Volume 53 - Number 1 - Spring 1987

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

53:10139 Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki. Social life factors affecting the mortality of total Japanese population. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 11, 1986. 1,163-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The effects of a wide variety of social life factors on the mortality of total Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression analysis twice at a 5-year interval. Age-adjusted all-causes mortality and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality from 14 major causes of death were examined. The results indicated that rural residence was the key factor affecting the mortality of total male and female populations; low income, together with old and young age groups, was another important factor for the mortality of the male population. International differences in the effects of urbanisation on mortality rates are discussed in the light of these findings."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10140 Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Lars G. Mortality in Greenland 1968-1983. [Tabte levear i Gronland 1968-1983.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 148, No. 11, Mar 10, 1986. 677-80 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality by cause of the native population of Greenland is analyzed for the periods 1968-1972, 1973-1978, and 1979-1983, using the concept of years of life lost. Changes in the causes of death over time for males and for females are noted. The importance of accidents, suicide, homicide, and cancer is established. Comparisons are made with mortality patterns in Denmark.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10141 Bouvier-Colle, M. H. Social and health policies, mortality trends: some questions raised during the course of a demographic seminar. [Politiques sociales et de sante, evolution de la mortalite: questions posees au cours d'un seminaire de demographie.] Sciences Sociales et Sante, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1984. 85-109 pp. Toulouse, France. In Fre.
The author describes the proceedings of a seminar held in Paris, France, in 1983 on the impact of social and health policies on mortality trends. Three developing country case studies concerning Senegal, Cuba, and Costa Rica were considered. For developed countries, the situations in Japan, France, and the USSR were examined. Consideration is given to future prospects.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10142 Bowling, Ann. Mortality after bereavement: a review of the literature on survival periods and factors affecting survival. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1987. 117-24 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality rates for widowed people in every age group are known to be higher than for married people. Research suggests that the widowed have a greater risk of dying than married people of a similar age, the excess risk being greater for men. Little is known, however, about the causes of their apparently higher mortality rates. This paper examines the evidence relating to mortality rates and survival periods after bereavement. Explanations for the excess risk are discussed." The geographic focus of the study is on the United Kingdom and the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10143 Brzezinski, Zbigniew J. Mortality indicators and health-for-all strategies in the WHO European Region. [Les indicateurs de la mortalite et les strategies de la sante pour tous dans la Region europeenne de l'OMS.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1986. 365-78 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
The value of using alternative mortality indicators is examined. Selected examples are presented of the use of mortality indicators in developing strategies to achieve the World Health Organization (WHO)'s objective of health for all in its European region by the year 2000.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10144 Caldwell, John C.; Ruzicka, Lado T. The determinants of mortality change in South Asia. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 281-332 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The authors have used...data from five South Asian countries, namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to study the trends in mortality during the period from 1942 to 1980. The indicators used are the infant mortality rate, the expectation of life at birth and at different ages, and the contribution to the growth in [expectation of life at birth] by reduction in mortality in various age-groups." The pace of the mortality decline, sex differentials in life expectancy, and factors contributing to these trends are discussed. Comparisons are made with developments in Australia.
Micro-level studies undertaken by the authors in Karnataka, India, and in Bangladesh provide the basis for the explanations set forth concerning the factors influencing mortality. "The authors have postulated that the main factors associated with mortality decline in the villages studied by them are improvements in the education of the population, especially of females, rather than an improvement in the availability of health infrastructure facilities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10145 Coale, Ansley J.; Kisker, Ellen E. Mortality crossovers: reality or bad data? Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, Nov 1986. 389-401 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"It has been argued in the literature that the observed mortality crossover among older black Americans relative to the white population is a result of 'differential early mortality which selects the least robust persons from the disadvantaged population at relatively earlier ages so that, at advanced ages, the disadvantaged population has proportionately more robust persons' (Kenneth G. Manton). The authors examine the plausibility of the observed black mortality crossover and the heterogeneity argument supporting its existence."
The authors cite evidence from the literature and "use life tables from various countries known to have good mortality data to explore the relation between mortality in childhood and at younger adult ages and mortality in old age for cohorts and periods. Analysis suggests that the association between childhood and old-age mortality for cohorts is positive, implying that observed mortality crossovers are produced by deficient data rather than population heterogeneity."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10146 Gray, Alan. Sectional growth balance analysis for non-stable closed populations. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, Nov 1986. 425-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Methods for correcting for underenumeration in mortality estimates have been developing intensively during the last fifteen years. While existing methods can be shown to be overspecified, this is particularly evident for techniques in which age-specific growth rates are used. The paper surveys some existing analytical techniques which do not use age-specific growth rates, by examining results and precision when used with 24 selected data sets." These data sets are all from developing countries.
"The specification problem is then analysed, and a new less-specified technique is introduced. The technique assumes an age-invariant rate of underenumeration of deaths, but allows age-specific growth rates to vary in a minimally consistent manner from a common general level. The results obtained by using this technique on the earlier data sets are presented, and the precision obtained is compared with the results from existing methods. The results are very favourable to the new technique."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10147 Greenberg, Michael R. Disease competition as a factor in ecological studies of mortality: the case of urban centers. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 10, 1986. 929-34 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Disease competition is a condition in which death rates are not what would be expected from the combination of etiological factors present in a region. Four types of disease competition are described: error; dominant occupational-lifestyle etiology leading to dominant diseases; dominant lifestyle with a variety of disease outcomes; and protective effect. Three clues that disease competition exists are discussed. In order to assess the importance of disease competition, an analysis was made of the geographical distribution of male white mortality from 23 causes in the 73 most populous counties in the United States. The results showed evidence only of the dominant lifestyle type."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10148 Hobcraft, John. Mortality. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 19-20, 1987. 63-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author surveys the contributions of the U.N. Population Division to the study of mortality and elaborates the three that he considers to be the most significant. "They are synthesizing the findings of national and regional research on mortality issues; developing and disseminating methods for improving estimates of levels and trends in mortality and standards of analysis; and bringing together researchers working from different perspectives to discuss mortality issues of global importance and disseminating the results of those meetings to potential users." Publications, reports, model life tables, and other tools created by the Population Division are identified.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10149 Imhof, Arthur E. Methodological problems of current urban historiography: 20 mirror-images of urban mortality from 1750 to 1850 (primarily based on data from the Berlin parish of Dorotheenstadt). [Methodologische Probleme heutiger Stadtgeschichtsschreibung: zwanzig Spiegelbilder stadtischer Sterblichkeit 1750 bis 1850 (hauptsachlich aufgrund von Daten der Berliner Kirchengemeinde Dorotheenstadt).] In: Berlin-Forschungen, I, edited by Wolfgang Ribbe. Einzelveroffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin, Vol. 54, ISBN 3-7678-0681-9. 1986. 101-34 pp. Colloquium: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Mortality patterns in Berlin between 1750 and 1850 are examined using 20 graphs and charts as a focus for the discussion. Methodological aspects are also considered. The data are primarily from the parish of Dorotheenstadt. Major topics covered include temporal and spatial patterns of mortality, urban-rural interrelationships, differential mortality by social class and maternal mortality, age-specific mortality, causes of death, and metaphysical views of illness and death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10150 Jones, D. R.; Goldblatt, P. O. Cause of death in widow(er)s and spouses. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1987. 107-21 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The timing and patterns of death following the stressful event of conjugal bereavement are analyzed for England and Wales using a one percent sample of the total population in the OPCS Longitudinal Study for the period 1971-1981. "Overall the mortality of widowers was about 10% in excess of that in all males in the sample whereas that of widows was only slightly raised. Some increases in death rates shortly after widow(er)hood are observed. Unusually, these increases in all-cause mortality rates are more marked in widows than in widowers, with a two-fold increase in mortality from all causes in the first month after widowhood. Marked peaks of post-bereavement mortality from accidents and violent causes are clear in both sexes. Possible explanations for the increased mortality rates are examined."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10151 Kedelski, Mieczyslaw. Mortality and life expectancy in Greater Poland, 1816-1875. [Umieralnosc i trwanie zycia w Wielkopolsce w latach 1816-1875.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 16, 1985. 109-38 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in mortality and life expectancy in the regions of Poznan and Bydgoszcz in Greater Poland from 1816 to 1875 are analyzed. Variations by region and sex and for those under and over five years of age are examined. Mortality is analyzed separately for Catholics, Protestants, and Jews. Life tables, using methods developed by Chiang, are constructed for selected periods from 1850 to 1875. The data are taken primarily from official Prussian sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10152 Kedelski, Mieczyslaw. Trends in mortality and life expectancy of the inhabitants of the city of Poznan in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [Ewolucja umieralnosci i trwania zycia ludnosci miasta Poznania w wiekach XIX i XX.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/84, 1986. 3-27 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in mortality and life expectancy in the city of Poznan, Poland, from 1800 to 1984 are analyzed. Developments in general and infant mortality are examined by developing models to illustrate the dynamics of change over time. Abbreviated tables of life expectancy at selected ages for various periods from 1808-1812 to 1981-1983 are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10153 Keiding, Niels; Vaeth, Michael. Calculating expected mortality. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 327-34 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The widely used 'person-years method' of calculating expected mortality has been discussed recently by several authors. In studies where mortality is either lower or higher than the standard mortality of some reference population, the use of exposure to death as an estimator of the expected number of deaths will generally lead to bias, always exaggerating the difference between study and standard mortality. This bias is examined in a proportional hazards model. The recent suggestion by Hartz et al. of calculating the mortalities of individuals during their 'potential follow-up time' is claimed to be only rarely feasible in practice."
