Volume 53 - Number 1 - Spring 1987

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

53:10066 Bina, Jan. Selected aspects of the geography of the population of the Czech Socialist Republic. [Vybrane aspekty geografie obyvatelstva a sidel CSR.] Studia Geographica, No. 77, LC 85-176823. 1984. 88 pp. Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Geograficky Ustav Brno: Brno, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This study examines the population geography of the Czech part of Czechoslovakia. The emphasis is on the current pattern of settlement and how it is affected by migration. The study concludes that the level of population development reached involves a low level of reproduction, with relatively little change in spatial distribution and a declining rate of internal migration. Other trends noted include the development of small towns and settlements near major urban areas, the development of more complex patterns of settlement, the growth of migration over short distances, and the development of regional labor markets.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10067 George, Pierre. Population geography in the center of human geography. [La geografia de la poblacion en el centro de la geografia humana.] Estudios Geograficos, Vol. 46, No. 178-179, Feb-May 1985. 61-9 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The relationship between space and population in human societies is reviewed. A distinction in spatial distribution is noted between societies where location is directly related to producing the means of life and those where it is only one factor affecting residence, activities, and utilities. The different patterns of migration in dispersed and concentrated societies are noted.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10068 Kelly, J. I.; Neville, R. J. W. A population cartogram of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geography, No. 79, Oct 1985. 7-11 pp. Christchurch, New Zealand. In Eng.
The authors use 1981 census data to create a cartogram showing the counties of New Zealand in proportion to their population.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

53:10069 Bairoch, Paul; Goertz, Gary. Factors of urbanisation in the nineteenth century developed countries: a descriptive and econometric analysis. Urban Studies, Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1986. 285-305 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the factors affecting urbanization in the developed countries of Europe, Oceania, and North America. First, the authors describe urbanization from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution to the early twentieth century. The second part contains a comparative economic analysis, which indicates that "economic growth pushed urbanisation, with industrialisation being the most important factor for Europe and agricultural productivity being quite important for the European settled countries. Other important factors are found to be, trade, total population, topography, and form of industrialisation."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:10070 Bala, Raj. Trends in urbanisation in India, 1901-1981. ISBN 81-7033-012-2. 1986. xxvi, 231 pp. Rawat Publication: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
An analysis of urbanization in India during the course of the twentieth century is presented. The evolution of urbanization over time is described using data from Indian censuses. Regional variations and their causes are considered for each decade. The relationship between the size and growth rate of towns is analyzed from a spatial perspective. The author also compares urbanization trends before and after independence in 1947. Some comparisons with other developing countries are also attempted.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:10071 Barta, Barnabas. Urbanization and its demographic attractions (some characteristics of population processes by settlement types). [A varosiasodas es demografiai vonzatai (a nepesedesi folyamatok nehany telepulestipusonkenti jellegzetessege).] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1986. 11-28 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author traces developments in the size and proportion of the urban population in Hungary since 1949. Attention is given to regional differences in nuptiality, fertility, mortality, and age distribution, with comparisons made between trends in Budapest and in the rural population. Factors contributing to these differentials are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10072 Bradshaw, York W. Overurbanization and underdevelopment in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national study. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1985. 74-101 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper discusses both the urban bias and world-system theories of overurbanization and presents a cross-national analysis of 32 African nations to test these perspectives. The analysis is divided into three parts. First, the effects of urban bias (i.e., the disparity in welfare between rural and urban areas) and economic dependence on overurbanization are examined. Next, the association between overurbanization and (1) the structure of the labor force and (2) economic growth is tested. Finally, the relationship between the structure of the labor force and economic growth is evaluated."
