Volume 53 - Number 2 - Summer 1987

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

53:20414 Abdelrahman, A. I.; Morgan, S. Philip. Socioeconomic and institutional correlates of family formation: Khartoum, Sudan, 1945-75. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 401-12 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines socioeconomic and institutional correlates of marriage timing in Khartoum, Sudan. Using a 1975 survey that was part of the Changing African Family Project, we find that age at marriage rose sharply across the later cohorts included in the study--over two years across the 1965-75 marriage cohorts. Special attention focuses on the effect of living with husband's parents after marriage and marrying endogamously. Both are associated with sharply reduced ages at marriage. But both these institutional patterns persist throughout the period examined and cannot account for the observed change. The increase in age at marriage is best described as recent, rapid, and pervasive."
Author's address: Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20415 Blanc, Ann K. The formation and dissolution of second unions: marriage and cohabitation in Sweden and Norway. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 391-400 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"As a result of high divorce rates and increasing proportions of women in relatively unstable cohabiting relationships, the population of women potentially entering second unions has increased. Using recent survey data from Sweden and Norway and life table techniques, this study examines both the rate at which women form second unions and the type of union they choose to enter (either marriage or cohabitation) as well as how this process has changed over time. In addition, the extent to which women in second premarital cohabitations and postmarital cohabitations marry and separate is addressed. The results show that nonmarital cohabitation is by far the preferred type of second union in both Sweden and Norway...."
Author's address: Demographic and Health Surveys, Institute for Resource Development, Westinghouse, Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20416 Borisov, Zdravko. Trends in the divorce rate in Bulgaria. [Tendentsii v razvitieto na brakorazvodite v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1986. 42-51 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Divorce trends in Bulgaria are examined. The author notes that not only is the number of divorces increasing steadily, but also the average age at divorce is increasing. Geographic differences in the divorce rate are also noted, with higher rates in the more urbanized areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20417 Braun, Werner. Divorces, 1985. [Ehescheidungen 1985.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1986. 968-73 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Information is presented on divorces in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985. Some comparative data from earlier years are also included. After a general overview, divorce rates are analyzed according to duration of marriage, year of divorce, and year of marriage. A final section deals with regional differences in divorce rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20418 Burch, Thomas K.; Madan, Ashok K. Union formation and dissolution: results from the 1984 Family History Survey. [Formulation et rupture d'unions: resultats de l'Enquete sur la famille de 1984.] Pub. Order No. 99-963. ISBN 0-660-52897-5. Nov 1986. 34, 34 pp. Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This report is one of a series of studies based on retrospective [Canadian] data collected by the 1984 Family History Survey. In this study, the processes of family formation and dissolution are examined as they evolved in the last 50 years." The results indicate that "younger persons are following patterns of family formation and dissolution that are different from those experienced by older generations and, furthermore, that trends in the dynamics of family life are still evolving."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20419 Cardoso, Jayme A.; Nadalin, Sergio O. The months and days of marriage in Parana (Brazil) in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. [Les mois et les jours de mariage au Parana (Bresil) aux XVIIIe, XIXe et XXe siecles.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 11-27 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine seasonal fluctuations in marriage in Parana, Brazil, from the mid-eighteenth century to the present. "The analysis takes into consideration the fluctuations through time and distinguishes between the different community origins: Luso-Brazilian, Catholic and Lutheran German, Italian, Polish. The weekly distribution of marriages has been computed for four periods, 1731-1800, 1801-1850, 1851-1880 and 1881-1900. Research into the causes of the fluctuations observed takes into account the role of religious prescriptions, traditions and agricultural/commercial activities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20420 Carmichael, Gordon A. Bust after boom: first marriage trends in Australia. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 2, May 1987. 245-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Since the early 1970s Australia has experienced a pronounced trend to later and less universal marriage. This stands in sharp contrast to a marriage boom that began with the outbreak of World War II and lasted for three decades. The boom was the product of three sets of forces: those peculiar to wartime, those emerging in the early postwar period and creating a climate favorable to marriage, and those surfacing in the 1960s with the advent of oral contraception. Its reversal is attributed largely to less frequent resort to marriage when premaritally pregnant, the rise of cohabitation as a prelude or alternative to marriage, economic forces hindering family formation, and ideological change."
