Volume 53 - Number 2 - Summer 1987

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

53:20651 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Demographic and socio-economic indicators on population and development. Population and Development Series, No. 6, Feb 1987. 64 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This report presents a selection of demographic and socioeconomic indicators for a wide range of countries. The data are from U.N. and World Bank sources. The report has two stated objectives: the first is to examine the relationship between population and development; the second is to show the relative demographic situation of Asian countries. Data are provided on population size and growth; age distribution; urban population; summary vital statistics; life expectancy; population per doctor, nurse, and teacher; nutrition, health, and education expenditure; school enrollment; literacy; GNP; labor force; industry; food production; and development assistance
Publisher's address: Room No. 710 Nagatacho TBR Building, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100 Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20652 Barlow, Robin. Correlations between population growth and economic growth. Center for Research on Economic Development Discussion Paper, No. 115, Mar 1986. 13 pp. University of Michigan, Center for Research on Economic Development: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author discusses selected studies concerning the relationships between economic growth and population growth in both developing and developed countries. "This paper reviews the simple cross-sectional correlations between population growth and per capita income growth appearing in earlier studies, and uses both old and new data sets to obtain some more correlations. It is concluded that for periods during the last forty years, the correlations among low-income countries tend to be zero, while those among high-income countries and among all countries combined tend to be negative. The limitations of simple correlation for inferring causal linkages between population growth and per capita income growth are also discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

53:20653 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Report on the basic survey of population and development in Southeast Asian countries: India. Mar 1986. 115 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The findings of a 1985 survey concerning population and development problems in India are reported. The survey covered a sample of 280 households in two regions. In the first two chapters, an overview of population dynamics and health issues in India is presented, and various aspects of urbanization are discussed. Tables in the third chapter provide information on the survey sample, including age distribution, place of birth, income and occupational status, consumption of selected durable goods, educational status, delivery of health services, family planning practice, family characteristics and size, married women in the labor force, and migration. A sample of the questionnaire used is included
Publisher's address: Nagatacho TBR Building, Room 710, 10-2, Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20654 Bilsborrow, Richard E. Population pressures and agricultural development in developing countries: a conceptual framework and recent evidence. World Development, Vol. 15, No. 2, Feb 1987. 183-203 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purposes of this paper are (a) to develop a more comprehensive conceptual approach for investigating the responses to increases in rural population density in developing countries; and (b) to present recent empirical evidence illustrating these responses. The variety of responses is empirically illustrated for broad regions in developing countries, including increases in arable land, land intensification, out-migration, and fertility decline, though the focus is on the economic changes. Viewing the economic changes both across countries and over time suggests wide scope for further increases in agricultural output, even with existing technology. Nevertheless, prospects for raising living standards in the developing countries are better with slower rates of population growth."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1979 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 45, No. 3, Fall 1979, p. 374).
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:20655 Breman, Jan. Of peasants, migrants and paupers: rural labour circulation and capitalist production in West India. ISBN 0-19-561649-9. 1985. xxv, 472 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The process of agricultural change and modernization in rural Gujarat, India, is analyzed, with a focus on the impact of this process on the landless poor and migrants. The study is based on fieldwork carried out between 1977 and 1982. It is shown that the development of modern capitalist farming methods, involving the dissolution of feudal agrarian relations, has had a negative impact on the bonded laborers, who have lost traditional rights of employment and other benefits without gaining access to the newly instituted minimum wage. The competition between local landless poor and migrant laborers for available jobs has aggravated the existing situtation. The consequences of such a process for short-term migration and long-term social change are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20656 Fong, Chan-Onn. Population-development program implementation: the Malaysian experience. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 35, No. 3, Apr 1987. 539-60 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author considers the relationship between population and development programs and the contribution of integrated programs in Malaysia. "The program performance of two well-known Malaysian population-development programs--the maternal and child-health (MCH/FP) and the Federal Land Development Authority (Felda) programs--and the single-purpose FP [family planning] program are analyzed and compared....A brief background of the Malaysian population-development programs is provided. The methodology utilized in the paper is then discussed, followed by a presentation of the results." After assessing a number of organizational, integrational, and community-support variables for the three programs, the author concludes that "the Malaysian population-development programs are more effective than their single-purpose FP counterpart, and a large part of the improvement in their effectiveness can be attributed to integration itself, which enabled the generation of more community support for the programs."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

53:20657 Irfan, Mohammad. Poverty and household demographic behaviour in Pakistan--insights from PLM survey 1979. Studies in Population, Labour Force and Migration: Project Report, No. 11, Jun 1985. 57, [10] pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author seeks to identify socioeconomic correlates of poverty in rural areas of Pakistan and to assess the relationship between fertility behavior and poverty. Three measures of poverty are studied: calorie deficiency, child schooling, and infant mortality. Data from the Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) survey and other sources are used to assess the relationship between the poverty so identified and households characteristics such as household income, land ownership, tenurial status and education of the head of the household which form the basis of the class structure used in this paper. Whether the fertility behaviour of the poverty stricken groups is distinct or not is also briefly discussed to understand the interrelationship between demography and poverty."