First author's address: Statistical Research Unit, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
For the study by Arthur J. Hartz et al., published in 1983, see 50:20134.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10154 Khristov, Emil. The effects of changes in a population's mortality and age structure and their probability estimates. [Efekti ot promenite na smartnostta i strukturata na naselenieto po vazrast i tekhnite veroyatnostni otsenki.] Naselenie, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1986. 22-33 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A method for the analysis of mortality is developed in which the difference between two dynamic total mortality rates is broken down into two main types of effects, one due to changes in the age-specific mortality rate and the other due to changes in the age structure of the population.
The author provides estimates of the contribution at each age for the two effects as well as for the cumulative changes in total mortality. Probability estimates are given of the separate effects using life table methods developed by Chiang. The application of the proposed method to the analysis of any process of social change involving the measurement of the impact of structural changes is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10155 Lovett, A. A.; Bentham, C. G.; Flowerdew, R. Analysing geographic variations in mortality using Poisson regression: the example of ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales 1969-1973. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 10, 1986. 935-43 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes how Poisson regression techniques can be used to examine the relationship between mortality and possible explanatory variables over a series of areas in cases where the number of deaths involved is relatively low. As an example an analysis is carried out on deaths from ischaemic heart disease among young adults in the county boroughs of England and Wales during 1969-1973."
The results indicate that "the number of deaths was higher for males than females and was positively related to age, the size of the 'at risk' population and crowding, but negatively associated with water hardness and the size of the New Commonwealth population. A comparison of the Poisson and log-normal regression models clearly shows that the latter provides an inferior goodness of fit and unreliable results. It is therefore concluded that when the number of deaths is small there are both theoretical and practical advantages in using Poisson regression to analyse mortality data."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10156 Moser, K. A.; Goldblatt, P. O.; Fox, A. J.; Jones, D. R. Unemployment and mortality: comparison of the 1971 and 1981 longitudinal study census samples. British Medical Journal, Vol. 294, No. 6564, Jan 10, 1987. 86-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Mortality [in the United Kingdom] in the period 1981-3 among men in the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys longitudinal study who were seeking work in 1981 was examined to investigate whether the finding of a high mortality rate among a comparable group of men who were followed up from the 1971 Census was repeated despite appreciable changes in the size and structure of the labour force over the intervening years." For both samples, mortality among those seeking work was raised for reasons other than poor health.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:10157 Nakae, Kimihiro; Kondo, Kiyotaro; Kamei, Satoshi; Ahmed, Akhtar. Estimated mortality rate by sex-age and death causes in Karachi. JPMA: Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, Vol. 36, No. 7, Jul 1986. 174-6 pp. Karachi, Pakistan. In Eng.
Mortality in Karachi, Pakistan, is analyzed using data from 3,607 death certificates from six hospitals for the years 1979-1984. The data were collected during a study of encephalitides. "The estimated mortality rates per 1,000 population by sex and age were as follows: 15.9 in all males, 14.0 in all females, 34.7 in age group of 0-4 and 77.7 in age group of 70 and above. The mortality rate in age group of 5-49 was higher in females than in males. The estimated mortality rates per 100,000 population by death causes were as follows: 208.8 for infections and parasitic disease, 96.5 for diseases of the nervous system, 361.0 for diseases of the circulatory system."
First author's address: Department of Public Health, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Japan.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10158 Pollard, J. H. Cause of death, expectation of life and the Hungarian experience with some international comparisons. School of Economic and Financial Studies Research Paper, No. 307, ISBN 0-85837-586-9. May 1986. 34 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines changes in mortality by cause and in life expectancy at various ages in Hungary between 1970 and 1980. Formulas developed by the author in 1982 are used to analyze changes in the expectation of life at birth as well as sex differentials in Hungarian mortality. Related trends in Australia, Belgium, England and Wales, Japan, and the Netherlands are examined for comparative purposes.
It is noted that "among modern developed populations, Hungary is unusual in that it is one of the few experiencing deteriorating mortality and, for males, reduced expectation of life at birth....Whilst gains have been achieved as a result of improved mortality from infective and parasitic diseases, from respiratory disease excluding bronchitis, emphysema and asthma and from congenital and neonatal causes, most other important causes of death led to a decline in expectation of life at birth for males and females over the period 1970 to 1980." The sex differential in life expectancy in Hungary "is large, some 7.26 years in 1980, and we found, for example, that...the proportion of the differential ascribable to ischaemic heart disease is relatively low: 23% or 1.67 years of life."
For the previous article by Pollard, published in 1982, see 49:10159.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10159 Post, John D. Food shortage, climatic variability, and epidemic disease in preindustrial Europe: the mortality peak in the early 1740s. ISBN 0-8014-1773-2. LC 85-4684. 1985. 303 pp. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author seeks "to assess the relative influence of accumulated environmental stress, nutritional status, and differential remedial/relief measures in order to account for the varying national increases in mortality [in Europe] from 1739 to 1743. He does so by tracing the lines of causation from harvest shortfalls to elevated mortality through the sequence of extreme weather events, grain harvest outcomes, food-price fluctuations, variations in employment levels, public and private welfare responses, and the changing incidence of epidemic disease." Statistical comparisons, clinical evidence, and present-day epidemiological knowledge are used to relate the historical circumstances and the infections causing the rise in mortality.
The author concludes that "climatic variability could trigger mortality fluctuations and economic turndowns even in those relatively modernized and economically developed countries that had already learned to prevent famine conditions in the wake of harvest failures. The evidence indicates, he maintains, that the link between the shortage of food and epidemic disease proved more social than nutritional, owing more to social disarray and welfare crises than to sharply lowered human resistance to epidemic diseases."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10160 Rabell, Cecilia A.; Mier y Teran Rocha, Marta. The decline in mortality in Mexico from 1940 to 1980. [El descenso de la mortalidad en Mexico de 1940 a 1980.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1986. 39-72, 155 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality trends in Mexico from 1940 to 1980 are analyzed using both published sources and original data. An examination of regional differentials in infant mortality is included. The results indicate that mortality has not declined significantly in the least developed parts of the country since 1960. The analysis of changes in causes of death over time shows an increase in deaths from accidents, violent causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
For an English version of this study, also published in 1986, see 52:30179.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10161 Salhi, Mohamed. Some data and reflections on recent mortality trends in Algeria. [Quelques donnees et reflexions sur l'evolution recente de la mortalite en Algerie.] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 187-200 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author traces mortality levels and trends in Algeria between 1965 and 1981. Attention is given to age and sex differentials in mortality and to questions for future research. This article is a summary of the results of a 1984 study by the same author.
For the study by Salhi, published in 1984, see 50:30160.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10162 Tabutin, Dominique. Mortality transitions in the third world: some problems and explanatory aspects. [Les transitions de mortalite dans le tiers monde: quelques problemes et aspects explicatifs.] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 83-123 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author focuses on the relationships between mortality and macro-level social and economic variables in developing countries. Mortality transitions in Latin America, Africa, and Asia are outlined, with attention given to the periods 1910-1940, 1945-1965, and 1970-1980. Ways in which the experiences of these countries differed from the mortality transitions of Western, industrialized nations are noted. The author then discusses the role of poverty and nutrition; the relationships among malnutrition, infection, and mortality; the large and growing inequalities by social class in health and mortality; and health and development policies designed to affect morbidity and mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10163 Velonakis, E.; Tzonou, A.; Karaitianou, A.; Trichopoulos, D. Greece and the European Economic Community: relations between mortality rates by cause and indexes of development. [La Grece et la Communaute Economique Europeenne: relations entre les taux de mortalite par cause et les indices de developpement.] Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1986. 178-82 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
Differences among the countries of the European Community concerning the relationship between mortality rates and various indexes of socioeconomic development are analyzed. These indexes include the pace of industrial development, the level of urbanization, and the quantity and quality of individual consumption. The analysis is primarily concerned with differences among countries concerning causes of death.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10164 Waltisperger, Dominique. Mortality in demographic changes and transitions. [La mortalite dans les changements et transitions demographiques.] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 125-86 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author compares the evolution of mortality during the course of the last 60 years among countries that are currently considered developing countries and those that are more advanced. Consideration is given to differences in the mortality transition's timing, intensity, duration, and geographic distribution as well as to its impact on age structures and causes of death. Changes in mortality by sex and in infant and child mortality are noted. The analysis relies exclusively on a comparison of published demographic indicators.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

53:10165 Cortinovis, I.; Boracchi, P.; De Scrilli, A.; Milani, S.; Bertulessi, C.; Zuliani, G.; Bevilacqua, G.; Corchia, C.; Davanzo, R.; Selvaggi, L.; Zuppa, A. A. Social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity: a study of their interrelation in six Italian centres. Genus, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1986. 13-35 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to describe the complex structure formed by those sociodemographic variables, whose association with the occurrence of prenatal and neonatal deaths and diseases has been most frequently stressed in literature: social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity. The study regards 41,537 women included in a multicentre survey of perinatal preventive medicine, which was carried out, between 1973 and 1979, in six Italian centres...."