Author's address: Australian Institute of Family Studies, 300 Queen Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20421 Chesnais, Jean-Claude; Liu, Chang Hong. Marriage and population control: the case of China. [Mariage et regulation demographique: le cas de la Chine.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1986. 979-1,004 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors study population control and marriage in China as well as the policies that have influenced the birth rate. "This article has three aims: (1) to show changes in the main characteristics of nuptiality (timing and number, stability of unions), (2) to pinpoint regional characteristics, and (3) to study changes in Chinese nuptiality within an international context. Three sources were used: the census, the post-census survey carried out in 1982, and a survey of peasant families undertaken in 1929-31. Results show that the increase in the age at marriage is not a recent phenomenon, but was common in the fifties and led to a sudden acceleration in the seventies....Marriage remains universal and divorce is very rare; regional disparities are insignificant, and only provinces with strong national minorities differ from the norm. Changes in...Chinese nuptiality are then studied within the context of a more general dynamic typology...involving the regulatory influences of marriage age and frequency on population growth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20422 Da Costa, Iraci del N.; Gutierrez, Horacio. A note on slave marriages in the regions of Sao Paulo and Parana (1830). [Note sur le mariage des esclaves dans les regions de Sao Paulo et du Parana (1830).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 49-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The article presents a comparative analysis of marriage data on the slave and free populations of the present States of Sao Paulo and Parana [Brazil] in 1830. Among the slave population, marriage is less frequent than among the free population, but represents a proportion (roughly 25%) which is high enough to contradict the classic assertion that in Brazil, few slaves had a religious wedding."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20423 Diederiks, H. A. The choice of a marriage partner in Amsterdam at the beginning of the nineteenth century. [Le choix du conjoint a Amsterdam au debut du XIXe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 183-94 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"After a brief review of existing studies on spouse selection, particularly in the Netherlands, the author discusses the subject from the point of view of the influence of certain social variables on the 'marriage market'. Sex distribution, age at marriage and age-difference between spouses, influence of place of origin and denomination are successively analysed. Taking the example of Amsterdam in the early nineteenth century, the decisive factor seems to be sharing the same denomination, followed by proximity of neighbourhood or place of origin."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20424 Exter, Thomas. How to figure your chances of getting married. American Demographics, Vol. 9, No. 6, Jun 1987. 50-2 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The probability of women marrying at various ages in the United States is reviewed using data from several recently published studies. The author suggests that the chances of marrying for single, college-educated women may be greater than has been indicated in recent studies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20425 Haskey, John. Social class differentials in remarriage after divorce: results from a forward linkage study. Population Trends, No. 47, Spring 1987. 34-42 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A forward linkage exercise is described in which a sample of over one thousand couples [in England and Wales] who divorced during 1979 were traced to see whether either or both partners remarried in the subsequent 2 1/2 years; for those who did, the appropriate divorce and remarriage records were linked....One third, 34 per cent, of the divorced husbands and 33 per cent of the divorced wives remarried....These findings and the proportions of divorced husbands and wives who remarried according to their social class, number of children, age at previous marriage, age at divorce and duration of marriage are presented and discussed."
For a related study, published by Richard Leete and Susan Anthony in 1979, see 45:4476.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20426 Hoem, Britta. The effect of pregnancy on changes in the marital status and living arrangements of childless Swedish women. [Graviditetens betydelse for barnlosa svenska kvinnors civilstandsandringar.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 38, ISBN 91-7820-025-3. May 1987. 33 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This report examines factors related to changes in Swedish women's living arrangements and marital status, focusing particularly on the influence of pregnancy. Cohort analyses of women born in five-year cohorts between 1936 and 1960 indicate that pregnancy substantially increases the likelihood that women living alone will start cohabiting and that cohabiting, childless women will get married. The effects of age, social background, and occupation are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20427 Kadi, A. S. Age at marriage in India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1987. 41-56 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article shows that a major change in social attitudes has occurred in India during the past two decades with regard to age at marriage, which is an important factor in reducing the level of fertility. The unlawful practice of child marriage is on the decline and census data show a shift in age at marriage from earlier to older ages, without any change in the universal practice of female marriage." Differentials in age at marriage by rural or urban residence, state, religion, and woman's educational status are examined separately. Anticipating a shortage of females of marriageable age in the future, the author concludes that "later marriage combined with increased education for women and projected changes in fertility and mortality are likely to lead to significant improvements in the status of women in India by the early part of the next century."