Volume 53 - Number 1 - Spring 1987

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

53:10444 Atoh, Makoto; Itoh, Tatsuya; Kojima, Hiroshi. An analysis of the relationship between nuptiality and fertility in Japan, 1961-2000, through macro-simulation. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 179, Jul 1986. 16-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between nuptiality and fertility in Japan since 1961 is examined using a macro-simulation model originally developed by Tatsuya Itoh. The model utilizes both survey and vital statistics data and calculates marriage duration from vital events. Life table methods for projecting marriage trends and the Coale-McNeil nuptiality model for projecting first marriages are also employed. The model is used to project nuptiality trends up to the year 2000, and to date, has proved particularly successful in the analysis of trends in divorce.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10445 Balian de Tagtachian, Beatriz; de Imaz, Jose L.; Marcenaro Boutell, Roberto; Passanante, Maria I. Divorce in figures (a sociological interpretation). [El divorcio en cifras (una interpretacion sociologica).] 1985. 124 pp. Editorial de la Universidad Catolica Argentina [EDUCA]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
Divorce in Argentina is analyzed using the results of an investigation carried out between 1983 and 1985. Trends in divorce around the world are first reviewed. Patterns of marriage and consensual union in Argentina over the past 20 years are then examined. The authors reconstruct all marriages and divorces occurring in Buenos Aires and its suburbs between 1968 and 1984 and use data on selected marriages to examine the sociological variables associated with divorce. Changing attitudes toward divorce and the number of children affected by divorce are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10446 Bennett, Neil G.; Blanc, Ann K.; Bloom, David E. Commitment and the modern union: assessing the link between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital stability. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 86-7, Oct 1986. 39 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors "focus on the relationship between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital stability, and analyze data from the 1981 Women in Sweden survey using a hazards model approach." They find that women who cohabit before marriage experience approximately 80 percent higher marital dissolution rates than those who do not.
It is shown that "women who live with their future husbands for over three years prior to marriage have over 50 percent higher dissolution rates than women who cohabit for shorter durations. Last, cohabitors and noncohabitors whose marriages have remained intact for eight years appear to have dissolution rates after that time that are identical. In sum, we provide evidence that strongly suggests that the higher marital dissolution rates of cohabitors reflects their weaker commitment to the institution of marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 412).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10447 Bhargava, P. K.; Saxena, P. C. Female work participation and age at marriage in an urban setting. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 264-77 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors investigate the relationship between female labor force participation and age at marriage using data from a sample survey of 1,200 women (600 working and 600 non-working) in Bombay, India. The variables examined are husband's education, wife's education, wife's childhood place of residence, and wife's employment status before and after marriage.
"The analysis reveals that the educational level of the female is the main predictor variable in determining the variation in the age at marriage, irrespective of whether the women were employed or not, where they came from, rural-urban background in childhood, the education of the husband, and other factors....The next factor was their work participation before marriage. This analysis clearly emphasises the significant role of female education and their participation in the labour force before marriage in raising their age at marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10448 Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; White, Lynn K.; Edwards, John N. Divorce and marital instability over the life course. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1986. 421-42 pp. Beverly Hills, California. In Eng.
"This study uses a [U.S.] national sample of married persons under age 55, interviewed in 1980 and again in 1983, to estimate why divorce and marital instability vary by age and duration of marriage. Results indicate that the accumulation of assets substantially reduces the propensity to divorce. We also find that several important correlates of divorce and instability (age at marriage, health, social integration, and income) interact with age and duration. In general, these factors seem to operate almost exclusively among young people and young marriages."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10449 Casterline, John B.; Williams, Lindy; McDonald, Peter. The age difference between spouses: variations among developing countries. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, Nov 1986. 353-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Sub-national and cross-national variations in the age difference between spouses are investigated with data from the World Fertility Survey relating to 29 developing countries. Substantial variation within and between countries is evident. Analysis suggests that the relative age of prospective spouses is a factor taken into account in the marriage market. Observed variation in the age difference, within and between countries, cannot be explained as the simple by-product of the random matching of independently determined distributions of men's and women's ages at marriage."