It is found that "socioeconomic groups suffering from higher level of calorie deficiency also mark a poor performance in infant mortality and child schooling." Concerning demographic behavior, "the findings of this paper suggest that the size as well as the formation of household is a response and represents a household survival strategy....That large family size may constitute a source of strength rather than burden appears to be the case in rural areas of Pakistan....The fertility behaviour of the poverty stricken groups is not found significantly different than the average. It [is] noted that except a selected top income group the reproductive behaviour in Pakistan is fairly homogeneous."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20658 Margulis, Mario; Tuiran, Rodolfo. Development and population in the northern frontier: the case of Reynosa. [Desarrollo y poblacion en la frontera norte: el caso de Reynosa.] ISBN 968-12-0322-4. 1986. 323 pp. Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This study is concerned with the development process in the Mexican border town of Reynosa, with particular reference to the impact of its proximity to a highly developed economy on the U.S. side of the border. The rapid growth of population and the factors affecting it are considered, including economic activity and the reproductive strategies of households.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20659 Mason, Andrew; Suits, Daniel B.; Koo, Sung-Yeal; Ogawa, Naohiro; Phananiramai, Mathana; Sigit, Hananto. Population growth and economic development: lessons from selected Asian countries. Policy Development Studies, No. 10, 1986. 84 pp. United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationship between population and development is examined, with the focus on selected Asian countries that have had particular success in reducing fertility. The countries considered include the Republic of Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Thailand. The report summarizes findings of a recent cooperative research project involving the East-West Population Institute, Nihon University, and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). It concludes that "by reducing their rates of childbearing, the four countries studied have been able to achieve higher material standards of living. Fertility reduction is shown to result in greater expenditures on education, leading to a more productive labour force, higher rates of saving and investment, and populations with greater numbers of people of working age." The extent to which population policies have contributed to fertility declines is also examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20660 Poston, Dudley L.; El-Badry, Samia M. Modernization and childlessness among the governorates of the Arab Republic of Egypt, 1976. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 181-93 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the degree to which childlessness is influenced by levels of modernization among the governorates of the Arab Republic of Egypt. In 1976, the higher the levels of modernization, the lower the rates of childlessness among women aged 30 and over, and the higher the rates of childlessness among women aged 20-30. The implications of these results for fertility and development are discussed." The data used are from the 1976 census.
Author's address: Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20661 Prabhakara, N. R.; Usha, M. N. Population growth and unemployment in India. ISBN 81-7024-041-7. 1986. ix, 102 pp. Ashish Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a study of the problems of unemployment and poverty in India. The majority of the data are from the National Sample Survey and concern the state of Karnataka. The results indicate that the situation regarding unemployment and underemployment deteriorated over the decade 1961-1971.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20662 Sindiga, Isaac. Population and development in Maasailand, Kenya. Pub. Order No. DA8701285. 1986. 332 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study investigates the magnitude and spatial variation of population pressure in Maasailand [Kenya]. Another purpose is to assess government response to population pressure. It is argued that population is a critical component in regional development especially in the short term." A historical analysis of the emergence of population pressure is followed by an examination of current carrying capacities in the various ecological zones
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Syracuse University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(9).

