Volume 53 - Number 2 - Summer 1987

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

53:20032 Champion, A. G. Population deconcentration in Britain 1971-84. Department of Geography Seminar Paper, No. 49, Jan 1987. 61 pp. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography: Newcastle upon Tyne, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses the annual population estimates to show that Census-based analyses of the urban-rural shift in population distribution [in Britain] present a rather distorted impression of the phasing of counterurbanisation trends. While the average rates of rural gains and urban losses were higher for 1971-81 than for 1961-71, aggregations of the annual data for local authority Districts to the official administrative units and to groupings of similar areas reveal that the level of population deconcentration peaked at the beginning of the 1970s and that most of that decade featured the downwave of a longer cycle of decentralisation which had its origins at least as early as the first half of the 1960s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20033 Harris, Ray. SIR-A imagery of Tunisia and its potential for population estimation. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 6, No. 7, 1985. 975-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The value of Shuttle Imaging Radar images for the estimation of population is considered using a 1981 example for Tunisia. The results are compared with 1975 census data. The results show that the relationship of image areas to population is reasonably strong in areas where settlements are relatively small and have a uniform and low building density.
Location: Columbia University Libraries, New York, N.Y.

53:20034 Kellerman, Aharon. Population dispersal: forecasting and reality in the 4 million population plan for Israel. In: Geography Research Forum, Vol. 8, edited by Eliahu Stern and Shaul Krakover. ISBN 0-88738-625-3. 1987. 53-72 pp. Transaction Books: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The 4 million population plan for Israel with a target year of 1981 is presented and analyzed in comparison with reality. The plan, approved by government, called for a modest continued population diffusion from the highly urbanized coastal plain to outlying regions. Although the forecast for the total population was almost accurate, the ratio between Jewish and Arab populations was different from that predicted because the behavior of parameters was different from that assumed. The geographical distribution by district has only partially achieved the planned goal. This is true also for metropolitan areas." The author also considers the political economy context, government policy, the role of in-migration, the Arab minority, the success of Israeli population distribution policies, and earlier plans and forecasts.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20035 Makki, Mohammad S. Regional and urban population size weights in Saudi Arabia, 1962-1974. GeoJournal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Sep 1986. 111-8 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to study the development of population weights for regions and urban centres in Saudi Arabia through the period 1962-1974. In order to achieve this aim some non-parametric statistical rules have been used such as rank-size rule and the four-city index. The results show non-balanced distribution of population on both regional and urban scales. The concentration of people in urban centres is more pronounced than the concentration in regions. This is due to internal and external movement of population towards large-sized urban centres."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:20036 McGuire, Martin C. Private production, collective consumption, and regional population structure: the interactions between public and private good provision as determinants of community composition. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1986. 677-705 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"Theories of trade and migration explain the distribution of individuals among regions based on private good productivities. The theory of local public goods (LPG's) uses collective good consumption economies to explain the size and composition of communities. This essay combines the two theories, to explore regional population heterogeneity and stability. Assuming that individuals must consume and produce in the same jurisdiction, the paper examines the nature of efficient allocations, the tensions between the private and public incentives, the nature of the equilibrium (if any) which migration among jurisdictions will generate, and how such equilibrium will depend on tax rules for sharing the costs of the LPG."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:20037 Prabhakara, N. R. Internal migration and population redistribution in India: some reflections. 1986. xi, 117 pp. Concept Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The impact of internal migration on the spatial distribution of the population of India by sex is analyzed using data from the 1971 census. The primary focus of the study is on population change in the state of Karnataka. Particular attention is given to child migration and to rural-urban migration.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20038 Sallnow, John. Belorussia: the demographic transition and the settlement network in the 1980s. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1987. 25-33 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
Changes in the pattern of settlement in the Belorussian SSR, one of the constituent republics of the USSR, over the past 25 years is reviewed. The author suggests that Belorussia during this period has gone through the evolutionary process described in the demographic transition model. "The model outlines the changes in birth and death rates and their evolution over time in response to improved medical facilities, resulting in an increase of population of a region or country. At the same time the process of industrialization is accompanied by urbanization, which Belorussia has experienced in the period since 1959." A review of contemporary Soviet thinking on rural and urban settlement networks is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20039 Singh, Nina. The development process and urbanisation in a newly organised state: a case study of Haryana. Population Geography, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1985. 49-59 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of emergence of Haryana [India] as a new state in 1966 on its development and concomitant urbanisation process. The analysis is based on data for individual towns for all the post-Independence censuses of 1951 to 1981. It was found that urban growth in the state was far more rapid during the post-1966 period than that during the pre-1966 phase. The spatial picture of urban growth also changed somewhat."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

