and Policies on Demographic Trends and Levels in Relation to Development, which was carried out in 1982. These data are supplemented from other sources. "This report is an attempt to present on a systematic basis a very brief summary of Governments' current perceptions and policies in relation to population growth, fertility, health, international migration and spatial distribution." The results show that "declining fertility levels--in some cases to below replacement level, mortality differentials, the aging of the population, the volume of foreign-born population, and inappropriate spatial distribution are some of the common concerns of the developed countries in reference to population policy."
For a previous report concerning population policies in developing countries, published in 1986, see 52:40770.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

53:20721 Aguirre, Alejandro. Population growth rate of one percent in the year 2000: an unattainable target. [Tasa de crecimiento poblacional de 1% en al ano 2000: una meta inalcanzable.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 1, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1986. 443-74 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author demonstrates the unattainability of Mexico's population policy target of reducing the natural increase rate to one percent by the end of this century. In order to reach this goal, the net reproduction rate would have to decrease to significantly below replacement level, or 0.667; this would produce dramatic changes in the age structure as well. The policy's objectives are also analyzed in terms of the extent of family planning necessary to reach the target growth rate.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20722 Blanchet, Didier. The demographic impact of various measures of family policy: a tentative evaluation. [Les effets demographiques de differentes mesures de politique familiale: un essai d'evaluation.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 99-127 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper examines the demographic impact of different kinds of family allowances under the two assumptions that (1) the cost of children is actually one of the reasons why the level of fertility remains low and (2) that couples are willing to consider family allowances as indirect reductions of this cost. The analysis relies on a model of fertility behavior which is of the multinomial logit type. We give evaluations of the potential impact of family allowances according to the rank of children, and we also consider the case of selective allowances either limited to working or to non-working mothers. We also draw a distinction between the impact of a given allowance, i.e. the increase in the number of births it implies, and its efficiency, i.e. its impact divided by its total cost for the community. The analysis relies both on analytical and simulation methods. As an example, we consider [in] some detail the impact of a particular allowance, the 'allocation parentale d'education' as introduced in the French system in 1985 and modified since."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20723 Demeny, Paul. Pronatalist policies in low-fertility countries: patterns, performance, and prospects. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 335-58 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The aim of this article is to...[examine] the patterns of pronatalist policies that have been applied thus far in countries in which too-low fertility has been recognized as a social problem requiring government action; [assess] the performance of these policies; and [discuss] the main public policy options democratic governments face if they wish to approach replacement fertility starting from a below-replacement level." The rationale for pro-natalist policy and the causes and dynamics of below-replacement fertility are first discussed. The author then presents a description of patterns in pro-natalist policy; an evaluation of the efficacy of such policies, including discussion of the problems of studying policy performance; and a discussion of prospects and options for pro-natalist policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20724 Heckel, Nancy I. Innovations in population law and policy in sub-Saharan Africa: 1975-1985. CPFH Working Paper Series, No. 27, Aug 1986. 27 pp. Columbia University, Faculty of Medicine, Center for Population and Family Health [CPFH]: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author outlines the population policies of the 13 sub-Saharan African countries that have issued separate population policy documents or development plans with sections pertaining to population. Also included is the 1985 Nigerian draft policy. The objectives, family planning services, information and education measures, research and evaluation measures, and other key policy measures detailed in each of these policy documents are summarized. The liberalization during the past decade of various laws concerning contraception is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20725 Heitlinger, Alena. Reproduction, medicine and the Socialist state. ISBN 0-312-67403-1. LC 85-26112. 1987. xv, 318 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is concerned with the social and individual management of reproduction in the state socialist societies in Eastern Europe, especially Czechoslovakia." The author argues that the Socialist state's intervention is particularly extensive in this area. "She points to the systematic ideological programs on education for marriage and parenthood, relatively easy access to abortion, protective legislation for women, pregnancy and maternity leaves and the provision of free pre-, intra- and post-natal medical care. She looks also at the comprehensive system of pro-natalist fiscal incentives, consisting of both direct cash benefits awarded to families and mothers, and subsidized children's goods and services. Unlike the pluralistic West, socialist collective debates on child-bearing are initiated from the top down by the party and the professional elites, rather than from the bottom up by various consumer and interest groups. The author concludes, however, that the lack of broad participation in decision-making on fertility policy has not meant, for the most part, that women have been unable to exercise their reproductive rights individually."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20726 Hooz, Istvan. Family allowance and recent Socialist population policy trends. Acta Universitatis Szegendiensis de Attila Jozsef Nominatae: Acta Juridica et Politica, Vol. 36, No. 7, 1986. 91-101 pp. Szeged, Hungary. In Eng.