It is found that "in all centres there are distinct groups of women characterized by a set of unfavourable factors closely interrelated: low social class implies lower prenatal care, higher occurrence of precocious or belated childbearing and higher number of pregnancies, often unintended."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10166 Geronimus, Arline T. Comment on "Toward a reformulation of the neonatal mortality rate" by Dudley L. Poston and Richard G. Rogers. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 326-8 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author considers some theoretical aspects of a recent article by Dudley L. Poston and Richard G. Rogers concerning the conceptual treatment of neonatal mortality. A reply by Poston and Rogers (pp. 327-8) is included.
For the study by Poston and Rogers, published in 1985, see 52:40167.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10167 Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Borlum Kristensen, F. Monitoring perinatal mortality and perinatal care with a national register: content and usage of the Danish Medical Birth Register. Community Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb 1986. 29-36 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The Danish Medical Birth Register is described, and the use of data from this source for the analysis of perinatal mortality and care is assessed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

53:10168 Bairagi, Radheshyam; Chowdhury, Mridul K.; Kim, Young J.; Curlin, George T. Alternative anthropometric indicators of mortality. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 42, No. 2, Aug 1985. 296-306 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"The ability of anthropometric indicators, weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight velocity, and height velocity to discriminate mortality during a one-year period is examined for three time frames beginning in different seasons. Data on approximately 1,000 children of one to four years of age come from the Matlab, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh."
The results indicate that "weight-for-age and height-for-age perform better than weight velocity and height velocity as discriminators of mortality during a one-year period. The ability of weight and height velocity to discriminate short-term mortality is examined by comparing the mean velocity of the last two bimonthly intervals of the dead children. Weight velocity is likely to be a good indicator of short-term mortality."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10169 Bhardwaj, Surinder M.; Paul, Bimal K. Medical pluralism and infant mortality in a rural area of Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 10, 1986. 1,003-10 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study examines factors affecting the choices concerning the type of medical help sought that were made by parents in rural Bangladesh prior to the death of one of their children. Data are from a field survey carried out in 1984. The various alternatives available in addition to Western medicine are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10170 Bley, Daniel; Baudot, Patrick. Some recent trends in infant mortality in the province of Marrakech, Morocco: a demographic transition in process. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 322-5 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Two surveys designed to appraise fecundity and mortality were carried out in Morocco in 1983 and 1984, on samples of 3,000 and 5,000 women, respectively, in the city and in the province of Marrakech. Infant mortality was studied using the biometric method of J. Bourgeois-Pichat. The first results presented in this article highlight the absence of excess exogenous mortality among women under thirty years of age living in a provincial urban environment and among women from the city of Marrakech whose husbands are employed in service activities. These results are discussed in relation to the socioeconomic backgrounds of the sample families."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10171 Breschi, Marco; Livi Bacci, Massimo. Season of birth and climate as determinants of infant mortality in the mainland part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. [Stagione di nascita e clima come determinanti della mortalita' infantile negli Stati Sardi di Terraferma.] Genus, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1986. 87-101 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors extend earlier work on the impact of climate and culture on child survival in nineteenth-century Italy. They find that "new data for the Kingdom of Sardinia during 1828-37 confirm the preeminence of cultural factors related to child care over pure climatic causes. In the French speaking Savoy, with a continental climate, differences between infant mortality of the winter and of the summer cohorts are very small. In Piedmont, with the same climate, infant mortality of the winter cohort was 35% higher than infant mortality of the summer cohort. In Liguria, with a mild climate because of maritime influence, the differences between winter and summer cohorts are reduced but still evident, Nice being closer to Liguria than to the other French speaking areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10172 Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Portuondo Dustet, Numidia; Alvarez Fernandez, Roberto; Lima Perez, Maria T.; Suarez Rosas, Luis. The importance of fertility control among women of childbearing age in the decrease of infant mortality in Havana province. 1979-1983. [Importancia del control de mujeres en edad fertil en la disminucion de la mortalidad infantil en la provincia de la Habana. Anos 1979-1983.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 120-4 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The program of fertility control developed for the approximately 133,000 women of fertile age living in the Cuban province of Havana between 1979 and 1984 is described. The focus is on the program's impact on infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10173 Dujardin, B.; Vandenbussche, P.; Buekens, P.; Wollast, E. Recent trends in infant mortality. The case of Belgium. [Evolution recente de la mortalite infantile. Le cas de la Belgique.] Archives Francaises de Pediatrie, Vol. 43, No. 4, Apr 1986. 275-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In this study concerning the whole of Belgium, the trends in infant mortality and of its two main components, neonatal mortality (NNM) and post-neonatal mortality (PNNM) from 1960 to 1981 were studied. NNM and PNNM followed similar trends until 1975 when PNNM became steady at a rate of 4-4.5 [per 1,000]. On the other hand, an acceleration was observed in the rate of decrease for NNM, from -52% before 1975 to -71% between 1975-1981."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10174 Forbes, Thomas R. Deadly parents: child homicide in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 2, Apr 1986. 175-99 pp. New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
An attempt is made to evaluate the extent of child homicide in England during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The focus is on the killing of children by their parents in a way to indicate death from natural causes. Data are from a variety of historical sources. It is noted that child homicide was primarily an urban phenomenon.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10175 Geronimus, Arline T. Teenage maternity and neonatal mortality: a new look at American patterns and their implications for developing countries. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 87-3, Feb 1987. 47 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author challenges the assumption that early fertility is inherently detrimental to child survival and proposes the alternative assumption that "teenage childbearing in a highly developed industrial country is a social response to already existing disadvantage, and that the excessive infant mortality with which it is associated is a physiological consequence of the same prior disadvantage rather than of early fertility per se." Social science, psychosocial, and biomedical considerations as well as racially stratified maternal-age-specific neonatal mortality patterns are considered. Studies concerning the United States are compared with similar information for the developing world. It is found that an association between early fertility and excessive infant and child mortality cannot be uniformly expressed. The author uses this example to make the point that more ethnographic groundwork should be included in population research.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10176 Gomez Redondo, Rosa. The decline in infant mortality in Madrid, 1900-1970. [El descenso de la mortalidad infantil en Madrid, 1900-1970.] Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas, No. 32, Oct-Dec 1985. 101-39 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The decline in infant mortality that occurred in Madrid, the capital of Spain, between 1900 and 1970 is analyzed. The impact of crises such as the influenza epidemic of 1918 and the Civil War of the 1930s is noted. Significant changes in the distribution of deaths among prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal mortality are noted over time.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10177 Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo; Garcia Campos, Tomas. Biodemographic factors and early neonatal mortality in Cuba. 1978-1982. [Factores biodemograficos y mortalidad neonatal precoz en Cuba. 1978-1982.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 125-38 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors examine the extent to which changes in the structure of births in Cuba from 1978 to 1982 have affected early neonatal mortality. Factors considered include maternal age, birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and birth order. The results indicate that with the exception of maternal age, the changes that have occurred have had a favorable impact on neonatal mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10178 Gubhaju, Bhakta B.; Choe, Minja Kim; Retherford, Robert D.; Thapa, Shyam. Infant mortality trends and differentials in Nepal. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 22-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Infant mortality trends and differentials are estimated from the 1981 Nepal Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NCPS) and compared with similar estimates from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey (NFS) and the 1981 Census of Nepal. The analysis indicates that infant mortality rates derived directly from the NFS maternity histories are the most accurate. Infant mortality rates derived directly from the NCPS maternity histories are severely underestimated and yield a strongly biased trend that is the reverse of the true downward trend. Indirect estimates of infant mortality trends derived from child survivorship data do not result in a consistent pattern. Infant mortality differentials, when expressed in relative rather than absolute terms, are generally consistent with findings from earlier studies. Possible reasons for data quality differences among the three data sources are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10179 Jayachandran, J.; Jarvis, George K. Socioeconomic development, medical care, and nutrition as determinants of infant mortality in less-developed countries. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 301-15 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
A causal model is developed in which medical care, nutrition, status of women, and socioeconomic development are examined as determinants of infant mortality. The model is applied to data for 60 developing countries taken primarily from published U.N. sources. "Social and economic development are treated as exogenous variables; medical care, nutrition, and status of women are viewed as variables endogenous to the model. The model is tested by maximum likelihood methods. Results indicate that good nutrition and the presence of informally trained health care personnel, i.e., midwives, are more significantly related to low rates of infant mortality than are the employment status of women and the presence of formally trained health care personnel such as physicians and nurses. The general level of social and economic development conditions these relationships."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10180 Karkal, Malini. Health of mother and child survival. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 358-74 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines aspects of maternal health and child survival in India. "The article is based mainly on the distribution of deaths by different causes as recorded in the hospital records of urban areas in Maharashtra State [India] in 1981. The analysis of the causes of death among infants and children indicates that even in urban areas of Maharashtra State, the health condition is not good, and that the provision of ante-natal care to pregnant women is lagging behind the expected optimum levels; for example, perinatal mortality is estimated to be 28 per 1,000 births (live and still births)...."