The authors note that certain age differences are avoided and others are chosen more frequently. "Preferred age differences appear to differ in the societies studied, however, and this variation can be directly interpreted in terms of two sets of factors: kinship structure and women's roles. The analysis also suggests that demographic determinants of the age difference, in particular age constraints on the pool of possible matches, are of less importance in explaining societal variations than are social structural factors."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10450 Charbit, Yves. Nuptiality and demographic transition in the Caribbean: the case of Guyana. [Nuptialite et transition demographique dans la Caraibe: le cas de Guyana.] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 25-49 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author first elaborates a model of nuptiality and uses it to assess nuptiality and fertility among the population of Indian origin in Guyana. Comparisons are made between the Indian- and African-origin populations in Guyana with respect to proportions married, age at first marriage or consensual union, contraceptive use, age-specific fertility rates, and mean length of time in union. The results show the important role of nuptiality in the fertility decline of the 1960s and 1970s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10451 Festy, Patrick. To live together without marriage: the relevant data. [Vivre en couple sans mariage: les chiffres pour le dire.] Futuribles, No. 99, May 1986. 55-74 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of the extent of consensual unions in France is presented in light of the experience of the Scandinavian countries. The author notes that consensual unions do not necessarily proceed to marriage and that the growing popularity of consensual unions has important implications for nuptiality and fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10452 Finkova, Zuzana. The divorce rate in the Slovak Socialist Republic and the Czech Socialist Republic in the years 1950 to 1980. [Rozvodovost v SSR a CSR v rokoch 1950 az 1980.] Demografie, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1986. 299-312 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Slo. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This is a comparative analysis of divorce trends in the Czech and Slovak parts of Czechoslovakia between 1950 and 1980. The author notes that divorce is less common in the Slovak than in the Czech areas. Comparisons are also made with other European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10453 Grimm, H. Early marriages in the twelfth to nineteenth centuries. [Uber fruhe Eheschliessungen im 12. bis 19. Jahrhundert.] Arztliche Jugendkunde, Vol. 77, No. 2, Apr 1986. 121-32 pp. Leipzig, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
An analysis of trends in marriage among those under 18 years of age in Germany from the eleventh to the nineteenth centuries is presented. The data concern 90 marriages, are from a variety of historical sources, and are primarily concerned with those of higher socioeconomic status. Consideration is given to age at first birth and to infant mortality.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10454 Islam, M. Nurul. Estimation of mean age at first marriage: use of a simple mathematical model. Rural Demography, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, 1984. 39-59 pp. Dacca, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The present paper is an attempt to introduce a simple mathematical model to describe the age pattern of proportion never married women. The underlying model was found to give fairly close fit to an observed set of data of some 17 WFS [World Fertility Survey] countries. A mathematical formulation was then suggested in terms of the parameters in the model to estimate the mean age at first marriage. The mean ages obtained under the approach agreed quite closely with those obtained by Hajnal's method. The agreement between the estimates of ever married proportions obtained by the suggested model and...Coale's nuptiality model appeared also to be satisfactory."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10455 Khoo, Siew-Ean. Living together as married: a profile of de facto couples in Australia. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1987. 185-91 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In 1982, a national survey in Australia showed that 5% of all couples living together were unmarried. This article examines demographic, social, and economic characteristics of unmarried cohabiting partners among persons 18 to 34 years of age at the time of the survey. Never-married partners and ever-married partners differed from each other in their level of education and economic situation and appeared to have different reasons for being in de facto relationships. Cohabitors also differed from persons in the same age group who were legally married. For many cohabitors, living together appeared to be a temporary arrangement until they felt financially secure enough to marry."
Author's address: National Centre for Development Studies, Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10456 Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Marlena. Factors influencing the number and frequency of marriages in Poland in 1985. [Czynniki ksztaltujace liczbe i czestosc malzenstw zawartych w 1985 r.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 31, No. 7, Jul 1986. 6-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
This is a preliminary review of the results of the annual sample survey for 1985 concerning newlyweds in Poland. The decline in marriage that has occurred, particularly between the ages of 20 and 24, is attributed to changes in the age structure of the population and the deficit of young women in rural areas. Increases in the age at marriage for both sexes are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10457 Lauer, Robert H.; Lauer, Jeanette C. Factors in long-term marriages. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1986. 382-90 pp. Beverly Hills, California. In Eng.
"The present study involves a nonrandom sample of 351 [U.S.] couples who have been married 15 years or more. Differences were found in the reported reasons for staying together between happy, unhappy, and mixed (one partner happy and one unhappy) marriages. For happy couples, the most frequently mentioned reasons for staying together was the perceived nature of the relationship, then the belief in marriage as a long-term commitment. Among the mixed and unhappy marriages, the most frequently named reason was the belief that marriage is a long-term commitment. Nineteen percent of those in mixed marriages and 47% in unhappy marriages said the children kept the marriage together."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10458 Mensch, Barbara. Age differences between spouses in first marriages. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 229-40 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Vital statistics data indicate that the age difference between spouses in first marriages has narrowed for those born between 1931 and 1951 and married by age 25. It appears that the largest declines have occurred at the older ages of marriage, although there have been reductions at all ages. The possibility that the narrowing of the age gap can be attributed to the recent 'marriage squeeze' is examined using data from the 1976 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth. Insofar as it is adequately measured, the squeeze is found to be insignificant. It seems that age at marriage of the wife is inversely related to a couple's age difference. That this might simply be due to the age distribution of available men is considered and rejected. It is speculated that the relation between age difference and age at marriage is a consequence of changing preferences, not of the supposed shortage of suitable single men."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1981 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 47, No. 3, Fall 1981, p. 449).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10459 Murphy, Mike; Dyson, Tim. On marriage trends and the fertility transition in developing countries. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 147-86 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors provide "empirical evidence from independent data sources of the decline in the age at marriage of females that has occurred during the period from 1940 to 1970 in [22] countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia in the early stages of modernisation. The data from [the] World Fertility Survey, the U.N. Demographic Year Book and Marriage Registration data, wherever available, have been used to study the trends in age at marriage."