The use of family allowances as a measure of pro-natalist population policy in the USSR and Eastern Europe is examined, with particular reference to the situation in Hungary. Wide differences in the monetary value of these allowances, not associated with current fertility differentials, are observed among the countries. Consideration is given to optimal levels of child allowances and to the possibility of differential allowances to various economic or social groups.
Author's address: Pecsi Janus Pannonius Tudomanyegyetem, Kozgazdasagtudomanyi Kar, Modszertan Tanszek, 7622 Pecs, Rakoczi ut 80, Hungary.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20727 Klinger, Andras. Policy response and effects. In: European Population Conference 1987. Plenaries/Congres Europeen de Demographie 1987. Seances plenieres, edited by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and the European Association for Population Studies. 1987. 387-434 pp. Central Statistical Office: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author examines population policies undertaken in Europe in pursuit of a variety of demographic goals, with a focus on policies affecting fertility and the family. The recent experiences of selected European countries are described. Among the governmental actions considered are reductions in working hours for employed mothers, subsidized child care, housing allowances, social services for children, and restricting access to contraception. The inadequacy of existing methods to assess population policy effectiveness is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20728 Klinger, Andras. Population policy measures: effects on reproductive behaviour in Hungary. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 17, 1985. 64-79 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present paper begins with a review of the history of fertility trends and various aspects of population policy measures during the post-war period in Hungary. The main focus of the paper is on the possible demographic impact of those policy measures over time. The methodological difficulties of making such an assessment are discussed and the pertinent findings from the retrospective and prospective longitudinal studies conducted by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office are described. Public attitudes about the adequacy of the population policy measures as well as trends in contraceptive use are also discussed. Although the findings are only suggestive at this point, they lend support to the belief that, to date, policies designed to encourage fertility in Hungary have led primarily to an acceleration of the birth of a second child at an earlier time rather than to an undesired increase in family size, or in other words to a change in the calendar of births rather than to a change in the complete size of the family."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20729 Lam-Thanh-Liem. Family planning in Viet Nam. [La planification familiale au Viet-Nam.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 321-36 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author first describes the anti-natalist policies adopted in Viet Nam in 1982 for economic reasons, including the limiting of families to two children, obliging mothers of large families to accept IUDs, and the performance of abortion without anesthetics, as well as sanctions on party members and civil servants not conforming to official fertility norms. The relative lack of demographic success to date is noted. Attention is also paid to the health, psychological, and physiological ill effects of the program.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20730 McIntosh, C. Alison. Recent pronatalist policies in Western Europe. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 318-34 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author considers the reaction of selected European governments to declining fertility, in particular noting obstacles to pro-natalist policy. Weak public demand for population policy is credited as the foremost impediment. It is also recognized that public confidence in pro-natalist measures is low and that arguments in favor of pro-natalist policy have not convinced the public of its value as a source of national power. Family policy, political factors, and labor and immigration policies are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20731 Mikhailova, Pavlina. Social policy concerning the family in Bulgaria. [Sotsialnata politika v oblastta na semeistvoto v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1986. 3-9 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The pro-natalist social policy that has been developed in Bulgaria is described. This policy focuses on the development and protection of the nuclear family unit and on the development of responsible attitudes toward marital and parental roles among young people.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20732 Munz, Rainer; Neyer, Gerda; Pelz, Monika. Female employment, pregnancy leave, and reintegration into the work force. [Frauenarbeit, Karenzurlaub und berufliche Wiedereingliederung.] Demographische Informationen, 1986. 71-9, 146 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This article summarizes a project conducted between 1981 and 1985, in which "the research was aimed at a comprehensive description of maternity protection legislation in Austria and its effects on women's status within the family and on the labour market." It includes a historical analysis of maternity protection laws since the 1880s, an investigation into the theoretical approaches to women's work and maternity leave and the connection to women's participation in the labor market, a survey of women's employment since the 1960s, an analysis of statistical data on recipients of maternity leave payments in the 1980s, a study of the relationship between women's working careers and confinement patterns, and models and social policy reform proposals that would facilitate the employment of mothers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20733 Obertreis, Gesine. Family policy in the German Democratic Republic, 1945-1980. [Familienpolitik in der DDR 1945-1980.] Forschungstexte Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Vol. 17, ISBN 3-8100-0566-5. 