It is also found that "the distribution of the causes of death of adult females analysed by different age-groups indicates that a very high proportion of deaths among young women in the 15-19 and 20-24 age-groups are attributable to the cause 'burns'....These burns may be due to accident while using cooking gas or may be due to other social evils, such as ill-treatment of women owing to insufficient dowry, etc. This suggests that even in urban areas, or even in metropolitan cities, such as Bombay, the status of women is extremely low."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10181 Khan, M. E. Infant mortality in Uttar Pradesh: a micro level study. Studies in Population, Health and Family Planning Working Paper, No. 42, 1984. 30 pp. Operations Research Group: Baroda, India. In Eng.
The author identifies factors associated with infant mortality in India using data from a sample survey undertaken in Uttar Pradesh. Among the factors identified as affecting infant mortality are mother's age and education, birth order, birth interval, and type of birth attendant. Particular attention is given to various maternal health factors pertaining to water supply, food distribution within the family, and work schedules. Socioeconomic factors, such as poverty, and socio-cultural variables are also considered. The emphasis is on the need to undertake both micro- and macro-level studies concerning infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10182 Knox, Paul L. Regional socio-economic change in western Europe since 1930: the evidence of infant mortality rates. Espace Geographique, Vol. 14, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1985. 227-34 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Differences in social well-being since 1930 among the countries and regions of Europe, excluding Eastern Europe, are analyzed using infant mortality rates as the indicator of well-being. The author concludes that although absolute differences among regions have narrowed considerably, there has been no significant overall change in relative inequality among regions. Some of the most advantaged regions in 1930 have become the least advantaged in 1980. Data are from the official sources of the countries concerned.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:10183 Lalou, Richard. Infanticide before the French courts (1825-1910). [L'infanticide devant les tribunaux francais (1825-1910).] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 175-200 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author uses legal records to examine infanticide in nineteenth-century France. Attention is given to attitudes toward children in the 1800s, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those accused of infanticide, the decline of infanticide during the course of the century, and reasons for the indulgence shown by judicial bodies in sentencing those convicted of infanticide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10184 Lamur, Humphrey E. Urban survival strategies and infant mortality in Paramaribo, Suriname. Genus, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1986. 103-12 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author examines the relationship between infant mortality and urban social structure using data collected in a lower class urban neighborhood in Paramaribo, Suriname, between 1979 and 1982. "The main results of this investigation point to an increase in infant mortality during the past years among a sample of 100 families in the neighbourhood. The analysis also shows that the rise in infant mortality was mainly due to a shortening of the duration of breastfeeding of the babies. This change in feeding practices in its turn, resulted from a shift in the survival strategies of the mothers associated with conflicting interests concerning land use in the inner city of Paramaribo."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10185 Lewis, Maureen A. The socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality in Jordan: an econometric approach. Pub. Order No. DA8510427. 1985. 261 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of infant mortality in Jordan through the application of the economic theory of the household and appropriate econometric estimation techniques." Consideration is given to the effect of the sex of the child on the explanatory factors identified. The theoretical model used is developed from the work of Becker and Grossman modified to the situation in developing countries. The results show that the determinants of neonatal and postneonatal mortality differ sharply.
"Infant mortality is shown to be explainable by biological factors such as length of breastfeeding and birth interval, and to a lesser extent by mother's age and birth order. On the behavioral side, mother's education, the sex of the infant, the percent of sons among living children, the number of siblings under age four and additional children desired are all important. Some community characteristics are also significant."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(3).

53:10186 Mahadevan, K.; Reddy, P. R.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Reddy, P. J.; Gowri, V.; Raju, S. S. Culture, nutrition and mortality in south central India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 3, Mar 1986. 36-58 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors examine cultural and nutritional determinants of mortality using survey data for 235 Hindu, Harijan, and Muslim households in Andhra Pradesh, India. They seek "to study the nutritional status of rural women in the context of the food choices in the family and clinical observations, and to relate the incidence of infant and child mortality among selected families to the existing nutritional status of the mother." Information is provided separately by religion and caste for the distribution of age at death of infants; the distribution of infant and child deaths by duration of breast-feeding, by height and weight of the mothers, and by mother's hemoglobin level; the distribution of causes of infant and child deaths; and the distribution of respondents by type of birth attendant and delivery practices
It is found that "administration of pre-lacteal feeds, breast-feeding, initiation of supplementary foods, care and affection, together affected the incidence of infant mortality. Nutritional deficiency resulting from poor food choice and poverty together affected the health of the mother and consequently, led to infant mortality. Anaemia of the mother resulting from nutritional deficiency, poverty and absence of proper and timely medication, was also associated with infant mortality...."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10187 Nelson, Marie C. The year the children died: a study of the diphtheria epidemic in Ranea parish, Sweden, 1863-1865. In: Death: the public and private spheres, edited by John Rogers. Meddelande fran Familjehistoriska Projektet/Reports from the Family History Group, No. 6, ISBN 91-506-0600-X. 1986. 53-75 pp. Uppsala University, Department of History, Family History Group: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
An analysis of a diphtheria epidemic that resulted in the deaths of many young childen in Sweden in the period 1863-1865 is presented. Particular attention is given to the attitudes of the population concerned toward the epidemic in the northern county of Norrbotten.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10188 Paraguay. Ministerio de Salud Publica y Bienestar Social (Asuncion, Paraguay); Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA] (Ottawa, Canada); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Paraguay: infant mortality according to socioeconomic and geographic variables, 1955-1980. [Paraguay: la mortalidad infantil segun variables socioeconomicas y geograficas, 1955-1980.] CELADE Serie A, No. 172; LC/DEM/G.44, Nov 1986. 132 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Data from the 1972 and 1982 censuses of Paraguay and other sources are used to analyze levels and trends of infant mortality. The sources of data, methodology used, and quality of available data are first considered. Infant mortality is then examined for the whole country, for regions, and in areas of different levels of urbanization. Particular consideration is given to differences in levels of infant mortality according to socioeconomic factors such as parents' occupations, standard of living, and sociocultural factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10189 Parazzini, F.; Negrello, I.; La Vecchia, C. Stillbirths and mortality during the first year of life in various Italian regions: analysis of temporal trends, 1955-1979. [Natimortalita e mortalita nel primo anno di vita nelle diverse regioni italiane: analisi degli andamenti temporali dal 1955 al 1979.] Annali di Ostetricia, Ginecologia, Medicina Perinatale, Vol. 107, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1986. 119 pp. Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento: Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Official Italian data on fetal and infant mortality are used to present comparative data for the regions of Italy for the period 1959-1979. The data are presented separately by sex for stillbirths, perinatal mortality, and mortality on the 1st day, 2nd to 7th day, 8th to 28th day, 29th to 365th day, and 1st to 365th day of life. Consideration is given to differences by maternal age and education and by paternal occupation.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10190 Pebley, Anne R.; Stupp, Paul W. Reproductive patterns and child mortality in Guatemala. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 43-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper, we investigate the association of child mortality with maternal age, parity, birth spacing, and socioeconomic status, in a sample of Guatemalan children who were included in a public health intervention program. Our results indicate that maternal age, birth order, and the length of the previous and following birth intervals all have a significant impact on the risk of child mortality and that these associations cannot be accounted for by differences in breastfeeding, socioeconomic status, or the survival status of the previous child."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10191 Philip, Elsie. Why infant mortality is low in Kerala. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 52, No. 418, Sep-Oct 1985. 439-43 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The reasons for comparatively low infant mortality rates in the Indian state of Kerala are examined. The importance of improvements in education and in the health care delivery system is stressed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10192 Rao, G. Rama. An investigation into the relationship between infant mortality and fertility among countries under different socio-economic contexts. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 187-213 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines the relationships between infant mortality and fertility in 52 developed and 27 developing countries, controlling for the effects of selected socioeconomic and health variables. Data on fertility and infant mortality as well as four demographic, five health, four economic, and three social variables are analyzed in terms of the interrelationship among levels in 1960, 1970, and 1978 and the lagged relationships. Among the statistical techniques used are comparison of means, partial correlation analysis, path analysis, and multiple regression analysis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10193 Ruzicka, Lado T.; Kane, Penny. Nutrition and child survival in South Asia. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 333-57 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The authors have investigated the linkage between severe nutritional deficiency--protein-energy-malnutrition (PEM)--and the overall morbidity and mortality rates among children in five South Asian countries--Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and India." Existing research pertaining to this subject is reviewed. While no unequivocal evidence linking protein-energy malnutrition and child mortality is presented, the authors find a strong association between the two.