The analysis indicates that "there was a real and distinct decline in the age at marriage in all these developing countries before the rising trend in age at marriage was established....The two phenomena of decline in age at marriage and rise in fertility in the early stages of modernization may be concomitantly taking place because of a number of factors associated with modernization, rather than the former causing the latter."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10460 Norton, Arthur J.; Moorman, Jeanne E. Current trends in marriage and divorce among American women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1987. 3-14 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines recent trends and future prospects regarding marriage and divorce patterns among women in the United States. Results indicate that first marriages are taking place later, more adult women will never marry at all, divorce has likely peaked, remarriage after divorce is becoming less frequent, and among current adult cohorts of women, those representing the first ten years of the baby boom are expected to have the highest incidence of divorce." Data are primarily from the June 1985 Current Population Survey
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, pp. 411-2)
Author's address: Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10461 Ojeda de la Pena, Norma. Separation and divorce in Mexico: a demographic perspective. [Separacion y divorcio en Mexico: una perspectiva demografica.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 1, No. 2, May-Aug 1986. 227-65, 325-6 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1976 Mexican Fertility Survey are analyzed to determine the extent of legitimization of children born out of wedlock. The socioeconomic characteristics of women in consensual and legal unions are compared. The frequency and timing of legalization of consensual unions is analyzed, and the number of consensual unions and the frequency of legalization in rural and urban areas are compared. The role of pregnancy in forcing legalization and the stability of legal unions with and without prior cohabitation are studied.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10462 Omideyi, Adekunbi K. Trends in nuptiality patterns of women in Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1986. 113-23 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
In the past few decades, changes in the timing and patterns of nuptiality among Nigerian women have remained unnoticed due to lack of relevant data. This study has demonstrated, using national data for two periods, that definite changes are underway with regards to the timing of marriage and the proportions marrying. The findings reveal a tendency towards delayed marriages, evidence of a move towards increased celibacy and longer expectation of single life at marriageable ages."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10463 Pebley, Anne R.; Goldman, Noreen. Legalization of consensual unions in Mexico. [Legalizacion de uniones consensuales en Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 1, No. 2, May-Aug 1986. 267-90, 325 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Data examined in this study are from the 1976 Mexican Fertility Survey. The authors review previous findings and compare information from this survey with data from the 1969 PECFAL Survey. They then examine the types of consensual union and factors such as women's age, educational status, occupation, premarital fertility, and rural or urban residence. The focus of the study is on the extent to which consensual unions eventually become legal marriages. The authors also investigate the increasing probability of termination of marriage through divorce or separation, especially in urban areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10464 Pebley, Anne R.; Goldman, Noreen. Legalization of consensual unions in Mexico. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 199-213 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"There is ample evidence that there are important behavioral differences in Latin America between couples living in consensual unions and those who are legally married. In this paper, we examine the frequency of and variations in legalization of consensual unions in Mexico, using data from the 1976-77 Encuesta Mexicana de Fecundidad. Our results indicate that the frequency of legalization of consensual unions appears to have risen among recent cohorts. Women in first unions, those who start a union at older ages, and those who are more highly educated are also more likely to marry their partners. Our results also indicate that pregnancy does not appear to be a major factor precipitating legalization, and that whether a couple lived together before marriage has no effect on the stability of the marriage."
An earlier version of this paper, published in Spanish in 1986, is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10465 Prakasam, C. P.; Murthy, P. K. Nuptiality and fertility trends in Sri Lanka. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 214-41 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The authors have attempted to study the trends in nuptiality and fertility patterns in Sri Lanka during the period from 1946 to 1981 for different districts." Indexes of overall fertility, marriage, and marital fertility, developed by Coale, are computed separately for women aged 15-30 and 30-49.