1986. v, 378 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The development of family policy in the German Democratic Republic over the period 1945-1980 is examined. In the first section of the book, the theoretical and Marxist ideological basis for German family policy is described. The second section focuses on the various policy measures adopted and the economic, social, and political context in which they were carried out. Attention is given to efforts to influence reproductive behavior since 1972. A final section deals with the impact that family policies have had.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20734 Perreault, Jeanine; Costa, Rosalinda; George, M. V. Quebec's population decline: if it is foreseeable, is it avoidable? [La decroissance de la population du Quebec: si on peut la prevoir, peut-on la prevenir?] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 15, No. 2, Oct 1986. 213-25 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Quebec's fertility is the lowest in Canada, and it is most likely that its population is heading for a decline. In this paper, the authors try to make explicit some of the scenarios which could prevent this decline. They first briefly present the current trends and specify the assumptions used in the simulation. Then, they analyse the results by investigating the onset of the decline and the maximum size of the population. And finally, they present some of the replacement scenarios which may prevent the decline."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20735 Sun, Yuesheng; Wei, Zhangling. The one-child policy in China today. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 18, No. 2, Summer 1987. xii, xx, 309-25 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This article describes the achievements of and future prospects for China's one-child population policy. The reasons for the adoption of the policy are first presented. The positive effects of the policy are identified as higher standards of living, social development regarding the family and status of women, improved quality of life, and increased social assistance. The negative effects noted are psychosocial pressures on only children and their families, unbalanced sex ratios, higher levels of divorce, and demographic aging.
Author's address: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Jianguomennei, Dajie 5 Hao, Beijing, China.
Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

53:20736 Briggs, Vernon M. The "albatross" of immigration reform: temporary worker policy in the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 20, No. 4, Winter 1986. 995-1,019 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the history of U.S. labor and immigration policies, paying particular attention to the evolution of the temporary worker policy. Complications in the immigration reform process caused by efforts to admit more temporary workers are discussed. The position of the Reagan administration, Senate and House consideration of immigration and temporary worker bills, and the political controversies surrounding this issue are reviewed. The author points out that it was not until the major temporary worker proposals were finally removed from the Simpson-Rodino Act that passage of legislation was achieved, and he anticipates that efforts will eventually be made to revive temporary worker policy and thereby rekindle the debate.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20737 Crepeau, Francois. Categories of immigrants and "levels of immigration" in Canada: a voluntarist policy. [Categories d'immigrants et "niveaux d'immigration" au Canada: une politique volontariste.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 2, No. 2, Nov 1986. 145-64 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines current immigration policy in Canada. "The Canadian immigration policy is based on a rigorous selection process, but the appropriateness criteria play an important part, the immigration officers being vested with a large power of assessment. The immigrants are individually selected, in each category (family, humanitarian or economic) according to an evaluation system taking into account several criteria: languages, vocational training, work experience, and, above all, the ability 'to become successfully established in Canada'....The Government sets every year, for each category, the number of immigrants to be admitted. The immigration levels have been raised from 85,000 in 1985 to 115,000 immigrants in 1986, that is to say, more than a 30% increase....This rise has been essentially to the advantage of qualified economic immigration...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20738 Dowty, Alan. Emigration and expulsion in the third world. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan 1986. 151-75 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The factors affecting the development of migration policies in developing countries are reviewed. These may include political and ethnic pressures leading to the expulsion of groups of people, and efforts to block the emigration of skilled personnel.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20739 Mehrlander, U. Sociological aspects of migration policy: the case of the Federal Republic of Germany. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1987. 87-96 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Recent policy developments in the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the foreign population are reviewed. The author notes that various proposals to regularize the situation of foreign migrants have come up against the obstacle of political opposition to immigration. Particular attention is paid to the problems posed by second-generation immigrants.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20740 Witton, Ron. Changes in the structure of the population of Australia and their social consequences. [Perubahan struktur kependudukan Australia dan akibat sosialnya.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 13, No. 26, Dec 1986. iii, 29-48 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the changes in Australia's immigration policy since World War II and the impact of those changes, which abolished the preference for white immigrants. Among the consequences are problems posed by language, since many immigrants are now from non-English-speaking countries, and problems of unemployment caused by the change in the Australian economy from manufacturing to extractive industries.
Author's address: Program Pasca Sarjana FISIPOL UGM, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.