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20428 Kedelski, Mieczyslaw; Golata, Elzbieta. Multiple decrement tables of changes in the marital status of the population of Poland (1982-1984). [Wielostrumieniowe tablice zmian stanu cywilnego ludnosci w Polsce (1982-1984).] Studia Demograficzne, Vol. 2, No. 4/86, 1986. 23-48 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Official Polish data for the period 1982-1984 are used to construct multiple decrement tables of changes in marital status for the population of a hypothetical cohort over the course of its life history. The data are analyzed separately by sex with respect to the probabilities of change in marital status, the characteristics of the life cycle, and the expectation of life by marital status category.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20429 Kiernan, Kathleen E.; Eldridge, Sandra M. Age at marriage: inter and intra cohort variation. British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 38, No. 1, Mar 1987. 44-65 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Changes in marriage patterns in the United Kingdom over time are reviewed. "Each successive cohort of women born between 1920 and 1940 married sooner than the preceding cohort. This trend culminated with the cohorts born in the 1940s, all of whom had remarkably similar age at marriage patterns, which were the youngest ever recorded, since civil registration began." In analysis of the 1946 cohort three factors were found to affect age at marriage directly: educational status, occupation at marriage, and mother's age at marriage. "Subsequently there has been a dramatic reversal in marriage behaviour; young people are marrying less and marrying at later ages. The issue of whether this is due to a change in timing or rejection of marriage is addressed, the contribution of cohabitation to this change is assessed and structural and ideological changes are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20430 Matsushita, Keiichiro. Economic analysis of marriage: survey and reconsideration. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 180, Oct 1986. 11-22 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
This article is concerned with the economic analysis of marriage and is based on a review of the relevant literature. A basic household production function model is described that defines the partial equilibrium condition of a couple and a single person. The existence of public goods, or joint consumption goods, and changes in the shadow price of commodities are shown to explain the difference between being married or single. The theory of bargaining is used to compare individuals and households. Consideration is also given to the theory of job search to examine marriage timing, the theory of general equilibrium, and the theory of optimal assignments. The author concludes that the existing economic literature does not adequately deal with either the timing of marriage or future uncertainty concerning marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20431 Rahma, Mustafa K. Some aspects of nuptiality and fertility in Yemen Arab Republic. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 315-33 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines the differentials in age at marriage and in marital dissolution in the Yemen Arab Republic and analyzes the relationship of each of these factors to fertility. Data are from the 1979 Yemen Arab Republic Fertility Survey. Tabular data are included on the impact of husband's education, husband's occupation, rural or urban residence, region of residence, and employment status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20432 Sarma, R. S. S. Changing patterns of age at marriage in rural Punjab, India. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 637-54 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines changes in patterns of age at marriage and tempo of marriage in Punjab, India, for eight marriage cohorts, from the up-to-1940 cohort to the 1970-plus cohort. Marriage probabilities for single women and anticipated length of single life are also estimated. Differentials by socioeconomic status are analyzed. Data are from a 1971-1972 retrospective survey of 27 villages.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20433 Schoen, Robert. The continuing retreat from marriage: figures from 1983 U.S. marital status life tables. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 2, Jan 1987. 108-9 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The author focuses on recent trends in marriage patterns in the United States. He "presents marital status life table measures of marriage, divorce, and mortality for the United States in 1983, and compares them with similar measures for 1975 and 1980." The analysis shows "a retreat from marriage, as both males and females had a lower probability of ever marrying and a later age at first marriage. For both sexes the chance of a marriage ending in divorce was 44%, but for males that represented a slight decrease from 1980. More significantly, the age-specific divorce rates of both males and females showed a decline between 1980 and 1983 at ages 20-29."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20434 Speare, Alden; Goldscheider, Frances K. Effects of marital status change on residential mobility. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 455-64 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between residential mobility and various stages of the family life cycle using data for 2,058 Rhode Island adults, originally interviewed between 1967 and 1969 and followed through 1979. "This research uses detailed mobility data, collected prospectively over 12 years, which has been integrated with complete information on dates of marriage, divorce, and widowhood to create linked life-cycle segments. An extensive body of information is also available on characteristics of these households to control the effects of other factors that relate both to marital status and to mobility, such as home ownership and income. The probability of mobility is modeled as a function that varied both with the time since the last change in marital status and various characteristics. The effects of marriage, divorce, and widowhood both on immediate relocation and on subsequent mobility patterns are assessed."