They conclude that "the trend of malnutrition, infection and poor environment seems to operate synergistically in determining the mortality and morbidity levels. Efforts are needed simultaneously in all the three areas before an optimal health impact can be achieved." The importance of maternal nutrition is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10194 Silva, Luis C.; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Farinas, Humberto; Herrera, Lorenzo. Evaluation of infant mortality according to socio-hygienic conditions at the municipal level. A multivariate analysis. [Evaluacion de la mortalidad infantil segun condiciones higienicosociales en el municipio. Un enfoque multivariado.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 11, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1985. 243-54 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
The authors analyze infant mortality in Cuba by municipality. The focus is on differentials in infant mortality and their causes, particularly the social and health conditions of the municipalities concerned. Multiple regression techniques and official data for 1981 are used to examine the relative impact on infant mortality of a variety of factors. A ranking of the 169 muncipalities with regard to infant mortality and the factors affecting it are presented in tabular form.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10195 Stockel, Sigrid. Infant mortality in Berlin from 1870 to the eve of World War I--a curve with a high maximum and sharp drops. [Sauglingssterblichkeit in Berlin von 1870 bis zum Vorabend des Ersten Weltkriegs--eine Kurve mit hohem Maximum und starkem Gefalle.] In: Berlin-Forschungen, I, edited by Wolfgang Ribbe. Einzelveroffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin, Vol. 54, ISBN 3-7678-0681-9. 1986. 219-64 pp. Colloquium: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Trends in infant mortality in Berlin between 1870 and the beginning of World War I are analyzed using data taken primarily from statistical yearbooks for the city. Factors contributing to the high mortality rates at the beginning of the period and the sharply reduced rates at the end are discussed. Attention is given to the water supply and sewer system, housing, socio-spatial differences among the city's districts, causes of death, infant nutrition and breast-feeding, social policy measures, and changes in attitudes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10196 Sulaiman, Ismaila L. Child mortality in Nigeria: levels and socioeconomic differentials. Pub. Order No. DA8505135. 1984. 286 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses multivariate regression techniques developed by James Trussell and Samuel Preston to estimate the effects of various factors on child mortality in Nigeria. Factors considered include education, ethnicity, religion, household composition, income, maternal employment, grandfathers' occupations, maternal place of birth and childhood residence, rural or urban residence, access to a health facility, and availability of community and household water systems
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(1).

53:10197 Sulaiman, Ismaila L. Mother's income and child mortality in southern Nigeria. African Demography Working Paper, No. 15, Feb 1987. 35 pp. University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using data from the National Surveys of Fertility, Family and Family Planning [conducted in Nigeria between 1971 and 1973], this paper attempts to test the hypothesis that mother's income has an effect on child mortality that is independent of husband's income. It compares the effect of mother's income on child mortality with that of the husband and seeks to clarify the channels through which mother's occupation affects child mortality. In this study, a subset of data from these fertility surveys comprising the records of women residing in the southern part...of Nigeria, who are currently married and below age 50 years and those of their husbands, is analyzed." Results from a survey of 4,679 couples are analyzed using estimation methods developed by James Trussell and Samuel Preston
"This paper demonstrates that mother's income is a significant determinant of child mortality in southern Nigeria with effects that are greater than those of the husband and independent of factors controlled in the analyses. Moreover, it finds that maternal income makes a greater contribution to child survival in complex than in nuclear family households. Husband's income, even though still significant, has a greater impact in nuclear family households....In terms of mother's occupation, it was found that mothers in occupations other than white collar have higher child mortality than those who are economically inactive, although the income they earn has a positive effect on child survival."
For the paper by Trussell and Preston, see Population Index, Vol. 47, No. 3, Fall 1981, p. 454.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

53:10198 Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea K. Extraordinary longevity in the Soviet Union: fact or artifact? Gerontologist, Vol. 26, No. 4, Aug 1986. 358-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors review previous research on age exaggeration and extraordinary longevity in the Soviet Union and present the results of their own examination of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970. According to the authors, "the reports of extraordinary longevity in the Soviet Union stem not from fact but from age exaggeration in the census data. Our study decisively demonstrates that the census age distributions at the oldest ages are severely distorted and thus the reported number of centenarians cannot be accepted as accurate."
Producing age-sex distributions of those over 60, the authors find that "a significant proportion of enumerated centenarians had not, in fact, passed the century mark. Further, the results of our analyses employing the Gompertz and Swedish mortality patterns strongly suggest that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10199 de Siqueira, Arnaldo A. F.; Tanaka, A. C. d'A. Adolescent mortality with special reference to maternal mortality, Brazil, 1980. [Mortalidade na adolescencia com especial referencia a mortalidade materna, Brasil, 1980.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug 1986. 274-9 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Adolescent mortality in Brazil for 1980 is analyzed using official statistics. Almost half the deaths were due to external causes. Diseases of the circulatory system (6.87 percent), infectious diseases (6.36 percent), and neoplasms (5.98 percent) were the next major causes of death. Among women aged 10 to 19, complications of pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium were responsible for 4 percent of deaths; for women aged 15-19, mortality from these causes was 6.14 percent, making it the sixth most important cause of death in this age group.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10200 Desjardins, Bertrand. Mortality at advanced ages among the founding immigrants of New France. [La mortalite aux ages avances des immigrants fondateurs de la Nouvelle-France.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1985. 71-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality among 1,368 elderly individuals who were among the earliest French settlers in Canada in the seventeenth century is examined. "These immigrants experienced highly specific living conditions, the consequences of which on their vulnerability in old age are difficult to determine. Findings indicate that their mortality in old age was perceptibly lower than in rural France at the same period, but equivalent to that of the first generations of Canadians. There is no excess male mortality after age 64, and it cannot be asserted that female mortality after age 60 is deeply influenced by maternity history. Finally, immigrants from northern France seem to have resisted better than those from southern France. Seasonal fluctuations in deaths reflect, as would be expected, the influence of the climate on life in Canada."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10201 Kaplan, George A.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Cohen, Richard D.; Knudsen, Lisa P.; Guralnik, Jack. Mortality among the elderly in the Alameda County Study: behavioral and demographic risk factors. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 3, Mar 1987. 307-12 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine "the association between behavioral and demographic risk factors and 17-year mortality in members of the Alameda County (California) Study who were 60-94 years of age at baseline. In this age group, increased risk of death is associated with being male, smoking, having little leisure-time physical activity, deviating from moderate weight relative to height, and not regularly eating breakfast. These increased risks were independent of age, race, socioeconomic position (SEP), other behavioral risk factors, and baseline physical health status. Further examination of the group aged 70 or more revealed the same patterns of heightened risk."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10202 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Trends in longevity after age 65. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 10-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent gains in longevity in the United States and state differentials in longevity are analyzed. The focus is on life expectancy by sex at age 65.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10203 Ortega, Antonio; Garcia, Victor. An experimental study on mortality and selected socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly population. Report of the study carried out in the cantons of Puriscal and Coronado, June 3-20, 1985. [Estudio experimental sobre la mortalidad y algunas caracteristicas socioeconomicas de las personas de la tercera edad. Informe de la investigacion efectuada en los cantones de Puriscal y Coronado, del 3 al 20 de junio de 1985.] CELADE Serie A, No. 1048; LC/DEM/CR/G.13, Aug 1986. 56 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica; Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Results of a survey on mortality among the elderly in Costa Rica are presented. The survey included 2,131 persons living in a rural or an urban canton in 1985. The data on age are compared with data from the 1984 census to establish accuracy. Factors considered include age, sex, cause of death, position in the household, marital status, economic activity, and source of income.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10204 Rabell, Cecilia; Necochea, Nery; Arretx, Carmen; Salinas, Rene; Ferrando, Delicia; Ponce, Fernando; Burmester, Ana M.; de Macedo, Iara S.; Nadalin, Sergio O. Seminar on adult mortality and orphanhood in the past: five Latin American cases. IUSSP Newsletter/Bulletin de Liaison, No. 28, Sep-Dec 1986. 19-44 pp. Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This report concerns a seminar on adult mortality and orphanhood in the past in Latin America that was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, December 12-14, 1984. The first part describes five historical studies presented at the seminar concerning Mexico, Chile, Peru, Brazil, and Argentina. "The second part of this article is an explanation of the calculation involved in a life table derived from information on the incidence of orphanhood according to the age of newly married couples on their marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

53:10205 Cuba. Comite Estatal de Estadisticas. Instituto de Investigaciones Estadisticas [INSIE] (Havana, Cuba). Cuba: life expectancy, 1983-1984. [Cuba: la esperanza de vida, 1983-1984.] Jun 1986. 40 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Life tables for Cuba are presented for 1983-1984 by single year of age and sex. Introductory material provides information on the methodology used to produce the life tables.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10206 Duchene, Josianne; Wunsch, Guillaume. From the demographer's cauldron: single-decrement life tables and the span of life. Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 132, ISBN 2-87085-092-1. Jul 1986. 19 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The single-decrement approach applied to life tables by cause of death can lead, in some cases, to implausible or impossible results. On the basis of biological evidence on the maximum span of life and on mortality due to senescence, this paper presents a new methodology for the study of the impact of a particular cause of death. The method we have developed is based on the assumption that death is due either to the cause under study or to senescence and endogenous infant mortality. The technique is applied to recent Swedish data on mortality from infectious diseases and from cancer. Results are compared to those obtained from the single-decrement life table."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10207 Ghosal, A. K. Life table for India 1978. DRU Publication, No. 61, Aug 1984. 12 pp. Indian Statistical Institute, Demography Research Unit: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Abridged life tables for India for 1978 are presented using data from the Sample Registration Survey (SRS). The life tables are presented separately by sex and by rural or urban area.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10208 Lahiri, Subrata. Life table construction from two enumerations subject to age-misreporting: a new technique not requiring age-smoothing. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 72-101 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author "describes a procedure for constructing an abridged life table from the data on age distribution obtained from two consecutive censuses without resorting to any smoothing of the age distribution....The technique has been [applied to data for] India for the periods 1951-61 and 1961-71, and leads to some interesting results...."