"The authors have analysed the data in different districts of Sri Lanka, and have shown that, on the whole, in Sri Lanka, the decline in fertility has been largely attributed to changes in age at marriage rather than to changes in marital fertility, though in recent years the marital fertility of older women has been showing a steadily declining trend."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10466 Rank, Mark R. The formation and dissolution of marriages in the welfare population. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1987. 15-20 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This research note focuses on two questions: (a) What is the incidence of marriage and separation/divorce in the welfare population [in the United States]? and (b) What factors are associated with these changes in family composition? Event history analyses indicate that approximately 13% of female heads of households (with or expecting children) over a three-year period will eventually marry, while 21% of married couples during the same period will dissolve their marriages. Race emerged in this study as a significant factor affecting the probability of marriage, while having a young child in the household and wife's employment status were correlated with marital dissolution. In neither case were changes in welfare benefits, the number of public assistance programs received, or length of time on welfare significant predictors of changes in family composition."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Box 1113, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10467 Sander, William. On the economics of marital instability in the United Kingdom. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 33, No. 4, Nov 1986. 370-81 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
The impact of economic changes on family stability in the United Kingdom is explored, with particular reference to the effects of changes in women's earning ability and male unemployment. Data are from official sources, including the 1981 census, and concern the year 1981. The author concludes that "increases in divorce in the U.K. can be attributed, in part, to increases in the earning ability of women and high unemployment among men and, perhaps, increases in education levels. Apart from these variables, differences in marriage and divorce rates within the U.K. can be explained, perhaps, by religion, ethnicity, and divorce law."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:10468 Sinha, R. K. Some correlates of recent marriages in eastern Rajasthan. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 242-63 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines factors influencing marriage patterns, particularly age at marriage, in Rajasthan, India. Data are from a 1980-1981 baseline survey on health and family welfare conducted in areas designated to receive UNFPA assistance.
"A study on different marriage cohorts reveals a steady increase in age at marriage during the period from 1940 to 1980. A micro level analysis, using multiple classification analysis and hierarchical analysis of the units, confirms the finding of the macro level analysis, namely, that the social indicators of caste, religion and rural-urban resident status seem to play a more important role in the age at marriage than economic indicators. The ability of the variables to explain the variance in age at marriage becomes larger as the level of aggregation increases."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10469 Stevens, Gillian; Schoen, Robert. Linguistic intermarriage in the United States. Working Papers in Population Studies, No. PWP8701, Feb 11, 1987. 23, [9] pp. University of Illinois, Department of Sociology: Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper examines linguistic and educational marriage patterns for native-born Americans in six language groups while controlling for the population's age, sex, educational, and linguistic composition. The results first show that linguistic homogamy is more pronounced for men and women of lower educational statuses and that education is more salient than language in marriage choices for French, German, Italian and Polish language Americans. Further analysis shows that the common pattern of educational hypergamy in which women marry men with higher educational statuses than themselves is more pronounced in cross-language marriages involving English language women than in those involving English language men, suggesting an exchange between men's economic and women's non-economic characteristics."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, pp. 453-4).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10470 Teachman, Jay D. First and second marital dissolution: a decomposition exercise for whites and blacks. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4, Winter 1986. 571-90 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Observed distributions of marital dissolutions occurring over time (and thus the divorce rate or other measures of marital dissolution) are dependent on two basic factors: (1) the relative distribution across a population of characteristics influencing the probability of marital dissolution, and (2) the relative degree to which each of these characteristics raise or lower the probability of marital dissolution. The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of each of these two factors on the observed distributions of marital dissolution [in the United States] for whites and blacks for both first and second marriages. Using an appropriate statistical methodology, the results indicate a relatively complex pattern of differences between marriage orders and race groups."