53:20040 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Urbanization and development in Japan. Population and Development Series, No. 3, Mar 1986. 123 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
An analysis of the Japanese experience concerning urbanization is presented. The report contains six papers by various authors, which examine aspects of the relationship between urbanization and economic development. Other topics covered include changes in spatial distribution, migration trends, and issues of over- and underpopulation. An introduction places the Japanese experience in the context of global urbanization trends
Publisher's address: Room No. 710 Nagatacho TBR Building, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100 Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20041 Banister, Judith. Urban-rural population projections for China. CIR Staff Paper, No. 15, Mar 1986. 48, [21] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Urbanization trends in China through the year 2000 are projected, and high, medium, and low projections are presented. Among the trends discussed are the urban-rural share of total population change, an actual decline in the size of the rural population, the magnitude of the urban population increase, the age and sex selectivity of migrants to urban areas, the age distribution of the urban population, and urban economic conditions. Consideration is given to Chinese predictions and policies concerning urban growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20042 Buckwalter, Donald W.; Rugg, Dean S. Delimiting the physical city: disparities between various methods of calculating population densities. Professional Geographer, Vol. 38, No. 3, Aug 1986. 258-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The legal city and the urbanized area fail to depict accurately the physical area of urban development and therefore prevent an accurate calculation of population densities. When underbounding occurs, densities tend to be unrealistically high and with overbounding they are low. Delimitations made by air photo interpretation demonstrate that the physical city, measured on a 2 1/2 acre scale of generalization, provides a more accurate basis for calculating population densities of urban areas than either the legal city or urbanized area because the bounding problems are eliminated." The geographic focus is on the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

53:20043 Champion, Tony; Coombes, Mike; Openshaw, Stan. A new definition of cities. Town and Country Planning, Nov 1983. 305-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors introduce a new map of Britain, which is based on the city region concept and designed specifically to present data from the 1981 census. The primary purposes of this article are "to describe the main problems and distortions which result from using current administrative areas, outline the key features of the new way of defining British cities, and demonstrate the value of the new geographical framework with some basic statistics on city size and population trends."
Second author's address: Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies, The University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20044 Chow, I-Chang. Medium-term urban population forecasting in Taiwan: specification of a minimal demoeconomic model. 1986. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation presents a case study of a two-regions demoeconomic model of Taiwan....We combined Todaro's migration model, modern unemployment theories, and a spatial labor market model into a demoeconomic model of Taiwan." The model is concerned with the determinants of rural-urban migration, urbanization and the spatial labor market, natural increase versus migration as factors in urbanization, and the concept of a natural unemployment rate. "According to the results of this study, we concluded that the model we proposed performs as well over the sample period as over a medium-term forecasting period."
Copies of this dissertation are available exclusively from the Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(9).

53:20045 Eisenstadt, S. N.; Shachar, A. Society, culture, and urbanization. ISBN 0-8039-2478-X. LC 85-26249. 1987. 391 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
A general theory of urbanization around the world is developed. The study begins with a synthesis of current theories on urbanization and a presentation of the authors' theory. A series of case studies concerning urbanization during the course of history in various regions of the world is then presented. The authors "use a macrosocietal perspective employing a comparative focus to analyze nine civilizations in the context of their political regimes, social processes, and cultural orientations." The volume concludes with a unified theory of urbanization based on these nine case studies.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20046 Gu, Baochang. Patterns of city-size distribution among the subregions of the People's Republic of China. Pub. Order No. DA8700197. 1986. 254 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation was an attempt to investigate the patterns of city-size distribution among the subregions of China circa 1982. The major data source was [the] 1982 Chinese Population Census. The units of analysis were the twenty-three Chinese subregions....The findings demonstrate considerable variation in patterns of city-size distribution among the subregions of China....The empirical evidence of the study suggests that Chinese subregions do not mostly show a rational pattern of city-size distribution as often observed in the urban studies taken [in] the country as a whole."