The analysis indicates that "the expectation of life for males was 40.2 years during the decade 1951-61 and increased to 50.7 years for the period 1961-71....Similarly, for females, the expectation of life in the decade of 1951-61 was 38.9, which increased to 48.0 during the decade of 1961-71. Further, the gap between the male and female expectation of life increased over the years...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10209 Piasecki, Edmund. An attempt to construct life tables on the basis of parish registers from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. [Proba sporzadzenia okresowych tablic trwania zycia na podstawie ksiag ruchu naturalnego w XVIII-XX w.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 16, 1985. 139-51 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
An attempt is made to draw up life tables for the population of the Polish parish of Bejsce, in Kielce voivodship, using data from parish records. Abbreviated life tables are presented by sex for 10-year periods from 1801 to 1960.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10210 Vaupel, James W.; Yashin, Anatoli I. Repeated resuscitation: how lifesaving alters life tables. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 123-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"How does saving lives affect the force of mortality and life table statistics? How can the progress being made in reducing the force of mortality be interpreted in terms of lifesaving? How many times can a person expect to have his or her life saved as a result of this progress? We develop a model to answer these questions and illustrate the results by using mortality rates for the United States in 1900 and 1980 and as projected for 2050."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

53:10211 Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki. Mortality of working and non-working populations in Japan: effects of social life factors. Journal of Human Ergology, Vol. 14, No. 2, Dec 1985. 89-98 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The effects of a wide variety of social life factors on the mortality of eight major working and non-working male populations aged 25-54 years in 46 Japanese prefectures were analysed by multiple regression analysis for the years 1970 and 1975." The results indicate that rural residence is the key factor associated with higher mortality among the male working population. However, the mortality of the non-working population, which is six to eight times higher than that of the working population, is independent of the social factors affecting the mortality of the working population
First author's address: Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Medical College of Oita, Hazama-machi, Oita 879-56, Japan.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10212 Jensen, Ronald E. Correlates of urban mortality: a social area analysis. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1984. 277-84 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
A method of social area analysis developed by Shevky and Bell is used to analyze mortality among the census tracts of Des Moines, Iowa. "Social rank, urbanization, and segregation indices as well as age-standardized death rates were calculated for each census tract. All variables were treated as continuous, and correlation and regression procedures were used to analyze the data. The findings were consistent with those of previous studies and all relationships were as expected. Regression analysis revealed that segregation contributed little to the explanation of variation in age-standardized death rates, suggesting that segregation is not an important determinant of life styles affecting mortality independent of social rank. The results were interpreted in terms of social class differences in accessibility to medical assistance and assumption of the sick role."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:10213 Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Rita, Heli. Mortality after bereavement: a prospective study of 95,647 widowed persons. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 3, Mar 1987. 283-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The mortality of 95,647 persons, widowed during 1972-76 and identified by linking the Finnish Population Register and cause-of-death files, was followed up to the end of 1976. A total of 7,635 deaths during 225,251 person-years of experience were observed. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios by time after bereavement were computed. The highest relative mortality risk was found immediately after bereavement. For all natural causes, mortality during the first week was over two-fold compared to expected rates." Attention is given to relative mortality risks for various causes and by age and sex of the bereaved person.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10214 Kristofersen, Lars B. Mortality by occupation: social differences in the 1970s. [Dodelighet blant yrkesaktive: sosiale ulikheter i 1970-arene.] Sosiale og Okonomiske Studier, No. 62, ISBN 82-537-3298-9. 1986. 54 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
This publication presents a summary of results from a study on mortality by occupation and socioeconomic group in Norway between 1970 and 1980. The focus is on the occupational and socioeconomic groups with particularly high or low levels of mortality. "In addition to data on total mortality differences, results are shown for the most important diseases, diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms. For violent deaths, the survey aims at showing what occupational groups are high risk groups, particularly for accidental deaths, and what occupations are low risk groups."
For the study referred to, by Jens-Kristian Borgan and Lars B. Kristofersen, also published in 1986, see 52:40214.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10215 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Hayes, Michael V.; McAuley, Ronald G. Analysis of local mortality variation. QSEP Research Report, No. 161, Mar 1986. 25 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper deals with the problems of measuring and explaining local mortality variation, based on a case study in the Hamilton [Canada] region. To measure local mortality, we depend on the Street Index to assign deaths to specific locations and then use the Lexis diagram to match properly the deaths with the at-risk population. To explain local mortality variation by socioeconomic variables, we advocate the use of the logit model and the maximum quasi-likelihood estimation method. We find that median family income can explain nearly half of the mortality variation among the census tracts in our study area."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10216 McMichael, A. J. Social class (as estimated by occupational prestige) and mortality in Australian males in the 1970s. Community Health Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1985. 220-30 pp. Adelaide, Australia. In Eng.
An analysis of differences in causes of death among males in Australia by social class during the 1970s is presented. "For all-causes mortality and for each of the nine major cause-of-death groupings, excepting endocrine disorders, age-standardised death rates were higher in the lower social classes. This inverse gradient was strongest for deaths from respiratory diseases, digestive diseases, mental disorders, and accidents."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10217 Minder, Christoph E.; Beer, Valerie; Rehmann, Rene. Mortality differences according to socioeconomic group in Switzerland 1980: 15 to 74-year-old males. [Sterblichkeitsunterschiede nach sozio-okonomischen Gruppen in der Schweiz 1980: 15- bis 74 jahrige Manner.] Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 31, No. 4-5, 1986. 216-9 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Standard mortality rates are presented for Swiss males aged 15 to 74 by social class using data from official sources for the period 1979-1982. Consideration is also given to mortality differences by economic sector and occupation. The authors also examine the methodological aspects of calculating such rates for comparative purposes.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10218 Neubauer, Gunter; Sonnenholzner-Roche, Anneliese. Differential regional mortality in Bavaria and its possible causes. [Kleinraumliche Unterschiede der Sterblichkeit in Bayern und deren mogliche Ursachen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1986. 389-403 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors analyze regional differentials in mortality in Bavaria, Federal Republic of Germany, using data for 96 rural districts and towns for the years 1973-1983. Differences in mortality attributable to motor vehicle accidents and to diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems are noted. A statistically significant correlation between mortality differentials and migration is found. "From these findings the hypothesis is derived that population migration leads to a risk selection. Good risks, persons of a higher educational level, migrate to economically more attractive areas, earning super-proportional incomes there and are preponderantly active in the service sector."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10219 Pagtolun-an, Imelda G. A methodology for segregating rural-urban mortality estimates. Genus, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1986. 125-40 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
" This study deals mainly in estimating rural/urban mortality differentials in countries where death registration by place of residence is nonexistent or inadequate. The methodology was applied to Philippine death registration data of 1975 and the result was compared to those estimates obtained by applying Brass, Sullivan and Trussell techniques on the 1978 World Fertility Survey data of children ever born and children still living. Basically, the methodology allocates death registration data to rural and urban areas by applying to each geographic unit several indices of urbanization. This is possible when death registration in developing nations is tabulated by geographic units, such as province, region, state, island, etc. The underlying assumption is that some geographic units are more urbanized than others. The process involves identification of these units and combining them into urban areas. This likewise implies that the remaining areas can be combined as rural."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10220 Pearce, Neil E.; Howard, J. Keir. Occupational mortality in New Zealand males 1974-78. Community Health Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1985. 212-9 pp. Adelaide, Australia. In Eng.