Author's address: Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20435 Srivastava, J. N. Correlates of age at marriage in India: with special reference to literacy status. Population Research Centre Series C: Analytical Report, No. 33, May 1986. ii, 57 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
The determinants of age at marriage in India are analyzed using data from the 1981 census. The hypothesis developed is that factors that increase the cost of marriage and the benefits of marital postponement will tend to increase age at marriage and vice versa. Linear multiple regression analysis is used concerning such factors as literacy, urban residence, poverty, agricultural employment, newspaper circulation, and sex ratio. The analysis is performed separately for men and women. The results indicate that raising literacy levels, especially among women, would have the greatest impact on raising age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20436 Sugareva, Marta. Current trends in marriage and divorce rates in Europe. [Savremenni tendentsii na brachnostta i brakorazvodnostta v Evropa.] Naselenie, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1986. 52-65 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A comparative study of marriage and divorce rates in Europe is presented, with particular reference to Bulgaria. The author notes that the marriage rate is declining in most Western European countries, particularly in Scandinavia, and associates this trend with the growing popularity of consensual unions. Some terminology problems concerning this phenomenon are discussed. No significant decline in the marriage rate in Bulgaria is apparent; divorce rates are on the increase, but are still lower than in most other European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20437 Tribalat, Michele. Divorce among mixed couples in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Divorce des couples mixtes en RFA.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 161-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in divorce among mixed marriages in the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed. Mixed marriages are defined as those between German citizens and individuals of other nationalities. In general, the results show that such marriages are no more susceptible to divorce than those among Germans, except in instances where Turkish or Yugoslav men marry German women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

53:20438 Al-Haj, Majid. Social change and family processes: Arab communities in Shefar-A'm. Brown University Studies in Population and Development, No. 4, ISBN 0-8133-7325-5. LC 86-28262. 1987. xxiv, 176 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Changes in the structure of the family kinship groups, the extended family, the role of women, fertility, and family planning are analyzed among several Arab communities in Israel. This study combines historical materials, anthropological evidence, and several major surveys in tracing family and demographic patterns in a developing Arab urban community. The author compares Moslems, Christians, and Druze in the same community over time and attempts to integrate issues of modernization and population for minorities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20439 Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy; Plauchu, Henri. The dynamics of family structures in Chezery-Forens (Haut-Jura) from 1856 to 1911. [La dynamique des structures familiales a Chezery-Forens (Haut-Jura) de 1856 a 1911.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 133-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine changing family structures in the mountain villages of Chezery and Forens, France, in the last half of the nineteenth century. Population flows in and out of these villages, associated with limited resources in the villages, are noted. The authors find that these movements are "the result of a practice which is widespread in the family life cycle: the taking-in of relatives (ancestors, descendants or collaterals) on a temporary basis. A period analysis of the household structures using census data does not prove fully satisfactory. We have chosen to complete our observation with a longitudinal study covering a long period of time and an examination of the population's nuptiality, fertility and mortality patterns."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20440 Burch, Thomas K. Family History Survey: preliminary findings. [Enquete sur la famille: conclusions preliminaires.] Pub. Order No. 99-955. ISBN 0-660-52865-7. 1985. 39, [8], 41, [8] pp. Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This publication reports initial findings from Statistics Canada's 1984 Family History Survey. These data provide new insights into the relationship between significant demographic events--such as marriages, divorces, births, deaths, labour force participation and work interruption--and movement through the family life cycle. New perspectives emerge on divorce, remarriage, common-law unions and the raising of natural, adopted and step children." These data represent the first set of longitudinal data on Canadian family histories generally available.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20441 Chacon Jimenez, F.; Hurtado Martinez, J.; Rodriguez Soler, M.; Sancho Alguazil, R.; Vimal Gomez, T. A contribution to family history in the countries of the Western Mediterranean, 1750-1850. [Contribution a l'histoire de la famille dans les pays de la Mediterranee occidentale 1750-1850.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 155-82 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The article focuses on the diversity of family structures in Western Mediterranean countries. Observing several rural and urban communities in Murcia [Spain] between 1750 and 1850, the authors show that, whatever the geographical area...[the complexity of family structures] is related to the age, kinship, economic activity and social status of the head of the family, and without a doubt to the demographic and economic contexts. An analysis of the whole social pattern, not family structures independently of the rest, is required for delimiting homogeneous areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20442 Courgeau, Daniel. Family characteristics and urbanization. [Constitution de la famille et urbanisation.