53:20663 Singh, L. R.; Dubey, K. N. Demographic development in a developing economy: a case study of Uttar Pradesh. Population Geography, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1985. 27-39 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"Patterns of and trends in demographic development in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh have been analysed in this paper. Indices of urbanisation, literacy and occupational structure were used for this purpose. Their aggregate index represented the level of demographic development." The data are for 242 subdivisions of Uttar Pradesh for the census years 1971 and 1981. Particular attention is given to regional differentials in demographic indicators. The relationships among economic development and the measurements of literacy, urbanization, and occupational status are explored.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20664 Treas, Judith; Logue, Barbara. Economic development and the older population. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 645-73, 821, 823 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The implications of aging populations and of increasing proportions aged 65 and older have only recently emerged as a concern on the policy agenda in the less developed world. After sketching the demographic context of aging in less developed regions, this article presents a conceptual framework for relating the older population to development policy. Four perspectives on the aged are identified as implicit in development policies: (1) the aged as a low priority, (2) the aged as an impediment, (3) the aged as a resource, and (4) the aged as victims. These overlapping and at times competing perspectives are evaluated in terms of the benefits and pitfalls they imply for development strategies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20665 Verduzco, Gustavo; Munoz, Humberto; Stern, Claudio; Bronfman, Mario. Proceedings of the Latin American Conference on Population and Development: held in Mexico City, November 8-10, 1983, Vol. 1. [Memorias del Congreso Latinoamericano de Poblacion y Desarrollo: celebrado en la Ciudad de Mexico del 8 al 10 de noviembre de 1983, Volumen 1.] ISBN 968-12-0273-2. [1984]. [1,119] pp. Colegio de Mexico: Mexico City, Mexico; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico [UNAM]: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a conference on population and development in Latin America held in Mexico City in November 1983. In addition to papers concerned with general issues pertaining to the relationship between population and development, sessions are included on mortality, the labor force, the use of demographic information in development programs, changes in the agricultural structure, the family, international migration, local migration and spatial distribution, and the fertility decline.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

53:20666 Birg, Herwig. A biography approach to theoretical demography. IBS-Materialien, No. 23, ISBN 3-923340-12-5. 1986. iv, 117 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This study of generative, or reproductive, behavior uses data from the Federal Republic of Germany and begins with background on the development of biographic theory, an approach used in the study of the effects of economic change on the generative behavior of industrial and postindustrial societies. Models are presented that are designed to reveal "the connection between labour market dynamics, the evolution of the family in society and generative behaviour." The author details the concepts, hypotheses, and models pertaining to biographic theory. A questionnaire that will survey 1,500 people of a particular group, or biographic type and class, is also described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20667 d'Entremont, Alban. Demographic totalitarianism. [Totalitarismo demografico.] Nuestro Tiempo, Vol. 65, No. 385-386, Jul-Aug 1986. 125 pp. Pamplona, Spain. In Spa.
This is a collection of articles, mostly translated from the original English, on the implications of current population trends in developed countries. The emphasis is on the decline of fertility to below replacement level and the factors that have led to this situation.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20668 Demery, David; Ogawa, Naohiro. New lessons on population and economic change from the Japanese Meiji experience. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 39, Mar 1987. vi, 25 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The authors examine population growth and economic development in Meiji Japan, focusing in particular on two earlier studies, one by Allen Kelley and Jeffrey G. Williamson and one by Naohiro Ogawa and Daniel B. Suits. "In the first half of this paper, a theoretical explanation for the differences in the conclusions between these two models is given. In the second half, a new 'hybrid' model is formulated, by incorporating important features of both Kelley-Williamson and Ogawa-Suits models. In addition, a few historical counterfactual simulations are conducted to highlight the role of the 'model closure' adopted."
For the article by Ogawa and Suits, published in 1982, see 49:30599.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20669 Entorf, Horst; Hohorst, Gerd. Demographic-economic time series variations--process development of a demographic-economic system? Combined time series and principal components analyses of demographic-economic system variables in Prussia from the Napoleonic wars to World War I. [Demographisch-okonomische Zeitreihenvariationen--Prozessentwicklung eines demookonomischen Systems? Kombinierte Zeitreihen- und Hauptkomponentenanalysen demookonomischer Systemvariablen von den Napoleonischen Kriegen bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg in Preussen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1986. 473-89 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In this study, the authors examine interdependences of demographic and economic system variables. The demographic variables of births, marriages, deaths, and excess of births, and economic indicators such as prices of food and per capita income are used as [a] database. The instruments of univariate [and] bivariate spectral analysis as well as the principal components analysis are used to identify the relationships." The geographic focus is on the German state of Prussia. Dominating cycles of seven to eight years for economic variables and about four years for demographic variables result. "The factor loadings of the principal components suggest that there is no separability of economic and demographic components....Along with a significant natural lag of the birth date by comparison with the marriage date, the results of the cross spectral analysis reveal that births--if compared with the economic variables--are trailing behind. Therefore, the cyclical total rhythm may be assumed to be initiated economically."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20670 Ermisch, John; Joshi, Heather. Demographic change, economic growth and social welfare. In: European Population Conference 1987. Plenaries/Congres Europeen de Demographie 1987. Seances plenieres, edited by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and the European Association for Population Studies. 1987. 329-86 pp. Central Statistical Office: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper we examine the economic rationale for concern about the falling rate of growth of Europe's population. Does slow, zero or negative population growth matter from the point of view of its effect on the capacity of the economy to improve social welfare?" It is concluded that "there may be long-term economic effects of demographic change on a stationary Europe's capacity to generate technical progress and to sustain economic growth. There could also be problems in the twenty-first century about financing the state pensions promised to some of the baby boom generation." Alternatives to a deliberate pro-natalist policy solution are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20671 Fua, Giorgio. The economic consequences of population trends. [Conseguenze economiche dell'evoluzione demografica.] Collana degli Societa Italiana degli Economisti, ISBN 88-15-01236-2. 