This work was prepared as a doctoral disseration at the University of Texas at Austin.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(9).

53:20047 Hausladen, Gary. Recent trends in Siberian urban growth. Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 2, Feb 1987. 71-89 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
Future trends in urbanization in the USSR east of the Urals are considered using official Soviet data from 1959 to 1985. "Absolute and relative growth and growth rates are calculated for economic regions, oblast-level administrative entities, and individual cities, as well as for city-size categories. The nature of Siberian growth suggests that in addition to serving as centers of resource exploitation, Siberian cities also function as growth poles for more integrated development. The analysis serves as the preliminary stage for proposed future research on the extent of Siberian urban development and the integration of Siberia into the Soviet economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20048 Kopardekar, H. D. Social aspects of urban development: a case study of the pattern of urban development in the developing countries. ISBN 0-86132-132-4. 1986. viii, 392 pp. Popular Prakashan: Bombay, India. In Eng.
Urbanization trends in India are examined. The main focus is on urbanization in the state of Maharashtra. The author examines the relationship between urbanization and the development process, as well as the impact of development policy on urban growth.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20049 Kubo, Yuji. Urban concentration and rural growth: a two-sector analysis. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1986. 579-93 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper examines the mechanism and extent of urban concentration using a two-sector growth model. The cause of urbanization is sought in the existence of urban scale economies. Assuming that temporary production decisions are concerned with optimal labor inputs and that profit incomes are reinvested according to relative profitability, the model shows persistent tendency for urban concentration and the transition of the economy from unlimited to limited labor supply. A simple example suggests that urban concentration is more likely than rural expansion with urban contraction."
Author's address: Institute of Socio-Economic Planning, University of Tsukuba, Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:20050 Liu, Ts'ui-jung. Demographic aspects of urbanization in the Lower Yangtze region in China, circa 1500-1900. Academia Economic Papers, Vol. 14, No. 2, Sep 1986. 43-86 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
Urbanization trends in the Lower Yangtze region of China from 1500 to 1900 are examined. Data are from a variety of sources, including genealogies, local records, and other literature. An attempt is made to analyze the demographic characteristics of the urban population. "The demographic characteristics in respect to marriage, fertility and mortality found from the genealogies do reveal that there were dissimilarities between the rural and urban dwelling populations. Moreover, findings related to migration tend to support that rural to urban migration was an important factor that speeded up urbanization in the Lower Yangtze Region."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20051 Lowder, Stella. The geography of third world cities. ISBN 0-389-20671-7. LC 86-17366. 1986. xii, 292 pp. Barnes and Noble Books: Totowa, New Jersey. In Eng.
A comparative analysis of third world cities is presented, with the focus on the circulation and consumption of goods and services within them. Consideration is first given to indigenous and colonial urban legacies and to the city's role in the global capitalist system. Chapters are included on administering cities, housing markets, and supplying household needs. A chapter is also devoted to models of third world cities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20052 Mahadev, P. D. Urban geography. Contributions to Indian Geography, Vol. 7, 1986. x, 244 pp. Heritage Publishers: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of 17 papers, including both previously published and unpublished papers, on aspects of the urban geography of India. The papers are divided into three sections. The first nine papers are concerned with urban structure, the next two papers are on urban dynamics, and the final six papers are on urban systems.