"Occupational mortality among New Zealand males aged 15-64 is examined for the period 1974-78. Age-standardised mortality rates are presented for each of 6 occupational orders and 79 occupational groups and the rates for major disease groupings are presented for those occupational groups with significantly elevated relative risks." Comparisons are made with similar studies undertaken in the United Kingdom.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10221 Poindexter, John R. An ecological model of mortality in nonmetropolitan counties of the United States. Pub. Order No. DA8606372. 1985. 220 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
A human ecological model is used to explore the relationship between the structure of the sustenance organization and mortality differentials. The impact of selected demographic characteristics, environmental conditions, and health technology levels on the relationship between sustenance activities and mortality is also examined. Data are from 2,312 nonmetropolitan U.S. counties.
The results show generally higher mortality rates for counties dependent on manufacturing, trade, or services than for those dependent on general agriculture, when other ecological factors are held constant. "Race, income, and migration significantly contributed to the indirect effects of the sustenance activities. Urbanization...influenced the link between sustenance organization and mortality...[and] health technology was a mediating factor in the effects of trade and manufacturing." Variation in these patterns across regions is observed.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Pennsylvania State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(4).

53:10222 Sidney, Stephen; Friedman, Gary D.; Siegelaub, Abraham B. Thinness and mortality. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 3, Mar 1987. 317-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relationship of thinness to mortality was examined in White adult members of [California's] Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program who had at least three multiphasic health checkups between 1964 and 1972, with mortality follow-up through 1980. A detailed comparison was performed of the mortality patterns of 'thin'...and 'average' weight...cohort members who were age 40-79 years and free of illness at the beginning of the follow-up."
The findings indicate an interaction between thinness and smoking resulting in an excess mortality of thin smokers compared with smokers of average weight. "Unmeasured differences between thin and average weight smokers with respect to quantity of cigarettes smoked may have contributed to the apparent association of thinness with mortality in smokers. Thinness was not associated with increased mortality in never smokers and ex-smokers....An association of long-term weight loss with mortality was present in thin and average weight men and in thin women."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10223 van Reek, J.; van Zutphen, W. M. Mortality by social class among adults in the Netherlands since the nineteenth century. [Sterfte naar sociale klasse bij volwassenen in Nederland sinds de negentiende eeuw.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1985. 179-90 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors investigate the relationship between male mortality and social class in the Netherlands since the late nineteenth century. Tabular data on death ratios are given for men aged 18-50 in 1891-1895, men aged 35-60 in 1896-1903, men aged 15-64 in 1947-1952 (Amsterdam only), and men aged 40-64 in 1959-1961.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10224 Young, C. M. Differential mortality of birthplace groups in Australia during 1980-82. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 3, No. 2, Nov 1986. 144-68 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"At the 1981 Census, just over one-fifth of Australia's population was born overseas, and this paper examines the mortality experience during 1980-82 of some of the larger birthplace groups with respect to age, duration of residence in Australia and cause of death. One of the main findings is the low mortality of those from Southern Europe, both with respect to total mortality and from many of the major causes of death. In contrast the Australian-born have relatively high mortality from heart disease, respiratory diseases, and from diseases of the genito-urinary system. Mortality differences are generally greatest at the middle adult ages, with convergence at the older ages."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

53:10225 Beguin, F. Maternal morbidity and mortality. [Morbidite et mortalite maternelle.] Therapeutische Umschau/Revue Therapeutique, Vol. 43, No. 5, May 1986. 338-41 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
A brief global analysis of trends in maternal mortality and morbidity is presented. The author notes that the introduction of modern contraception appears to be one of the most efficient ways of reducing maternal mortality. The concept of the reproductive mortality rate, which includes mortality from contraceptive use as well as pregnancy and abortion, is introduced.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10226 Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Helene; Barnet, Christine. Trends in medical causes of death in France (1962-1982). [Les evolutions des causes medicales de deces en France (1962-1982).] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1986. 185-210 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in medical causes of death in France are analyzed. Data concern the period 1962-1982 and are from official sources. The authors note that overall mortality continued to decline during this period. However, seasonal variations persist, and the population remains susceptible to unexpected increases in mortality from such causes associated with climatic occurrences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10227 Butler, William J.; Park, Robert M. Use of the logistic regression model for the analysis of proportionate mortality data. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 3, Mar 1987. 515-23 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A new statistical analysis strategy for proportionate mortality data is proposed. It is assumed that the occupational exposure, if it has an effect on mortality, increases the rate of death for some subset of causes by a multiplicative factor while not affecting the rates for the remaining causes of death. The unconditional logistic regression model is shown to provide a structure for the data analysis, with one of the predictors being the logit of the probability in the reference population that death was due to the affected causes. Using this model, one can estimate the effect of exposure while simultaneously controlling for a number of potential confounding and selection variables. Also, this model avoids the problems of comparing standardized proportionate mortality ratios, which are indirectly standardized measures. The model is demonstrated on a set of proportionate mortality data for factory workers from the northeastern United States."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:10228 Davis, Barry R.; Hardy, Robert J. A suicide epidemic model. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 291-300 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"An epidemic model of suicides clustered in time and space is presented. In this model suicides are depicted as an infection that can be spread from person to person. The model is based on the assumption that spread of suicide ideation via various means of communication increases as the number of suicides increases. A threshold condition for an epidemic to begin and the total size of an epidemic can be calculated." The model is applied to three sets of U.S. data for 1983-1985 involving suicide cluster data sets.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10229 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. Cancer mortality in Italy, 1980. Tumori, Vol. 72, No. 3, Jun 30, 1986. 231-40 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
Data are presented on cancer mortality in Italy for 1980. The data are from death certificates and are provided by cause, age, and sex.
For a previous study by Decarli and La Vecchia presenting data for 1979, see 52:30243.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10230 Gordon, Tavia; Doyle, Joseph T. Drinking and mortality: the Albany Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 2, Feb 1987. 263-70 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relation of alcohol consumption to mortality was examined in a cohort of 1,910 employed [U.S.] men aged 38-55 years, enrolled in the Albany Study, a prospective investigation of factors related to cardiovascular disease. Two follow-up periods were examined, one between 1953-1954 and 1971-1972 and the other after 1971-1972. In both periods, there was a positive relation between the rate of alcohol consumption and noncoronary heart disease death, not assignable to any specific cause. Coronary heart disease death was not associated with drinking during the initial follow-up but was negatively associated with drinking in the later follow-up."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:10231 Juel, Knud; Kamper-Jorgensen, Finn. Avoidable deaths in Denmark, 1970-1983. Variations with hospital district and period. [Undgaelige dodsfald i Danmark 1970-1983. Variation med sygehuskommune og periode.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 148, No. 31, Jul 28, 1986. 1,981-5 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
Differences in mortality by selected causes are analyzed for Denmark for the period 1970-1983. The authors are primarily concerned with whether geographic differences can be used to identify differences in the quality and quantity of health services available.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10232 Kim, Yoon Shin. Mortality from cerebrovascular disease and heart diseases of the Korean population in Japan, 1963-1982. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jul 1986. 153-64 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"Mortality data from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and all forms of heart diseases (HD) of the Korean population in Japan during the period from 1963 through 1982 were examined using the age-adjusted mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) based on age-specific mortality rates for the 1975 Japanese population. There has been a clear decline in age-standardized mortality rates from CVD over the whole period, whereas the rates from HD have steadily increased in recent years. Mortality rates from both diseases of Korean males in Japan were much greater than those for their female counterparts. During the period 1978-1982, the SMRs for CVD of Korean males and females in Japan fell below 100, whereas SMRs for HD in both sexes remained increasingly over 100."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10233 Kwast, Barbara E.; Rochat, Roger W.; Kidane-Mariam, Widad. Maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1986. 288-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Between July and September 1983, a two-stage probability survey was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to obtain data on pregnancy outcomes for all women aged 13-49 in 32,215 houses. The survey covered a two-year period, from 11 September 1981 to 10 September 1983. Of the 9,315 women who were pregnant during those two years, 45 died from complications of pregnancy, delivery, and the puerperium. The maternal mortality rate for 1982-83 was estimated to be 566 per 100,000 live births. Mortality was highest for nullipara, the unmarried, women employed as maids/janitresses, and students. The most common cause of death was abortion."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10234 Manton, Kenneth G.; Blazer, Dan G.; Woodbury, Max A. Suicide in middle age and later life: sex and race specific life table and cohort analyses. Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 42, No. 2, Mar 1987. 219-27 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Cross-temporal data on suicide for the period 1962 to 1981 from the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics were analyzed. These data were used to estimate period and cohort suicide rates for the four middle-aged and elderly groups (ages 45 to 64, 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85 and older) by sex and race. Statistical procedures included multiple decrement life table analyses and cause elimination life table analyses for each year 1968 to 1981. Results from an age, period, cohort analysis of cohort trends 1962 to 1981 also were presented. The analysis showed that suicide continues to be a serious problem in later life especially among the 'oldest-old' (those aged 85 and over) and among nonwhite males. It also showed important differences in cohort risks that may strongly affect future suicide risks among elderly adults."