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 57-81 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Using "information from a survey [undertaken in France] of family, occupational, and migrational biographies, the author shows how the establishment of a nuclear family influences a couple's attitude to migration from or into a big city, and in turn, how this migration conditions family size. The most important effect of marriage is a sharp reduction in migration to highly urbanized areas, whereas its influence on migration towards less urbanized areas is negligible. The most serious consequence of migration to highly urbanized areas is the significant decrease in family size, whereas migration into less urbanized areas corresponds to an increase in family size. The effect of different individual characteristics (family origins, occupation, etc.) is also analyzed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20443 Desplanques, Guy. Life cycle and social environment. [Cycle de vie et milieu social.] Collections de l'INSEE, Serie D: Demographie et Emploi, No. 117, Feb 1987. 272 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author reports on aspects of nuptiality and fertility in France using findings from a nationwide family survey conducted in 1982 by the Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE). Survey procedures and earlier family surveys in France are first discussed, and relevant terms, indicators, and concepts are explained. The author then discusses recent trends in the stages of the family life cycle in France, including childhood, adolescence, marriage, childbearing, dependent children within the family and their departure, female labor force participation, separation and divorce, remarriage, retirement, and widowhood and death. Statistical tables providing the survey data to support the analytical sections form the major portion of the publication.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20444 Herlihy, David. Medieval households. Studies in Cultural History, ISBN 0-674-56375-1. LC 85-5439. 1985. vii, 227 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This book attempts a broad interpretation of the development of medieval households and the domestic system in Europe from the period of the late Roman and barbarian antiquity until approximately 1500. The author's main conclusions concern the emergence in the seventh and eighth centuries of a basically uniform pattern of domestic organization that spanned all social levels, and in the eleventh century of patrilineal kindred networks, which tended to favor first-born males over younger brothers, and which also involved the development of emotionally close family groups. The development of a distinctive medieval household system is illustrated using fifteenth-century data for the region of Tuscany, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20445 Hoffmann-Nowotny, Hans-Joachim; Hopflinger, Francois; Kuhne, Franz; Ryffel-Gericke, Christiane; Erni-Schneuwly, Denise. The family and the planning game: family, desired number of children, and family planning in Switzerland. [Planspiel Familie: Familie, Kinderwunsch und Familienplanung in der Schweiz.] Reihe Soziologie/Collection Sociologie, Vol. 10, ISBN 3-7253-0225-1. LC 84-198683. 1984. 365 pp. Ruegger: Diessenhofen, Switzerland. In Ger.
This book focuses on the family, fertility, the desire for children, and family planning in Switzerland. Data are from a representative survey of approximately 600 young Swiss married couples. Individual chapters deal with the general societal aspects of trends in marriage, family, and fertility; the desire for and attitudes toward children; marriage, children, and employment; and family planning and the factors affecting contraceptive usage.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20446 Hoffmann-Nowotny, Hans-Joachim. The future of the family. In: European Population Conference 1987. Plenaries/Congres Europeen de Demographie 1987. Seances plenieres, edited by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and the European Association for Population Studies. 1987. 113-200 pp. Central Statistical Office: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author describes the current situation concerning the family in Europe, presents a sociological theory to explain its development, and attempts to predict the future of the family in Europe. In the first section, attention is given to falling marriage rates, declining family size, divorce and family dissolution, remarriage, and single-parent families. Data for selected European countries are from a variety of published sources and are primarily for the 1960s through the 1980s. The author then develops a sociological theory to explain the diminishing role of the family in modern societies and the importance of the individual as the fundamental social unit. Concerning the future of the family, the author finds that "a type of family, whose members live 'apart together', is possibly the most promising attempt at creating a 'hybrid' social system of familial relationships...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20447 Keilman, Nico; van Dam, Jan. LIPRO--a dynamic model for forecasting households. [LIPRO--een dynamisch model ter vooruitberekening van huishoudens.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1986. 35-61 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper we present a projection model for the simulation of household events. The model focuses on household dynamics, rather than on comparative statics as in the headship rate approach. It applies insights from multidimensional (multistate) demography to household and life style modelling. Algorithms that provide for the dependency in behaviour between the members of a household are discussed. The model is applied to data from the 1984 Survey on Living Arrangements in the Netherlands. Simulations show that the proportion of cohabiting couples among private households will be doubled by the end of the century, but that married couples will not lose their dominant position."
Author's address: Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2592 AR The Hague, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20448 Keyfitz, Nathan. Canadian kinship patterns based on 1971 and 1981 data. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1986. 123-50 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Modern low fertility results not only in fewer children in the nuclear family, but fewer kin of all degrees. The lower births now prevailing in Canada also imply changes in the kin structure: fewer sisters of Ego, and more than proportionately fewer nephews and cousins. A major shrinkage of kin is implied by 1981 births and deaths in contrast to those of 1971. Curves and tables trace the changes in Ego's average number of kin through life. Small numbers of kin make it difficult for the family to fulfil its traditional functions."