Publisher's address: 4-C, Ansari Road, New Delhi-2, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20053 Mathur, Om. Urban growth in South Asia. Population Geography, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1985. 83-91 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author discusses urbanization in Southern Asia during the period 1950-1980 using U.N. estimates. Urbanization in the region as a whole is compared with trends in other developing regions, and differences among the experiences of seven countries of Southern Asia are examined. Tabular information is provided on urbanization levels and urban population growth rates for Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20054 Mitchelson, Ronald L.; Fisher, James S. Economic specialization and the contemporary metropolitan growth process. In: Geography Research Forum, Vol. 8, edited by Eliahu Stern and Shaul Krakover. ISBN 0-88738-625-3. 1987. 31-51 pp. Transaction Books: New Brunswick, New Jersey/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Contemporary United States metropolitan growth patterns are such that while numerous MSAs [Metropolitan Statistical Areas] are growing slowly or losing population, others are growing rapidly. We contend that (1) despite the myriad problems associated with many large cities, these metropolitan growth patterns are not first and foremost a function of city size, and (2) underlying the contemporary metropolitan population experience is an economic structure consideration that is of major importance. We further argue that this underlying structural influence is indicative of the relation between national economic development patterns and the settlement process." Data from the 1980 U.S. census and from other published sources are used. The authors find that "the growth cities tend to be those specialized in services and information activities. Cities specialized in manufacturing, on the other hand, are commonly slow-growth cities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20055 Nagi, Abdul S. M. Urbanization trends and patterns in the Delta Economic Region of Egypt (1960-1976). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 183-206 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author uses census and vital statistics data for the period 1960-1976 to assess the level, pace, and pattern of urbanization in Egypt's Delta Economic Region and the relative contributions to urban population growth of natural increase, net migration, and net reclassification of areas from rural to urban. Projections of the urban and rural populations to the year 2000 are also presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20056 Pannell, Clifton W. China's changing cities: an urban view of the past, present, and future. In: China: the 80s era, edited by Norton Ginsburg and Bernard A. Lalor. Westview Special Studies on East Asia, ISBN 0-86531-668-6. LC 84-50347. 1984. 192-221 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews urbanization trends in China. The emphasis is on both the nature of the evolving Chinese urban system and the character of individual cities. Attention is paid to the potential conflict between China's desire to develop smaller cities and the realities of modernization, which generally favors the growth of the largest cities.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20057 Peisert, Christoph. Urbanization in China. Data on the transformation of the urban system. [Urbanisierung in China. Daten zum Wandel des Stadtesystems.] Geographische Zeitschrift, Vol. 74, No. 2, 1986. 74-93 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in urbanization in China are analyzed. "This article presents new figures, as recently published in China, discusses their significance and draws some conclusions about the quality of modern urbanization in China. There are mainly three basic factors responsible for the present situation: 1. The tremendous increase in the rural population; 2. The influence of historical times from which two different city systems evolved (the traditional one and the colonial); 3. The planning strategies since 1949." The author notes that although the overall level of urbanization is low, there are considerable differences in regional urbanization levels. It is suggested that there have been profound changes in the Chinese urban system and urban spatial distribution patterns, which are not yet reflected in the available statistics.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20058 Petrov, N. V. Settlement in large cities of the USSR: an analysis of effectiveness (a review article). Soviet Geography, Vol. 28, No. 3, Mar 1987. 135-57 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The issue of the effectiveness of large cities as forms of settlement remains a lively topic of debate in the USSR. Categorizing the issue into three aspects--economic, ecological and social--this paper reviews the arguments pro and con. Although the author makes a conscientious effort to reflect all points of view, a tone favoring the development of big cities appears evident in the discussion."