The results indicate that "the rural-urban disparity and foreign investment facilitate overurbanization, and that an increase in level of overurbanization has a deleterious impact on both the structure of the labor force and economic growth. Furthermore, there is strong evidence indicating that an increase in service-sector employment has a negative effect on economic growth."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:10073 Brueckner, Jan K. A switching regression analysis of urban population densities. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar 1986. 174-89 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
An application of the switching regression technique in the field of urban economics is presented. The technique is applied to the study of urban population density functions, which recent research has suggested are inherently discontinuous. The method of switching regression developed by Quandt is used to estimate density functions for selected U.S. urban areas. The results show that population density contours are highly irregular, and also that the model selection approach can be used to select the number of regimes in a switching model when this number is unknown.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:10074 Chen, Chi-Yi; Bidegain, Gabriel; Pellegrino, Adela; Lopez, Diego; de Suarez, Zoraida G.; Espana, Luis P.; Cacique, Irene. Demographic aspects of the urbanization process: past, present, and future. [Aspectos demograficos del proceso de urbanizacion: pasado, presente y futuro.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 25, Jul 1986. 109 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The process of urbanization in Venezuela is analyzed. The past history of urbanization in the country is first reviewed, and the extent of urbanization by 1981 is assessed. Current urbanization trends are then analyzed, with emphasis on the components of growth such as migration. Next, the authors describe the methodology and hypotheses they use to project future urbanization trends. Finally, they project the populations of cities of over 20,000 inhabitants up to the year 2011.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10075 Clark, W. A. V. Residential segregation in American cities: a review and interpretation. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1986. 95-127 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the extent and causes of racial residential segregation in the United States. The author examines "the present pattern and recent temporal changes in racial residential segregation, and then [focuses] on the state of our present knowledge about the causes of racial concentration in cities. The paper will draw on the published literature, research analyses presented as part of court proceedings, and survey evidence gathered nationally and for specific cities."
The results suggest that 30 to 70 percent of racial segregation is attributable to economic factors. However, such economic factors do not act alone but in association with other factors. "Survey evidence from both national and local studies shows that black households prefer neighborhoods that are half black and half white, while whites prefer neighborhoods ranging from 0 to 30 percent black." Considerable attention is also given to the role of discrimination.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10076 Dasgupta, Biplab. Urbanisation and rural change in West Bengal. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 7 and 8, Feb 14 and 21, 1987. 276-87; 337-44 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The distinctive characteristics of urbanization in the Indian state of West Bengal are outlined and compared with those of other Indian states. The author suggests that the region's urbanization patterns, involving the predominance of the primary city, are due to differing land tenure systems, colonial economic policies, and economic development trends since independence. "Section I of the paper deals with definitional and conceptual problems relating to various types of urban areas, and presents a historical account of the evolution of the present pattern of urbanisation. In Section II the present pattern of urbanisation is analysed and some case studies are introduced. Section III deals with the impact of urbanisation on rural areas, and in Section IV the impact of urbanisation on urban areas has been considered. Section V puts forward a particular strategy for urbanisation which emphasises decentralised urban growth with a rural focus."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:10077 de Barcellos, Tanya M. Urban segregation and mortality in Porto Alegre. [Segregacao urbana e mortalidade em Porto Alegre.] 1986. 206 pp. Fundacao de Economia e Estatistica: Porto Alegre, Brazil. In Por.
The first part of this study is concerned with the allocation of land use in a city in a contemporary developing country, using the example of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The bulk of the paper deals with mortality associated with the allocation of land use in the urban environment, particularly with mortality in the barrios, or squatter settlements, of Porto Alegre
This study can be obtained from the Fundacao de Economia e Estatistica, Rua Gen. Vitorino, 77, 2 andar, CEP 90.020, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:10078 Dewar, David; Todes, Alison; Watson, Vanessa. Urbanization processes and policies in Africa: lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Oct-Apr 1983-1984. 79-107 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
The urbanization experiences of Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe are examined, with emphasis on the effectiveness of policies designed to influence urbanization. The first part of the study describes the measures adopted; the second part attempts to evaluate their effectiveness as well as their impact on poverty and inequality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10079 Graaff, J. F. de V. The present state of urbanisation in the South African homelands and some future scenarios. Department of Sociology Occasional Paper, No. 11, ISBN 0-908422-81-4. Sep 1986. [viii], 36, [158] pp. University of Stellenbosch, Department of Sociology, Research Unit for Sociology of Development: Stellenbosch, South Africa. In Eng.