Author's address: Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10471 Thornton, Arland; Rodgers, Willard L. The influence of individual and historical time on marital dissolution. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 1-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the influence of individual development and historical change on marital dissolution. Data from the vital statistics system of the United States and from the June 1980 Current Population Survey are used to examine the experience of marriage cohorts from 1905 through 1975 and the periods from 1922 through 1979. The historical patterns can best be explained as effects of period rather than of birth or marriage cohort, and the individual patterns can be explained best as effects of age and age at marriage rather than of marital duration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10472 Trovato, Frank. A longitudinal analysis of divorce and suicide in Canada. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1987. 193-203 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the national suicide rate in Canada during the period from 1950 to 1982. "During this phase of recent Canadian history, both divorce and suicide rates have followed ascending trends....It was found that in Canada, the national rate of suicide varies directly with the rate of family dissolution, even after the effects of unemployment and females' participation in the labor force were taken into account simultaneously. It was anticipated that unemployment and suicide would be directly associated; however, the results in this study fail to confirm this prediction for the nation as a whole, but among relatively young cohorts there is indication that for men, unemployment is positively related to suicide mortality."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H4.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10473 van de Giessen, G. J. Marriage intentions...and how they turned out. [Trouwplannen...en wat er van terechtkwam.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 12, Dec 1986. 64-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a follow-up survey conducted in 1985 concerning marriage intentions in the Netherlands are presented. The survey included 83 percent of those who participated in the Netherlands Fertility Survey of 1982. The results indicate that more women actually married during the three years following 1982 than expected to marry. This increase was largely due to marriage among women who had indicated an intention to marry without specifying when. The author concludes that "there will be a decline in the percentage of women who ever get married, but the decline will be less pronounced than was estimated from the 1982 data alone. The question is not only how many people will ever get married, but also at what age they will eventually do so."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10474 Wieczorek, Maria. Multistate life expectancy tables by marital status. [Wielostanowe tablice trwania zycia wedlug stanu cywilnego.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/84, 1986. 69-77 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Multistate life expectancy tables by marital status are presented for Poland using official data for 1981 and methodology developed by Andrei Rogers. The tables provide a basis for the analysis of marriage and marital dissolution as well as differential mortality by marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

53:10475 Baird, Allen J. Family life course trends and the relative economic status of birth cohorts in Western Europe and the United States, 1950-1976. Pub. Order No. DA8505033. 1984. 346 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Ordinary least-squares and Cochrane-Orcutt multiple regression analyses are used to test "a model of social change which links modern family life activity trends with the relative economic status of birth cohorts in developed societies. The primary dependent measures [are]...yearly time series statistics of age standardized fertility, marriage, divorce, and female labor force activity rates. The principal explanatory variables [are] selected age ratios of the male population of working ages, and the unemployment rate which is introduced to control for the social effects of business cycles." For the period 1950-1976, the author examines family formation trends in the United States, England and Wales, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Sweden. He also discusses theories of modern family change in Western Europe.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(1).

53:10476 Bartlema, J.; Winkelbauer, L. Modelling kinship with LISP: a two-sex model of kin-counts. 1986. v, 37 pp. Katholieke Universiteit Brabant: Tilburg, Netherlands; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The authors develop a model that utilizes the programming language LISP to examine kinship structures, given recent trends in fertility and mortality. "The model...consists of two distinct phases. First the numerical relations between kin of different 5-year age groups are calculated in a two-sex stable population. Thereafter these aggregate measures are translated into a hypothetical population in which each individual is identified, with his or her network of nuclear kin. The first phase of the model uses standard biomathematical procedures, while the second applies LISP. The first phase is macroanalytic, while the second uses stochastic procedures. The result is a model with traits of macro- as well as micro-models."
The focus is on methodological issues. An illustrative application to the Netherlands is included. "After a brief introduction into LISP and the field of kinship modelling the Goodman, Keyfitz, Pullum approach is summarized and an application discussed. Thereafter a simulation procedure is described. In an annex an illustrative application is presented, giving an impression of the effect of an alteration from a strictly monogamous mating system to one in which individual lifecycles may contain two successive reproductive unions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10477 Bourdelais, Patrice. Growing old in the family in the France of the extended family (the example of Prayssas, 1836-1911). [Vieillir en famille dans la France des menages complexes (l'exemple de Prayssas, 1836-1911).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1985. 21-38 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of demographic aging on family structures and on the social status of the elderly in France is examined using data on households in the village of Prayssas for the period 1836-1911 obtained from nominative lists. The results indicate that although the number of the elderly increased significantly, the proportion of those living alone remained relatively stable, primarily because of the prevalence of the extended family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10478 Canada. Statistics Canada. Demography Division. Population Projections Section (Ottawa, Canada). Interim household and family projections for Canada, provinces and territories to 2006. [Projections provisoires des menages et des familles pour le Canada, les provinces et territoires jusqu'a 2006.] Jan 1987. 67 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This report contains revised household and family projections for Canada and its provinces and territories up to 2006. "These projections are based on the latest population projections..., the census data series relating to households, families and marital status distributions, 1966 to 1981, and take into account the recent social and demographic trends, in the country." These are interim projections, which are to be updated when 1986 census data are available. Three alternative projections, based on a range of assumptions concerning factors affecting the growth and structure of households and families, are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10479 Deven, F.; Cliquet, R. L. One-parent families in Europe: trends, experiences, implications. Proceedings of the CBGS International Workshop on One-Parent Families, Brussels, October 8-10, 1985. Publications of the Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI] and the Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS], Vol. 15, 1986. xiii, 365 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop on one-parent families held in Brussels, Belgium, in 1985. The primary geographic focus is on Europe. There are five substantive sections. The first is a general introduction to the workshop. The second contains seven papers on research issues and concepts. The third section presents a review of the characteristics and trends concerning one-parent families: papers are included on Czechoslovakia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and Yugoslavia.