Author's address: Institute of Geography, Moscow, USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20059 Pirez, Pedro. Population and the study of urban regions in Latin America: a review of the conclusions of PISPAL. [La poblacion y el estudio de lo urbano-regional en America Latina: revision de los aportes del PISPAL.] ISBN 968-12-0351-8. 1986. 125 pp. Programa de Investigaciones Sociales sobre Poblacion en America Latina [PISPAL]: Mexico City, Mexico; Colegio de Mexico: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a summary report concerning 19 research projects dealing with urban questions, which were conducted under the auspices of the Program of Social Investigations Concerning Population in Latim America (PISPAL). The first part of the report describes the projects, which concern such topics as spatial distribution, migration, urbanization, regional development, and the labor force. The author then develops an overall framework, involving the concept of territorial configuration, in which Latin American urban and spatial distribution problems can be analyzed.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20060 Poston, Dudley L.; Gu, Baochang. The giant cities of China: patterns of dominance and integration. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.024, 1986. 17, [7] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examines the ecological structure of the urban system of the 20 largest cities in China (those with populations of 2 million or more inhabitants). We are particularly interested in the patterns of dominance and control of these cities. The data are taken from the 'Statistical Yearbook of China 1984'...." A summary of the history of urbanization in China is provided. Particular attention is paid to socioeconomic changes and transformations of cities that have occurred in recent years. Predictions concerning realignments in cities' patterns of dominance and control are made, and comparisons are drawn to the Vance-Sutker and Galle-Stern studies on U.S. urban hierarchy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20061 Poston, Dudley L. The urban hierarchy of Dongbei. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.025, 1986. 16, [5] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the patterns of dominance and integration among the cities of Dongbei, i.e., Northeastern China (Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces). Within a human ecological perspective, the paper endeavors to examine the territorial division of labor among the cities of Dongbei. An overriding assumption is that the differentiation of functions among these cities inevitably leads to a hierarchical structure within the system. The paper is thus concerned with the patterns of dominance and subdominance of the 35 cities of Dongbei. Using data from the '1985 City Yearbook of China,' eight measures of dominance and urban growth underpinnings are developed for each of the 35 cities....We follow the demographic and ecological methodology used by Vance and Sutker and by Galle and Stern in their studies of metropolitan areas in the southern region of the United States, and by Poston and Gu in their study of the giant cities of China."
For the paper by Poston and Gu, also published in 1986, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20062 Richardson, Harry W. The costs of urbanization: a four-country comparison. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 35, No. 3, Apr 1987. 561-80 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author reports on attempts to measure the investment costs of urbanization in Egypt, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. The Egyptian and Pakistani studies were national-scale studies carried out in 1980-1982 and 1982-1984, respectively; the Bangladesh and Indonesian projects were smaller and were conducted by the author in mid-1984 and early 1985, respectively. Investment resource pools and population growth parameters to the year 2000 are projected, and urbanization costs for approximately the same period are estimated, including direct investment costs, housing and intra-urban infrastructure costs, interurban infrastructure costs, and growth-management costs. The projected urbanization costs among the four countries are then compared
"When urban absorption costs are defined broadly to include job-creation costs and interurban infrastructure as well as the more obvious housing and urban service costs, it is shown that these costs would eat up huge chunks of the aggregate investment-resource pool....Recurrent elements are the needs to reduce infrastructure and service standards, to stimulate domestic savings to augment the resource pool, to shift to labor-intensive employment strategies to economize on the capital costs of job creation, and to reduce urban population pressures (e.g., fertility control programs and improving off-farm rural labor absorption)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

53:20063 Seki, Kiyohide. Urbanization and habitability--Sapporo case. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 32, Oct 1986. vi, 36 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Using the rapidly growing city of Sapporo in Hokkaido [Japan] as a case study, this paper proposes a model of habitability measurement for the city. The concept of habitability was defined as consisting of (1) physical conditions such as clothing, food, housing, health, sanitary and environmental conditions; (2) individual accessibility to public facilities; (3) solidarity among citizens; and (4) social mobility....The habitability model was derived from an analysis of the 7,608 survey responses in respect to the differences in socio-ecological change in each social district within the city, residents' evaluations regarding habitability in each district and various municipal policies presented toward habitability improvement." Variations in findings among the various sections of the city and patterns of urbanization are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20064 Shukla, Vibhooti; Stark, Oded. Policy comparisons with an agglomeration effects-augmented dual economy model. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 30, May 1987. 31 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper we incorporate urban agglomeration economies as a labor pull factor in an analysis of dual labor markets in LDCs. In particular, the equilibrium city-size approach to urban growth and the expected income approach to rural-to-urban migration are synthesized, making it possible to generalize results which hitherto were approach-specific. With the aid of a simulation based upon a well-specified model, we exploit this synthesis to rank subsidy policies. Our results highlight the constructive role played by urbanization in economic development and structural change."