The author attempts to estimate the present location and size of concentrations of population in the homelands of South Africa that could be called urban, to calculate their rate of growth over the past 15 years, to examine the factors affecting their growth, to estimate their future rate of growth up to the year 2000, and to evaluate the impact of lifting migration controls. The report is in two main parts. Part I describes the methodology used and provides a summary of the main results. Part II consists of nine sections dealing with the individual homelands, in which the size and growth rates of towns and peri-urban and semi-urban areas are discussed. Projections are made to the year 2000, and the implications of the abolition of Influx Control are assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10080 Henderson, J. Vernon. Urbanization in a developing country: city size and population composition. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Aug 1986. 269-93 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Reasons for the high correlation between city size and educational attainment in developing countries are explored. "Two explanations are examined. First, the types of goods produced in larger cities require relatively high skill labor inputs. Second, public and perhaps private services demanded by higher skill people are only offered in larger cities. The paper econometrically tests these hypotheses for Brazil, estimating the elasticities of substitution (or typically complementarity) between high and low skill labor and the 'bright lights' effect for high versus low skill labor."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:10081 Hohenberg, Paul M.; Lees, Lynn H. The making of urban Europe, 1000-1950. ISBN 0-674-54360-2. LC 84-25333. 1985. xiv, 398 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
Urbanization in Europe from the year 1000 to 1950 is reviewed. The work is primarily a study in economic and social history, but considerable emphasis is given to the demographic and geographic aspects of Europe's urban development over time. The approach is chronological, with parts devoted to the preindustrial age, the proto-industrial age from the fourteenth to eighteenth centuries, and the industrial age.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:10082 Kiradzhiev, Svetlin. Demo-geographic development and characteristics of average-sized towns in Bulgaria. [Demogeografsko razvitie i osobenosti na srednite gradove v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1986. 53-63 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The characteristics of medium-sized towns (those with between 25,000 and 100,000 people) in Bulgaria are analyzed. Thirty such towns are identified. The importance of these towns in the country's economy is noted. The chief factors encouraging their continued growth are their industrial development and their role as administrative centers. The need for sustained in-migration in order to maintain growth is also noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10083 Lamlenn, Bongsuiru. Urban population trends: policies and the problem of measurement in developing African countries--the case of Cameroon. Revue Science et Technique: Serie Sciences Humaines/Science and Technology Review: Social Sciences Series, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1985. 83-92 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author examines difficulties in analyzing demographic trends in urban populations due to problems of data reliability, the absence of any consensus concerning concepts and terminology, and questions of methodology. Statistics for Cameroon are used to illustrate the points.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10084 Ledent, Jacques. The urbanization process: Williams's paradigm of population redistribution revisited. Urban Geography, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1985. 69-87 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by Lynden S. Williams, in which Williams attempted to develop a paradigm of population redistribution that pertains to the process of urbanization. He presents a clarification of the original paradigm and proposes an extension to it, which is illustrated using data from India. A reply by Williams (pp. 83-7) is included.
For the study by Williams, published in 1983, see 50:20070.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:10085 Negrete Salas, Maria E.; Salazar Sanchez, Hector. Metropolitan areas in Mexico, 1980. [Zonas metropolitanas en Mexico, 1980.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1986. 97-124, 156 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Urban trends in Mexico from 1960 to 1980 are analyzed using multivariate analysis techniques. The authors note that the total number of metropolitan regions has increased from 12 to 26 during this period. Differences between the stage in urbanization reached by the Mexico City region and other urban centers in the country are noted. In Mexico City, the authors observe a decline in the population of the central city region coupled with rapid growth in the surrounding municipalities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10086 Nietyksza, Maria. Demographic aspects of urbanization in the Kingdom of Poland (1870-1914). [Demograficzne aspekty urbanizacji Krolestwo Polskie (1870-1914).] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski, Vol. 16, 1985. 51-73 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Urbanization trends in the Kingdom of Poland between 1870 and 1914 are reviewed. Problems concerning the official data on urbanization compiled by the Russian authorities are discussed. The author concludes that 37 percent of the population lived in urban areas by the year 1913.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10087 Paul, Bimal K. Urban concentration in Asian countries: a temporal study. Area, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1986. 299-306 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using a typology of change derived from the results of a bivariate linear regression model, this paper examines the relative change in urban concentration of 28 selected Asian countries for two time periods (1960 and 1980)."