1986. 204 pp. Il Mulino: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on the economic consequences of demographic trends. The studies were presented at a working session organized at the 26th annual meeting of the Societa Italiana degli Economisti. The geographic focus is on Italy, with consideration given to the rest of Europe. Chapters are included on population and economic stagnation, demographic factors in Italian economic theory, current demographic trends in Italy, demographic trends and labor supply, a new methodology to analyze employment prospects, the problems of countries of immigration, population characteristics and consumer demand, demographic trends and housing, the condition of the aged, demographic trends and pensions, the aging of the population and health services, and demographic trends and education.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20672 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Economic growth with below-replacement fertility. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 217-47 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article I take continuing below-replacement fertility as the premise and look to identify and weigh economic outcomes that plausibly follow. My interest is in the industrialized countries, principally the United States....The broad themes I have used are those of distribution and selectivity: distribution across time, across social strata and other groupings, and across states; selectivity in recruitment to national elites, to middle class well-being, to citizenship in the affluent, low-fertility world. The social processes thus defined are modified by new patterns of fertility both directly and through the responses of government. The resulting economic effects of low fertility depend in large measure on the combinations in which and the degree to which those processes are changed." Changes in international economic relationships are considered. Comments by Ester Boserup (pp. 238-43), Thomas G. Moore (pp. 243-4), and Carmel U. Chiswick (pp. 244-7) are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20673 Ricardo-Campbell, Rita. U.S. social security under low fertility. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 296-317 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Focusing on existing social security programs in the United States, this article discusses ways to minimize their negative societal impacts and to cope with emerging below-replacement fertility. Inasmuch as the very survival of social security systems depends on the levels of reproduction, this article considers probable adjustments of social security under conditions of below-replacement fertility." Family allowances, full and part-time employment for women, and the need to positively reinforce the value of childbearing and child rearing are also discussed. A comment by Annelise Anderson (pp. 313-7) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20674 Weaver, Carolyn L. Social security in aging societies. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 273-95 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The aging populations of selected industrialized countries are compared, and the future of these countries' social security systems is anticipated. Population projections to 2025 are presented, and the significance of these figures for determining retirement policies is noted. The author discusses dependency ratios, pay-as-you-go social security systems, recent developments in these systems, and the governments' differing responses to aging populations and aging social security systems. A comment by Thomas G. Moore (p. 295) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

53:20675 Kellman, Mitchell. World hunger: a neo-Malthusian perspective. ISBN 0-275-92247-2. LC 86-21221. 1987. xviii, 242 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between global food production and population growth. Data on food production from 1885 to the present are analyzed. Particular attention is given to examples of successful innovations in food-producing technologies that were adopted in response to population pressures and hunger crises. The author first reviews the literature. Five separate hypotheses concerning the relationship between population growth and food supply are then considered and are tested by time and region. The general conclusion is against Malthusian or doomsday interpretations and in favor of adaptive or optimistic conclusions concerning the world's ability to feed a growing population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20676 Population Crisis Committee (Washington, D.C.). Food and population: three country studies. Population, No. 18, Apr 1987. 8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between food supply and population growth is examined in three case studies concerning India, Kenya, and Mexico. In each case it is shown that despite increases in agricultural production, rapid population growth has led to an increase in malnutrition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20677 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). Population, resources, environment and development: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 17, 1985. 1-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationships among population, resources, environment, and development are examined in light of the World Population Plan of Action. "In the present paper those relationships are examined as they relate to meeting the needs of growing populations for nutrition, education, health, employment, old age security and a just distribution of the benefits of development. Account is taken of how attempts to meet those needs will impact on the conservation of the resource base and the preservation of the quality of the environment. In particular, the prospects for having adequate supplies of mineral resources, especially those related to energy, and sufficient arable land will be reviewed in the light of the impact of growing populations and rising standards of living. Also considered will be the problem of maintaining the quality of the atmosphere and the water supply."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

53:20678 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Labor force and development in Japan. Population and Development Series, No. 5, Dec 1986. 105 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a collection of six papers by various authors on aspects of the development of the labor force in Japan since World War II, together with a general introduction. Topics covered include the relationship between the labor force and economic development, demographic aging, technological innovation, regional distribution, and projections of the labor force
Publisher's address: Room No. 710 Nagatacho TBR Building, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100 Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20679 Balicki, Andrzej. A probability model of the labor turnover process and non-parametric methods of its estimation using cohort data. [Probabilistyczny model procesu plynnosci kadr i nieparametryczne jego szacowanie przy uzyciu danych kohortowych.] Studia Demograficzne, Vol. 2, No. 4/86, 1986. 71-83 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This is the continuation of a study involving the use of cohort analysis to study labor force turnover in Poland. The focus here is on estimating the probability of labor turnover using non-parametric methods. Various estimates of these probabilistic functions for selected industrial firms are presented.