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20065 Tolley, George S.; Thomas, Vinod. The economics of urbanization and urban policies in developing countries. A World Bank Symposium, ISBN 0-8213-0786-X. LC 87-2181. 1987. xii, 184 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book is concerned with policies to control urbanization and manage urban growth effectively. It is the result of a symposium held in 1983 at the University of Chicago. The emphasis is on the experiences of both market and centrally planned economies and the lessons they provide for developing countries. The book, which consists of chapters by various authors, begins with an overview of urban growth, including problems, policies, and evaluation. Part 1 is concerned with understanding the dynamics of urbanization in the developing world. Part 2 provides a framework for urbanization policy analysis. Part 3 examines the relative merits of policies that encourage concentration and decentralization. Part 4 focuses on urban management problems, particularly the provision of services and the maintenance of a tolerable environment.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20066 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Dhaka. Population Policy Paper, No. 8; ST/ESA/SER.R/69, 1987. vii, 38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series concerning population policies and planning issues in the mega-cities of the developing world. The focus is on the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies designed to improve the quality of life and standard of living of the inhabitants of the world's largest cities. This study concerns Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh. A chapter is included on population characteristics including population growth, migration, and projections.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20067 Williamson, Jeffrey G. Migration and urbanization in the third world. Harvard Institute of Economic Research Discussion Paper, No. 1245, May 1986. 65 pp. Harvard University, Institute of Economic Research: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper surveys the literature on migration to and the operation of city labor markets in the Third World." Sections are included on the urban transition, disequilibrating labor market shocks and equilibrating migrant responses, over-urbanization, how the urban labor markets work, migration and city growth in general equilibrium, and avenues for future research
Publisher's address: Littauer Center, Room 201, Cambridge, MA 02138.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

53:20068 Cavaco, Carminda. Depopulating and urbanizing rural areas in Portugal. [Campagnes qui se vident et campagnes qui s'urbanisent au Portugal.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1986. 8, 75-84 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Population distribution, dynamics, and structures of the rural and agricultural populations of Portugal from 1960 to 1981 are analyzed. Comparisons among the areas are made on the basis of geographic differences, economic differences, demographic structure, and social structure. Migration, urbanization, and modernization are considered
Author's address: Centro de Estudos Geograficos, Faculdade de Letras, Cidade Universitaria, P-1699 Lisbon Codex, Portugal.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20069 Clout, Hugh. Population changes in rural Britain: a review. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1986. 5-6, 19-32 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Recent population changes affecting rural areas of England and Wales are reviewed. "Long-established urban concentration and rural depopulation were overtaken during the past twenty years by widespread increase of population in areas that were still dominated by rural land uses. Dispersion of suburbia (rurbanization), decentralization of job opportunities, counterurbanization in remote areas, and retirement migration each played a role in the complex trend of repopulation. These processes gave rise to social, economic and cultural dilemmas."
Author's address: Department of Geography, University College, 26 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20070 Huigen, P. P. P.; Kempers-Warmerdam, A. H. H. M.; Volkers, C. R. Demographic changes and service provision in rural areas in the Netherlands. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1986. 6-7, 55-62 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors discuss demographic changes in the Netherlands and the effects they are likely to have on the quality of services in rural areas. The future of rural hospitals, schools, and the retail trade are examined in view of decreased birth rates and selective migration. The authors foresee the need for the government to act on the problems of the aging rural population and accessibility of services
Author's address: Geografisch Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 2, NL-3508 Utrecht, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20071 Vachon, Bernard. Population trends in rural regions of Quebec facing low birth rates and counter-urbanization. [Le peuplement des regions rurales du Quebec face aux phenomenes de denatalite et de desurbanisation.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1986. 8, 85-93 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Population trends in the rural regions of Quebec are examined in light of falling birth rates and the effects of a recent trend toward counter-urbanization. The author notes that former city dwellers who move to rural areas generally do not work the land, and therefore, agricultural activity in rural areas continues to decrease
Author's address: Departement de Geographie, Universite de Quebec, Case Postale 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20072 Vidal, Tomas; Recano, Joaquin. Rural demography in Spain today. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1986. 7, 63-73 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors examine seven rural areas of Spain that are characterized by sparse population and the dispersal of small municipalities. A review of the demographic characteristics for recent decades is followed by a discussion of data reliability. Age and sex structure are examined in terms of natural increase and migration components. Fertility, marriage rates, and mortality are considered separately
Author's address: Departamento de Geografia, Facultad de Geografia e Historia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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