Author's address: Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10088 Rodriguez-Bachiller, Agustin. Discontiguous urban growth and the new urban economics: a review. Urban Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1986. 79-104 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
The author presents a review of the literature concerning the study of discontiguous urban growth using the formalized economic approach to urban location theory. The emphasis is on the U.S. literature.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:10089 Rowland, Richard H. Changes in the metropolitan and large city populations of the USSR: 1979-85. Soviet Geography, Vol. 27, No. 9, Nov 1986. 638-58 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the post-census growth of metropolitan areas and large cities in the USSR from 1979 to 1985. The Soviet population continues to be increasingly concentrated in large metropolitan areas and large cities, and although suburbanization occurs within metropolitan areas, a striking feature is that all central cities continue to grow and typically contain the vast majority of the metropolitan population. This reflects the fact that individual large cities continue to loom large, despite policies to limit their growth. Although the growth rates of large cities have slowed, so have those of smaller towns, and a merging of growth rates by size class is occurring."
Author's address: California State University, San Bernardino, CA.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10090 Tierney, Joseph P. A comparative examination of the residential segregation of persons 65 to 74 and persons 75 and above in 18 United States metropolitan areas for 1970 and 1980. Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan 1987. 101-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Indexes of dissimilarity were calculated for 18 [U.S.] standard metropolitan statistical areas in 1970 and 1980. The indexes measured the level of residential segregation of persons 65 and older, 65 to 74 and 75 and older. Results indicated a significantly higher level of segregation for persons 75 and older than persons 65 to 74 in both 1970 and 1980. The difference in the level of residential segregation between persons 65 to 74 and 75 and older significantly increased from 1970 to 1980. When measured as a single age group aged 65 and above, there was no significant change in the level of residential segregation from 1970 to 1980."
The analysis "indicates that failure to disaggregate the elderly population into two distinct age groups would have resulted in missing changes in the level and trend of residential segregation among the elderly population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

53:10091 Yanitsky, Oleg. Urbanization in the USSR: theory, tendencies and policy. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1986. 265-87 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger; Spa.
Recent trends in urbanization and urban policies in the USSR are analyzed. The author also describes how Soviet urban research has adapted to these trends. An extensive bibliography of Russian language studies is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

53:10092 Yip, Yat Hoong; Low, Kwai Sim. Urbanization and ecodevelopment, with special reference to Kuala Lumpur. LC 85-942807. 1984. xiii, 357 pp. University of Malaya, Institute of Advanced Studies: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar on the ecological aspects of urbanization held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 21-23, 1983. The authors use a variety of approaches from different disciplines to examine various aspects of urbanization in Kuala Lumpur and their impact on the environment. The primary objective of the seminar was to draw up an agenda for research into such problems.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

53:10093 Ridler, Neil B. Some economic implications of population dispersion in Canada. Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1982. 26-32 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author examines some economic implications arising from the dispersion of population into rural areas of Canada, New Brunswick in particular. He "argues that social costs are considerable, and advocates increased emphasis on user-pay pricing. The intention is not to prohibit rural non-farm residence, but merely to charge rural dwellers a portion of the social costs they impose." New Brunswick and countrywide figures for urban and rural populations for 1971 and 1976 illustrate the dispersion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10094 Wiatrak, Andrzej P. Trends in the number and structure of population and employment on peasant farms. [Uwarunkowania zmian liczebnosci i struktury osob oraz zatrudnienia w gospodarstwach chlopskich.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/84, 1986. 29-57 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The dynamics of the peasant population of Poland are analyzed. Consideration is given to the characteristics of the farm population, employment patterns, age structure, and educational status. The results indicate that the size and type of farm significantly affect the number and structure of the peasant families concerned. They also suggest that the rate of employment on farms is too high and that the farm work force is of low educational status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.