The fourth section is concerned with the experiences of one-parent families and their policy implications. The papers concern the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Israel, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Poland. A final section presents a synthesis of the workshop as a whole.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10480 Dimitrov, Ivo. Ideal and real numbers of children. Folia Medica, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1985. 42-50 pp. Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In Eng. with sum. in Bul.
The results of a family planning survey carried out in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, are presented. The data concern 425 couples, who were married in 1979, and who had been married at least 10 years. The focus of the study is on the differences between ideal and actual family size. Factors considered include age at marriage, woman's educational status, social class, income, and living space available.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10481 Duchesne, Louis. Households and families in Quebec. [Les menages et les familles au Quebec.] Statistiques Demographiques, ISBN 2-551-08845-3. 1987. 144 pp. Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Trends concerning families and households in the Canadian province of Quebec during the past 30 years are reviewed. Data are from official Canadian and Quebec sources. Chapters are included on household characteristics, family characteristics, consensual unions, one-person households, collective households, the family and household situation of the elderly, and nuptiality and fertility trends in the period 1951-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10482 Edwards, Patricia K.; Jones, Judith A.; Edwards, John N. The social demography of shared housing. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 3, No. 2, Nov 1986. 130-43 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"Despite the prevalence of shared housing in Australia, almost one-third of all households, little is known about who are the people who share accommodation, and why they do so. Using a sample of 4,560 households, this paper presents a demographic profile of shared dwellings and tests some of the prevailing assumptions about why certain groups may have a propensity to share. Some of the implications of the findings for existing housing policies are pointed out and directions for future research are suggested."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10483 Encarnacion, Jose. Becker on the interaction between quantity and quality of children. Philippine Review of Economics and Business, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1984. 113-5 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
The author challenges the hypothesis of G. S. Becker that the most promising explanation for large fertility changes in developing countries is in the interaction between quantity and quality of children.
For the study by Becker, published in 1981, see 48:10494.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:10484 Faessen, W. B. M. Population, family, and household in the Netherlands since 1829. [Bevolking, gezin en huishouden in Nederland sinds 1829.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan 1987. 17-30 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in household size in the Netherlands since 1829 are reviewed. The steady decline in household size over time has been accompanied by changes in household composition. The impact of changes in family composition, such as the increase in consensual unions and single persons living alone, on household composition is noted. The author also studies shifts in marriage patterns, divorce, fertility, and mortality over time, with particular reference to their implications for the family and household. Consideration is given to such nonfamily members in households as servants and to regional differences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10485 Gee, Ellen M. The life course of Canadian women: an historical and demographic analysis. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, Aug 1986. 263-83 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Data on Canadian women over the past 150 years from official census and vital statistics sources are used to present a cohort analysis of changes in the occurrence and timing of age-related events relevant to the life course of the family. The results show that such events are becoming more predictable, standardized, and compressed into a shorter time period. Some of the major changes and continuities are described, with particular reference to the experience of the baby boom generation. Events considered include age at first marriage, first birth, last birth, empty nest, and widowhood.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10486 Gober, Patricia. How and why Phoenix households changed: 1970-1980. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 76, No. 4, Dec 1986. 536-49 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"American households changed dramatically in size and composition during the 1970s. This paper examines the spatial properties of these changes at the census tract level in metropolitan Phoenix [Arizona]. Research questions center on where, why, and how households change in an urban context. Findings indicate a high degree of diversity in the extent and nature of household change across 189 census tracts. This diversity was explained, in part, by age and type of housing and by minority status of area residents."
It is found that "residential mobility was, under certain circumstances, the dominant vehicle for household change, whereas under different conditions it was the mechanism for maintaining a constant household structure....Areas dominated by minorities experienced smaller overall changes in composition, greater shifts toward nontraditional families, and smaller shifts toward nonfamilies than did white-Anglo areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10487 Hulkko, Jouko. The living conditions of young families in Finland. [A fiatal csaladok eletkorulmenyei Finnorszagban.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1986. 41-54 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines microeconomic factors contributing to marriage postponement and delayed childbearing in Finland. Trends toward higher ages at marriage and at first birth and toward more widespread nonmarital cohabitation are noted. Attention is given to family policies, including family allowances, maternity benefits, and government-supported child care. The persistent concern of affordable housing is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10488 Jol, C. Single.......social? Changes in well-being among Dutch singles, 1974-1983. [Vrij.......gezellig? Veranderingen in welzijn bij alleenstaanden, 1974-1983.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1984. 249-62 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines changes in the subjective well-being of single persons in the Netherlands from 1974 to 1983. Data are from the Dutch Quality of Life Surveys of 1974, 1980, and 1983. The results indicate that singles reported an improvement in well-being, together with an increase in loneliness.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10489 Kotseva, Tatyana. The "price" of a child in the contemporary family. ["Tsenata" na deteto v savremennoto semeistvo.] Naselenie, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1986. 43-52 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The characteristics of the modern Bulgarian family are examined, with particular reference to their impact on reproduction. The author examines the cost of having a child in light of women's roles both within the family and in society at large. Other factors considered include the tendency of modern families not to live with their parents, the increasing tendency of marriages to break up, and changing attitudes toward the family and motherhood.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10490 LeNoir, Rebecca G. The effect of migration and the migration decision on desired family size. Pub. Order No. DA8505306. 1984. 90 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study was to explore the interrelationship between fertility and migration using a sample of rural Kenyans, ages 13 to 21. This was done by examining the differences in mean levels of desired family size for migrants and nonmigrants. No substantial or significant differences were found which suggests that migration is not 'selective' of individuals with low levels of desired family size." The author also examines "the mean levels of desired family size for individuals who had gone through a decision-making process in regard to migration and those who had not. It was found that those respondents who had been through the decision-making process had substantially and significantly lower levels of desired family size, even after controlling for a variety of variables shown to affect both migration and fertility."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(1).