Author's address: Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20449 Kraus, Jaroslav. Research on the planning of family size (1985), Part 1. [Pruzkum planovani rodicovstvi (1985)--I.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1987. 23-33 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in desired family size in Czechoslovakia are analyzed using data from a survey of 6,184 families undertaken in 1985. The focus of the survey was on planning family size and attitudes toward population policy. The results indicate a stabilization of desired number of children at two. Among the factors affecting desired family size are housing conditions. Consideration is also given to differences by republic and by educational status. It is indicated that desired fertility will not lead to an increase in current fertility rates and will ensure an increase in the pace of demographic aging. Attitudes toward population policy will be covered in Part 2.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20450 Krishnan, Parameswara. Family and household structure among the nineteenth century Christians of Kerala, India. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 215-25 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using the Laslett classification, 517 households from an old family register from St. Mary's Metropolitan Church, Changanacherry, Kerala [India] were categorized. The results show that 77% of the households were of the simple family type, with the conjugal family units accounting for nearly 44% of the households. Approximately 11% of the households were of the extended type. It is hypothesized that the main determinant of the prevalence of the conjugal family unit structure is the inheritance pattern among the Christian population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20451 Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. The family at the end of the sixties: the case of the American family. [La famille a la fin des annees soixante: l'exemple de la famille americaine.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 216, [1986?]. [9] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The author presents an overview of demographic trends affecting U.S. families in the 1960s, relying on official data and other published sources. Consideration is given to aspects of union formation, fertility, and union dissolution.
This article is reprinted from Les Familles d'Aujourd'hui (Paris, France), No. 2, 1986, pp. 5-13.
Author's address: Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20452 Litterer-Marwege, Wanda. Households and families according to the 1984 census. [Gospodarstwa domowe i rodziny wedlug spisu 1984 r.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 31, No. 10, Oct 1986. 9-11 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The results of the 1984 population and household census indicate that the trend toward smaller households in Poland has been reversed. The causes of this change, which goes against the general trend in developed countries, are considered. In addition to the impact of changed economic conditions, the author notes changes in the interpretation of the term household that affect the results in question.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20453 McCarthy, James; Oni, Gbolahan A. Desired family size and its determinants among urban Nigerian women: a two-stage analysis. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 2, May 1987. 279-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper proposes and carries out a two-stage analysis of the determinants of desired family size, using data gathered from a sample of women in the city of Ilorin, Nigeria. The analysis first focuses on differences between women who report numerical family size desires and those who report nonnumerical desires. Findings suggest that there are important differences between these two groups, but there is little variation in the actual number reported by those expressing numerical desires. Implications of these findings for survey design are discussed. In particular, the practice of forcing numerical responses by instructing interviewers to probe when women report nonnumerical desires is questioned."
Author's address: Department of Population Dynamics, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20454 Mousa, Mohamed A. Y. Variability and consistency aspects in the quality of responses regarding desired family size in Sudan. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 259-81 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1978-1979 Sudan Fertility Survey (SUDFS) to study the quality of responses to questions about desired family size. Following a review of the criticisms regarding the utility of family size preference data, the author discusses the extent of numerical responses in the SUDFS, the variability and internal consistency of responses, the issue of rationalization of actual family size in the verbalization of desired family size, and the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of the variation in desired family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20455 Muhsam, H. V. A study of change in family structure and of the domestic cycle in an Indian village by means of a transition matrix. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1986. 11-27 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Two kinds of Family Transition matrices are identified--Distant transition matrix and Immediate transition matrix. The former studies transitions which produce changes in the distribution of families of different structural types between two time points while the latter takes into consideration the paths by which each family reached its final state. Using the data of Freed and Freed (1983) from an Indian Village, at two time points separated by 19 years, the changes in the family structure and the pattern of domestic cycles are studied."
Author's address: Department of Demography, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20456 Nunes, Joao A. Official statistics as a source for the study of the family and the residential group using the general census of population of Portugal of 1981. [As estatisticas oficiais como fontes para o estudo da familia e do grupo co-residente a proposito do recenseamento geral da populacao de Portugal de 1981.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1987. 64-102 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Por.