First author's address: Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706.
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

53:10235 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Regional variation in mortality from motor vehicle accidents. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 26-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Regional and state differences in mortality from motor vehicle accidents in the United States are explored. The results are presented separately for men and women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10236 Ohlander, Ann-Sofie. Suicide in Sweden: a social history. In: Death: the public and private spheres, edited by John Rogers. Meddelande fran Familjehistoriska Projektet/Reports from the Family History Group, No. 6, ISBN 91-506-0600-X. 1986. 1-52 pp. Uppsala University, Department of History, Family History Group: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
Changing attitudes toward suicide in Sweden over time are analyzed. Consideration is given to variations in the rate of suicide over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10237 Pearce, N. E.; Howard, J. K. Occupation, social class and male cancer mortality in New Zealand, 1974-78. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1986. 456-62 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Occupational and social class differences in cancer mortality among New Zealand males aged 15-64 are examined for the period 1974-78. Age-standardized cancer mortality rates are presented for the Registrar General's social classes as well as for each of six occupational orders and 79 occupational groups. The rates for specific cancer sites are also presented for each social class and for those occupational groups with significantly elevated relative risks."
The findings of the social class analyses are generally consistent with those of recent British studies "with mortality from cancer of the liver, larynx, lung, buccal cavity and stomach being particularly high in the lower social classes and mortality from multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma and lymphatic leukaemia being particularly high in the upper social classes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10238 Pollard, J. H. Cause of death in Australia 1971-1981. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1986. 1-17 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines developments in the causes of death in Australia between 1971 and 1981 using official statistics. Particular attention is given to age and sex differentials in the major causes of death. Selected historical data to 1901 are included as well as projected mortality rates for 1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10239 Pringle, D. G. Disaggregating regional variations in mortality by cause of death: a case study of the Republic of Ireland. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 10, 1986. 919-28 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"An attempt is made in the present paper to assess the relative importance of each of the major causes of death to an understanding of regional disparities in total mortality [in Ireland], using a specially devised index known as a partial standardised mortality ratio. It is found that regional disparities created by each of the major causes of death tend to have a reinforcing effect, although cerebrovascular diseases tend to conform less closely to the patterns established by the other major causes (viz. cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms and respiratory diseases)....Regional disparities are stronger for males than for females, suggesting lines for further causal investigation."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10240 Robins, James M.; Blevins, Don. Analysis of proportionate mortality using logistic regression models. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 3, Mar 1987. 524-35 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"When only proportionate mortality data are available to an investigator studying the effect of an exposure on a particular cause of death, controls must be selected from among persons dying of other causes believed to be uninfluenced by the exposure under study. When qualitative or quantitative estimates of exposure history can be obtained for the deceased individuals, it is shown that one can use logistic regression models for the mortality odds to efficiently estimate the effect of exposure while controlling for relevant confounding factors by incorporating a priori information on baseline mortality rates available from U.S. life tables. The proposed method is used to reanalyze data from a cohort of arsenic-exposed workers in a Montana copper smelter."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:10241 Sachs, Benjamin P.; Brown, Dick A. J.; Driscoll, Shirley G.; Schulman, Erica; Acker, David; Ransil, Bernard J.; Jewett, John F. Maternal mortality in Massachusetts: trends and prevention. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 316, No. 11, Mar 12, 1987. 667-72 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Causes of death among the 886 maternal deaths occurring in Massachusetts from 1954 to 1985 are examined. "The maternal mortality rate declined from 50 per 100,000 live births in the early 1950s to the current rate of 10 per 100,000 live births. Between one third and one half of the maternal deaths were considered to have been preventable. The leading causes of maternal death from 1954 through 1957 were infection, cardiac disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and hemorrhage. In contrast, from 1982 through 1985 the leading causes of death were trauma (suicide, homicide, and motor vehicle accidents) and pulmonary embolus." Differences in maternal mortality by ethnic group are noted and attributed primarily to differences in antenatal care
First author's address: Beth Israel Hospital, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:10242 Shigematsu, T.; Hisanaga, F.; Nanjo, Z. Cohort analysis of mortality from three major adult diseases. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 9, May 1986. 31-47 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors present cohort mortality rates for Japan by five-year age interval for all causes of death and for malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, and heart disease. The calculations are based on vital statistics data for 1947-1982 and period and cohort life tables for 1891-1982 published by Zenjo Nanjo and Kazumasa Kobayashi. "Ratios of individual cause to all causes in each age were calculated and applied to [a] mortality matrix derived from Nanjo-Kobayashi's life tables. Age-specific period and cohort mortality rates for each cause were calculated from [the] cause-specific mortality matrix....Trends and age patterns of cohort mortalities and ratios of mortalities in successive cohort and age group were investigated."
For the article by Nanjo et al., published in 1985, see 51:30187.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10243 Sorlie, Paul D.; Gold, Ellen B. The effect of physician terminology preference on coronary heart disease mortality: an artifact uncovered by the 9th revision ICD. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 2, Feb 1987. 148-52 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine how changes between the 8th and 9th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), as adapted for use in the United States, resulted in an artifactual change in chronic ischemic heart disease death rates in Maryland between 1978 and 1979. The study is based on an analysis of the coding of 2,268 deaths due to heart disease occurring in Maryland.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10244 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1949: reclassification according to the fifth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1949: reclassement selon la 5e revision de la Classification internationale.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, Annexe II, 1987. 134 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the second in a planned series of seven reference documents to be prepared by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) in conjunction with a forthcoming publication concerning causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. In the present document, the authors compare the fourth and fifth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases, adopted in 1929 and 1938, respectively. Attention is given to changes in definition and content between the two versions. Developments in the causes of death as classified in the 1938 detailed list are presented in tables and charts for the years 1925-1949.
For Annexe I, published by the same authors in 1986, see 52:40238.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10245 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France; Nizard, Alfred. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1967: reclassification according to the seventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1967: reclassement selon la 7e revision de la Classification internationale.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, Annexe III, 1987. 252 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the third in a planned series of seven reference documents to be prepared by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) in conjunction with a forthcoming publication concerning causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. In the present document, the authors are concerned with the transition to the seventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which was adopted in 1955. Attention is also given to the correspondence of the three-digit code of the sixth revision to the four-digit code of the 1955 list. Deaths for the period 1925-1949 are reclassified according to the seventh revision, and trends for the years 1925-1967 are depicted in graph form.
For Annexe II by Vallin and Mesle, also published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10246 Vioque, Jesus; Bolumar, Francisco. Trends in mortality from lung cancer in Spain, 1951-80. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 74-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Lung cancer mortality rates in Spain were calculated for the years 1951 to 1980. Increasing age-standardised rates for men and levelled off ones for women were observed. Available cigarette consumption data suggest that these current trends could change at the beginning of the next century when there may be a levelling off of male rates and an 'epidemic' of female lung cancer." Data are from official Spanish sources
Author's address: Departamento de Salud Comunitaria, Facultad de Medicine, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10247 World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland). Maternal mortality: helping women off the road to death. WHO Chronicle, Vol. 40, No. 5, 1986. 175-83 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a report of the major conclusions of the Interregional Meeting on the Prevention of Maternal Mortality, convened in November 1985 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The magnitude of maternal mortality, particularly in developing countries, is considered. Among the causes of maternal mortality that are discussed are medical, health service, reproductive, and socioeconomic factors. Policy, program, training, and research initiatives are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10248 Yam, A.; Ghosh, A.; Ma, H. K. Maternal mortality yet to be minimized. Asia-Oceania Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 79-87 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Trends in maternal mortality in Hong Kong are analyzed. The data concern 118 maternal deaths occurring in a large hospital between 1945 and 1983. The rate of maternal mortality declined from 89 per 100,000 total births in 1945 to 10 in the most recent decade. Changes in the causes of maternal mortality over time are noted.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.