53:10491 Lu, Fei-Ying. The dynamics of family formation and population duality. Pub. Order No. DA8511843. 1985. 234 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses a valuation concept and a model for analyzing population dynamics to examine family formation. "The economic concept of duality is applied, leading to a notion of residual fertility value, a valuation concept which is the 'pricing' counterpart in the dual model of population dynamics....Empirical data is used to show the applicability of the method....A theoretical model of the formation of nuclear families is presented and a theorem is proved that establishes the long run stability of the structure of family types, when the total population grows at a constant rate. It is shown that an adequate theory of family formation and life-time earnings pattern provide the foundation of family income distribution analysis."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Northwestern University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(4).

53:10492 Morrison, Peter A. Changing family structure: who cares for America's dependents? Rand Note, No. N-2518-NICHD, Dec 1986. ix, 18 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
The author "reviews several ongoing demographic changes in [U.S.] families and considers their implications for legislation. Those changes include the growing instability of contemporary families; their increasingly diverse, often nontraditional, forms; the altered social settings and economic circumstances affecting children; and the lengthening of life expectancy among older Americans."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10493 Oakley, Deborah. Low-fertility childbearing decision making. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 249-58 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"It is often assumed that childbearing decisions involve conscious consideration of alternatives. This study was an investigation of whether [U.S.] community-college enrollees (N=419) aged 18 to 36 years old had thought about the low fertility options of having no or one child. Only half had considered one or both options. Selected characteristics of the decision making process were also examined. Discriminant analysis showed that the variables contributing significantly to distinguishing among the options-considered groups included the degree of consciousness about making childbearing decisions in general, religiosity, and the importance of three variables that measured the values and cost of children: new experiences that children can provide, generalized costs of children, and achievement of a role identity through parenthood. Outcomes associated with the low-fertility options considered were also studied."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10494 Olson, David H.; DeRubeis, Fern G. Inventory of marriage and family literature, 1985. Vol. 12, ISBN 0-8039-2940-4. LC 67-63014. 1987. 419 pp. Sage Publications: Beverly Hills, California/London, England. In Eng.
This volume contains citations to 2,636 journal articles on marriage and the family published in English in 1985. The bibliography, which is unannotated, is presented in three sections: a subject index, an author index, and a keyword in title (KWIT) index. A list of periodicals covered is included.
For Vol. 10, published in 1984, see 50:30481.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10495 Peron, Yves; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Morissette, Denis. Canadian families: structures and life cycles. [Les familles canadiennes: structures et cycles de vie.] Jun 1986. v, 114 pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Groupe de Recherche sur la Demographie Quebecoise: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This report examines the impact of recent changes, such as the growth of consensual unions, the increase in marital breakdown, the decline in the number of children, and changes in the timing of events affecting marriage, on the composition and structure of families in Canada. The study is based on the concept of the family life cycle and compares data on families from the 1981 census with those from the 1971 census. The authors also test various hypotheses concerning changes in the family life cycle using U.S. census data for 1970 and 1980.