For a related study by the same author, also published in 1986, see 53:10702.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20680 Baron, Malka. Changes in the age structure of Israel's population and their effect on the labor market, 1965-82. Economic Review, Bank of Israel, No. 58, Summer 1986. 1-28 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
Changes in the age structure of the population of Israel between 1965 and 1982 are analyzed. The author suggests that such changes had a greater effect on the economy than did net immigration and that they had an impact on the recession of 1966-1967, the boom of 1971-1973, and the slowdown of 1980-1982. The emphasis is on changes in the age group 25-34.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:20681 Chow, Rita; Krishnan, Parameswara; Lalu, Nirannanilat. Female working life expectancy, Canada 1921-1971: results from an application of model working life tables. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1986. 181-92 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Estimates of working life expectancy for Canadian females have been generated with the help of model working life tables for the census years 1921 through 1971. It is seen that the expected working life has increased over this time period. The analysis shows that the major contributor to this increase is the increase in female labour force participation."
Author's address: University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20682 Jones, Gavin. Differentials in female labour force participation rates in Indonesia: reflection of economic needs and opportunities, culture or bad data? Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 13, No. 26, Dec 1986. ii-iii, 1-28 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The author analyzes differences in labor force participation among groups of Indonesian women. The focus is on differences by region and by educational status. The results indicate that economic factors partially explain these differentials, with higher levels of economic activity among the uneducated and highly educated than among those with primary or junior high school education. Cultural factors are also relevant, with Javanese and Balinese having higher female participation rates than other groups, such as the Sundanese and Buginese.
Author's address: State Ministry of Population and Environment, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20683 Kotliar, A. Labor resources and the current economic development of the USSR. Problems of Economics, Vol. 29, No. 12, Apr 1987. 5-22 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
Future trends in labor resources in the USSR are analyzed. The author estimates that there will be a potential labor surplus by the end of this century. The need to plan for the large-scale displacement of labor in advance is noted.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Ekonomicheskie Nauki (Moscow, USSR), No. 12, 1985, pp. 3-12.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:20684 Matin, Khan A. Working life tables, Bangladesh 1981. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1986. 65-79 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper presents the results on the construction of working life tables for males and females in Bangladesh in 1981. The population census of Bangladesh, 1981 forms the main source of data for this study. The life table values developed under the United Nations Family of Model Life Tables--South Asian pattern were used for the development of the working life table." Findings concerning labor force participation rates, the dependency burden, loss of working years due to mortality, and differences in male and female participation in the labor force in Bangladesh are compared with similar information for other South Asian countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20685 Montgomery, Mark; Trussell, James. Models of marital status and childbearing. Handbook of labor economics, Vol. I, edited by O. Ashenfelter and R. Layard, 1986. 205-71 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors review the microeconomic models of marital status and childbearing that have implictions for female labor supply. The geographic focus is on developed countries, primarily the United States. "Section 2 contains a review for the United States of trends in those demographic variables which are strongly associated with female labor supply: age at first marriage, marital dissolution, age at first birth, the number of children born over the life cycle, and the age pattern of fertility." Section 3 is concerned with demographic models and the empirical regularities in demographic behavior. The microeconomic models that attempt to explain the facts described in Sections 2 and 3 are then considered. "Section 4 explores models of marital status, and in Section 5 the single-period models of lifetime fertility decisions are reviewed. Section 6 is concerned with the efforts of Wolpin (1984), Newman (1985), and Hotz and Miller (1985) to extend the single-period fertility models to dynamic settings with uncertainty."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20686 Robinson, Patricia. Women's work interruptions: results from the 1984 Family History Survey. [Interruptions de travail chez les femmes: resultats de l'Enquete sur la famille de 1984.] Pub. Order No. 99-962. ISBN 0-660-52895-9. Jan 1987. 36, 40 pp. Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This report, one of a series of studies based on retrospective [Canadian] data collected by the 1984 Family History Survey, examines relationships between work interruptions and family-related events, particularly the birth of children." Differences between men and women concerning interruptions in labor force participation are compared. The author notes changes in work interruptions over time concerning not only births, but also marriages.