The author discusses how information from the 1981 census of Portugal can be used to study various aspects of the household, the family, the non-family resident aggregate, and the individual. Included are data on the average number of persons per family and per non-family aggregate, and the percentage distribution of families by size in the various districts of continental Portugal. The data are compared with data from a 1980-1981 Inquiry into Family Income and Expenses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20457 Nyitrai, Ferencne. Families in the mid-1980s. [A csaladok a nyolcvanas evek kozepen.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 65, No. 2-3, Feb-Mar 1987. 117-24 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in the role, structure, and function of the family in the 1980s are reviewed, with particular reference to the situation in Hungary. The importance placed on strengthening the family in Hungarian social and population policy is stressed. Information is provided on the number of single-parent families and consensual unions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20458 Parish, William L. The family and economic change. In: China: the 80s era, edited by Norton Ginsburg and Bernard A. Lalor. Westview Special Studies on East Asia, ISBN 0-86531-668-6. LC 84-50347. 1984. 222-42 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
Recent changes affecting the family in China are analyzed. Data are primarily from interviews conducted during the 1970s with Chinese emigrants in Hong Kong. Significant differences between rural and urban areas are attributed to different economic conditions affecting the family. Attention is paid to the conflict between the one-child policy and the need for old-age support in rural areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20459 Peron, Yves; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. The family life cycle as a framework for analysis of family statistics. [Le cycle de la vie familiale comme cadre d'analyse de la statistique des familles.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 217, [1986?]. [8] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The authors examine family life cycle trends in Quebec using a variety of published data. Distribution of families according to life cycle stage attained are estimated, and changes over time are noted.
This article is reprinted from Familles d'Aujourd'hui (Paris, France), No. 2, 1986, pp. 357-64.
Author's address: Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20460 Rodgers, Joseph L.; Thompson, Vaida D. Toward a general framework of family structure: a review of theory-based empirical research. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1985-1986. 143-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper has the following purposes: (1) To develop a general taxonomy of family structure that unites researchers from several disciplines under one framework; (2) To review important methodological and measurement problems involved in the study of family structure; and (3) To review the recent theory-based empirical literature. We conclude with an assessment of the state-of-the-enterprise."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20461 Roussel, Louis. Recent trends in the structure of households in several industrialized countries. [Evolution recente de la structure des menages dans quelques pays industriels.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1986. 913-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines changes in the structure of households in several industrialized countries. Using recently published data for the period 1960-1982, he indicates the increase in the number of one-person households, single-parent families, and unmarried couples. General trends include decreasing household size, increasing mobility of individuals between different types of households, and a persisting pattern of consensual unions and illegitimate births.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20462 Ruggles, Steven. Prolonged connections: the rise of the extended family in nineteenth-century England and America. Social Demography, ISBN 0-299-11030-3. LC 87-6079. 1987. xx, 282 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The rise in the popularity of the extended family in nineteenth-century England and America is analyzed. In contrast to accepted thinking, which hypothesizes that the extended family declined as a consequence of industrialization, the author notes that the frequency of extended families doubled between 1750 and 1900. He develops the alternative hypothesis that extended family living arrangements in the nineteenth century were a luxury to which increasing numbers could aspire thanks to the growing prosperity associated with industrialization. The view that the nuclear family was preferred before the nineteenth century is also challenged: the author suggests that late marriage and early death restricted the potential to form the extended families that many desired. Increasing life expectancy and declining marriage age between 1750 and 1900 expanded the potential for forming extended families. The study introduces new tools for the analysis of the demography of the family, which the author suggests will have wide applicability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20463 Santi, Lawrence L. Change in the structure and size of American households: 1970 to 1985. CDE Working Paper, No. 86-31, [1986]. 9, [8] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author discusses the relative influences of factors contributing to the decline since the early 1970s in the average size of households in the United States. The data are from official sources. He observes that "during the first half of the decade, decreases in the size of family households were responsible for the bulk of the decrease in average household size. During the second half of the decade, decreases in the proportion of married-couple households began to exert a greater impact on the downward trend in the size of households. The slower rate of decline in household size observed during the first half of the 1980's represents a continuation of these trends, according to which the living arrangements of adults seem to be exerting an increasing impact on the average size of households."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20464 Thomson, Elizabeth. Marital agreement in fertility goals. CDE Working Paper, No. 86-34, Nov 1986. 22, [9] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the processes of family formation and change that facilitate or inhibit marital agreement about having children: mate selection, shared marital experiences, and mutual influence of wife and husband. A model is developed to represent the simultaneous effects of these processes on fertility agreement, and is tested with survey data [for Wisconsin] from young married couples without children. The findings indicate that mutual influence is the most important source of agreement in fertility goals, but that religious homogamy and similarity of partners' sibship size also contribute to agreement. While educational homogamy is also a source of agreement, partners having similar occupations may be more likely to disagree about children, since occupational prestige increases husbands' fertility goals, but not those of wives. Other important sources of agreement are direct effects of wife's family of origin on the husband's goals, suggesting that husbands are to some extent 'absorbed' into the kinship networks of their wives, thereby experiencing direct socialization by in-laws for fertility goals."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20465 Thomson, Elizabeth; Goldman, Paula. Measuring fertility norms. CDE Working Paper, No. 86-26, Oct 1986. 18, [8] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"We argue that social norms must be measured at the group level of analysis, allow for a range of acceptable behaviors, and be linked to the individual level of analysis to explain social behavior. From a survey of young adults in Wisconsin (1973), we generated measures of family size norms from sibship experience and friends' expected family size. These measures satisfied our primary criterion for a social norm: Those with non-normative family size desires tended to shift expectations toward the norm. The analyses demonstrate the difficulty of estimating normative effects when by its very definition a norm is expected to restrict variation in human behavior."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20466 Todd, Jean; Griffiths, David. Changing the definition of a household. ISBN 0-11-691071-2. 1986. viii, 43 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS], Social Survey Division: London, England. In Eng.