The report is in five chapters. The first introduces the concepts under review. The second deals with propensity to marry or to develop a consensual union and with the characteristics of families that did not break up. The third and fourth chapters focus on trends in family size and their determinants. The fifth chapter attempts to classify families with respect to the stage reached in the family life cycle.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10496 Pool, Ian; Moore, Maureen. Lone parenthood: characteristics and determinants. Results from the 1984 Family History Survey. Pub. Order No. 99-961. ISBN 0-660-52860-6. Nov 1986. 59 pp. Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This report, which is also available in French, analyzes the characteristics and determinants of single or lone parenthood in Canada from a longitudinal perspective. Data are from the Family History Survey of 1984. The report "provides new insights into the timing of events that lead to lone parenthood, including childbearing, union dissolution and divorce. Other events, such as union formation, entry into the labour force and work interruptions, are also examined." Three types of single parents are identified: "those who have never been in a union, those who are separated or divorced and those who are widowed...." It is noted that "each type prevails at different age groups. The study points out that lone parenthood is often a transitory situation followed by entry into a union." Consideration is given to the relationships among lone parenthood and education, occupation, and labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10497 Popenoe, David. Beyond the nuclear family: a statistical portrait of the changing family in Sweden. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1987. 173-83 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Drawing on the latest available statistical data, including data from Swedish language sources, the author portrays the changing structure of the Swedish family and argues that the family in Sweden has moved farther from the ideal-typical nuclear form of the last few generations than has the family in any other industrial society. The study focuses on various measures of family structure, including Sweden's low marriage rate, high rates of nonmarital cohabitation and family dissolution, small household size, and extensive movement of women into the labor force."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Rutgers University, Lucy Stone Hall, New Brunswick, NJ 08903.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10498 Richards, Toni; White, Michael J.; Tsui, Amy O. Changing living arrangements: a hazard model of transitions among household types. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 77-97 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes movements among household types. Persons in one household may join another type. Correspondingly, a household's structure may change when someone joins it. Data are from the [U.S.] Panel Survey of Income Dynamics, spanning 1968-1980. The individuals followed in the survey generated spells analyzed with a multivariate competing risk hazard model. We develop a map of the flow among household types and of the economic and demographic profiles of individuals making the transitions. We find wide variability in the stability of household types and marked racial differences in the relative stability and pattern of destination choices."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10499 Slaby, Teresa. Subjective variables in demography. [Zmienne subiektywne w demografii.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 31, No. 8, Aug 1986. 12-3 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The application of the subjective variable to research on attitudes toward fertility in Poland is considered. The variable concerns the determination of ideal family size and attitudes toward having more children. The author shows how an ex post facto variable was constructed, describing positive, negative, and neutral feelings toward fertility during the course of a study on attitudes toward procreation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10500 Spiegel, Andrew D. The fluidity of household composition in Matatiele, Transkei: a methodological problem. African Studies, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1986. 17-35 pp. Johannesburg, South Africa. In Eng.
Questions related to the study of household composition in South Africa are explored using data from a longitudinal study carried out in a Sotho-speaking village in Matatiele District of the Transkei. These questions primarily concern the fluidity of household composition and the methodological problems this poses.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10501 Timaeus, Ian. Families and households of the elderly population: prospects for those approaching old age. Ageing and Society, Vol. 6, 1986. 271-93 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Long-term demographic trends that determine the absolute and relative size of the elderly population also underlie changes in the proportions of older people with living spouses and children. Such changes have important implications for residential isolation, the provision of care and the overall quality of life of the old. Demographic trends influencing the family situations of older people in Britain are discussed and detailed projections presented for women reaching age 60 in the period 1971-96."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10502 van Gelder, K. Families with one parent: a draft typology. [Gezinnen met een ouder: ontwerp van een typologie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1985. 157-78 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses household survey data to compare the number and characteristics of one-parent families with those of two-parent families in the Netherlands and to propose a typology of one-parent families. Changes in the composition of the one-parent-family population by marital status are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10503 Wilk, Carole A. Career women and childbearing: a psychological analysis of the decision process. ISBN 0-442-29352-6. LC 85-9216. 1986. xxii, 304 pp. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, New York. In Eng.
The psychological factors that affect married career women's childbearing decisions are explored. The data primarily are from in-depth interviews with 24 U.S., white, middle-class, childless women aged 27-35 in dual-career marriages of an average duration of four years. The author presents a qualitative assessment of their lives and childbearing choices based both on extended interviews and projective psychological tests.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10504 Zimmermann, Klaus F. Family economy: theoretical and empirical studies on female employment and fertility trends. [Familienokonomie: theoretische und empirische Untersuchungen zur Frauenerwerbstatigkeit und Geburtenentwicklung.] Studies in Contemporary Economics, Vol. 18, ISBN 3-540-15972-X. 1985. xii, 423 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This book is part of a research project on the economic aspects of family decisions. The aims of the book are to investigate changes in fertility and the increased labor force participation of married women in the Federal Republic of Germany, to evaluate these trends against the background of a theoretical model, and to contribute to the dissemination in Germany of new economic theories of the family.
In the first part of the book, changes in the family in Germany between 1960 and 1979 are described, and economic theories of family decision-making processes are outlined. In the next three sections, a model of family decision making is formulated and then further developed and tested at both micro- and macro-analytic levels. The final section deals with family policy alternatives.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.