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20687 Rosenzweig, Mark R. Labor markets in low-income countries: distortions, mobility and migration. Economic Development Center Bulletin, No. 87-5, Apr 1987. 70 pp. University of Minnesota, Department of Economics, Economic Development Center: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author discusses "the operation of low-income labor markets with reference to the models that have been and continue to be influential in shaping the study of such markets. These models are evaluated in terms of their ablity to shed light on the realities of the allocaton, pricing and employment of labor in low-income countries." The first section is concerned with employment and wage determination in the rural, agricultural sector. The author then considers rural labor contracts in incomplete, agricultural labor markets. The third section deals with the efficient allocation of labor across sectors and regions as well as barriers to mobility. "Models of migration incorporating human capital investments, information and capital constraints, uncertainty with respect to employment, riskiness in annual incomes, temporary migration, remittances, and heterogeneity in preferences and abilities among workers are discussed. Section IV is concerned with urban labor markets, and addresses issues concerning the duality of urban labor markets and unemployment determination." In the final section, the author suggests areas for future research, including life-cycle and intergenerational labor market mobility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20688 Saleh, Kamal S. Recent changes in the labour force structure in Jordan and its implications. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 227-58 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author analyzes the industrial distribution, occupational structure, and employment status of Jordan's labor force for the period 1961-1982. Data are from the 1961 and 1979 censuses and the 1982-1983 Manpower Sample Survey. "Interrelations between industry and occupation and between each of them and employment status [are] studied."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20689 Taeuber, Cynthia M.; Valdisera, Victor. Women in the American economy. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 146, Nov 1986. vi, 45 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report reviews trends and implications of the economic status of U.S. women both for society as a whole and for the individuals concerned. Consideration is given to the economic consequences of changes in social and demographic trends such as living arrangements, fertility, and marriage. Differences by age, race, and ethnic group are considered. The emphasis is on changes occurring since the early 1970s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20690 Taylor, Jeffrey R. Employment outlook for China to the year 2000. CIR Staff Paper, No. 16, Mar 1986. 43 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines China's employment outlook to the year 2000. Attention is given to employment levels, 1985-2000; employment participation rates, 1985-2000; and the ratio of nonworking to working population, 1985-2000. The projection methodology used and detailed medium projection results are contained in appendixes. It is projected that China's total workforce will grow by 26 percent between 1985 and 2000 and that the greatest increase in employment will come in urban areas. The overall ratio of workers to total population aged 15 and above is expected to decline slightly, while the author anticipates that the workers' burden in caring for the aged will begin to rise.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20691 van der Wijst, Ton. Green and grey industries? An international comparison of developments in the age structure of the labor force by industry. [Groene en grijze bedrijfstakken? Een internationale vergelijking van de ontwikkeling in de leeftijdsstructuur van de beroepsbevolking naar bedrijfstak.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1986. 85-111 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article reviews the changing age distribution of the labour force by industry in twelve selected countries in Europe and North America. The period considered regards the years 1970-1982." The results indicate that although the median age of the labor force is decreasing, the proportion of those under 25 declined. The young are poorly represented in agriculture, mining, and public utilities and strongly represented in trade, construction, and business services. The proportion of those over 55 declined in all countries, even in agriculture, in which this age group is strongly represented.
Author's address: Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20692 Walsh, Brendan M. Unemployment: the demographic dimension. Centre for Economic Research Policy Paper, No. 21, Sep 1986. [33] pp. University College, Dublin, Department of Political Economy, Centre for Economic Research: Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
The author reviews the arguments and evidence concerning ways in which demographic variables affect the labor force and the economy. Particular attention is given to demographic explanations for unemployment. The geographic focus is on Ireland. Population growth and economic welfare, potential and actual population growth in Ireland, the age structure of the labor force, and the effects of changing labor force participation rates are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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