This study, which is based on data from the 1981 Labour Force Survey in England, presents an estimation of the effect on housing data of a change in the definition of a household. The authors first note that the definition of a household used in surveys in England and Wales has diverged from the definition used in the census and from current living patterns. "With effect from 1981, therefore, the definition was amended on most household-based surveys carried out by Social Survey Division so as to conform to the new, formal census definition--ie so as to group into a single household people who either regularly shared at least one meal a day, or shared at least one living room in their accommodation, or both."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20467 Watanabe, Yoshikazu. Japanese female life-courses by marriage, childbearing, and deaths: cohort born in 1890-1930. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 181, Jan 1987. 1-13 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines trends in the life courses of Japanese women born between 1890 and 1930 according to the occurrence and timing of marriage, childbearing, and death. Six life courses are identified, from the abbreviated one involving females who die before age 15 to the more typical one involving women who marry, bear children, and survive with their husbands until the last child leaves home. Differences are noted between early and late cohorts and between this study and a similar American study.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20468 White, Lynn K.; Kim, Hyunju. The family-building process: childbearing choices by parity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 271-9 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Panel data from 1,020 [U.S.] husbands and wives interviewed in 1980 and 1983 are used to test the implications of exchange theory for fertility decisions. Because costs and rewards attached to alternatives as well as the alternatives themselves vary by parity, we test whether the determinants of fertility choices vary by parity. The results suggest a significant nonlinear component to the determinants of fertility, especially for those factors related to women's roles. Neither sex-role traditionalism nor wives' achievement in nonfamilial roles has a simple negative effect on fertility: both encourage adoption of the parenthood role while simultaneously discouraging large families."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0324.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20469 White, Michael J.; Tsui, Amy O. A panel study of family-level structural change. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 2, May 1986. 435-46 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"A substantial shift in the composition of families and households in the United States occurred during the 1970s. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1968 to 1979, we identify sources of the change in aggregate distribution and examine year-to-year transitions among family types. This analysis provides a perspective that differs from cross-sectional and life-course comparisons. Calculations of net increments and decrements to each family type reveal the overall pattern of flow and the effect of new family formations on the aggregate distribution of family types. New headship contributed most to shifts in the relative composition of family types, but its impact declined over the decade. The results of examining origin-destination transition matrices confirm general differences in transition rates by age and, to a lesser extent, by race and income. The transition rates themselves changed very little during the decade."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20470 Willis, Robert J. What have we learned from the economics of the family? American Economic Review, Vol. 77, No. 2, May 1987. 68-81 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author surveys the development since 1960 of the economics of the family. Attention is given to sets of questions concerning the historical relationship between economic growth and fertility, the causes of the baby boom and bust, and changes in the traditional family. Selected works that have contributed to this body of theory are discussed, and the state of the field of family economics is assessed. The author concludes that "we do not have, as yet, a body of empirically tested, quantitatively stable estimates of the major behavioral relationships suggested by the theory....We do have a growing capacity to generate hypotheses about both large and small questions concerning family behavior and its consequences within a theoretical framework that is a logically coherent part of the main corpus of neoclassical economic theory."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:20471 Zeng, Yi. Changes in family structure in China: a simulation study. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 675-703, 821, 823 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Changes in family size and structure in China are investigated through a simulation study, using fertility, mortality, and nuptiality rates in 1950-70 and in 1981. The simulations give a quantitative account of family size, family type (nuclear versus three-generation), and marital status of the reference person under various demographic regimes. They demonstrate how changing demographic factors affect Chinese family size and structure. An interesting finding of this exercise is that when the smaller cohorts born after the dramatic fertility decline of the 1970s reach the age of family formation, the proportion of nuclear families will decrease if the propensity to form three-generation households continues. If, however, fertility continues to fall after reaching the replacement level, a further reduction in birth rates will raise the proportion of nuclear families."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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