Volume 52 - Number 4 - Winter 1986

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical to the modern, defined as being World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

52:40630 Bittles, A. H.; McHugh, J. J.; Makov, E. The Irish famine and its sequel: population structure changes in the Ards Peninsula, Co. Down, 1841-1911. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 13, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1986. 473-87 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Using censal data, the population structure of the Ards Peninsula, Co. Down [Northern Ireland] was investigated from 1841 to 1911. During the study period there were highly significant declines at townland level in the mean total population, population density, number and proportion of inhabited houses, household size and deviations in the male/female ratio. The potential genetic effects of the changes, mediated via reduced effective population sizes, were exacerbated by marked differences in the patterns of population structure variation by religion."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40631 Boyle, Phelim P.; O Grada, Cormac. Fertility trends, excess mortality, and the Great Irish Famine. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 4, Nov 1986. 543-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper estimates mortality and fertility rates prevailing in Ireland during the 25-year period before the Great Irish Famine of 1845-1849. A technique is developed to estimate the age-specific mortality level during the Famine and the number of Famine-related deaths. The paper concludes that fertility rates were declining during the period 1821-1845 and that the effects of the Famine were especially severe on the very young and the very old. Ignoring deaths among emigrants, it is estimated that one million individuals perished as a result of the Famine. The analysis permits year-by-year reconstruction of the Irish population age structure for the period 1821-1851."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40632 Distaso, Salvatore; Majakos, Romolo. Archives of the Levantine islands subject to the Republic of Venice: some population characteristics in the second half of the eighteenth century. [Le anagrafi delle isole del Levante soggette alla Repubblica di Venezia: alcune caratteristiche della popolazione nella seconda meta del '700.] Studi di Demografia, No. 21, 1983. 65-88 pp. Bari, Italy. In Ita.
Data from the Venetian registries of 1766 regarding 21,498 individuals living on the Greek islands of Corfu, Paxos, Zante, Cephalonia, Leukas, and Cerigo and the mainland locations of Parga, Preveza, and Voiza are analyzed in regard to sex, age group, social status, occupation, religiosity, family size, territorial distribution, and urban-rural distribution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40633 Fourastie, Jean. Note on the demographic history of Douelle (Lot), 1676-1914. [Note sur l'histoire demographique de Douelle (Lot) 1676-1914.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 483-96 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author summarizes the demographic component of a recently published historical study of the French village of Douelle, in the Lot valley. The data were accumulated using both family reconstitution and genealogies. The results indicate that a significant percentage of children who were baptized do not appear on the civil register of births, indicating that a number of early deaths of children were not recorded. "This finding raises the question whether regional and national infant mortality rates should not be re-evaluated for the period between 1760 and 1840."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40634 Imhof, Arthur E. Regulation, manipulation, and explosion of population density--from the perspective of a social historian. [Regulation, Manipulation und Explosion der Bevolkerungsdichte--aus der Sicht eines Sozialhistorikers.] In: Regulation, Manipulation und Explosion der Bevolkerungsdichte: Vortrage gehalten auf der Tagung der Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften Hamburg am 15. und 16. November 1985, edited by O. Kraus. 1986. 108-46 pp. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht: Gottingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
In the first part of this paper, the author reviews historical demographic research findings on the regulation of population reproduction. The data, which extend from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries, are derived from family reconstitution studies in Germany and other European countries. Topics discussed include the adaptation of fertility to socioeconomic conditions; motives for fertility regulation; the rise in infant and maternal mortality rates as well as stillbirth rates in nineteenth-century Germany and their subsequent decline; and the role of value systems in contributing to differences in infant and child mortality.
The second part of the paper deals with some of the long-term consequences of historical demographic trends. The emphasis is on the implications of increased life expectancy. The situation in modern-day developing countries is also briefly discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40635 John, A. Meredith. The slave population of nineteenth century Trinidad: a demographic analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8417422. 1984. 258 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation presents a demographic analysis of the slave population of Trinidad in the period 1807-1815. The data come from the Trinidad Slave Registration of 1813, and the registration update 1.75 years later. This data is supplemented by plantation level information: crop, owner's nationality, and location. The analytic methods employed include model life tables, stable population theory, indirect estimation of fertility, and logistic regression analysis."
The author finds that "the estimated expectation of life at birth was 16 years for male slaves and 19 years for female slaves. Estimated crude birth and death rates are higher than previously estimated....The estimated total fertility rate for all women appears extremely low (4.2); however, the estimate may be biased by the inclusion of women brought into Trinidad in 1813 with few or no children....The estimated mean birth interval is 32 months, corresponding to a mean duration of breastfeeding of 21 months."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 45(5).

52:40636 Laperche-Fournel, Marie-Jose. The population of the duchy of Lorraine from 1580 to 1720. [La population du duche de Lorraine de 1580 a 1720.] Centre de Recherches en Histoire Sociale et Religieuse, No. 1, ISBN 2-86480-160-4. 1985. 236 pp. Presses Universitaires de Nancy: Nancy, France. In Fre.
The author examines demographic developments in Lorraine, located in present-day France, during the seventeenth century, giving particular attention to the impact of the Thirty Years' War. Following a description and evaluation of the sources and methods used, which included tax and hearth rolls, demographic trends from 1585 to 1618 are discussed. The spatial distribution of the population and sizes of communities are analyzed. Consideration is then given to the demographic impact of the crises characterizing the middle of the seventeenth century, including war, disease, and famine. The study concludes by reviewing the signs of a demographic revival in the region that were evident in the early eighteenth century.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40637 Marr, William L. Nuptiality, total fertility and marital fertility in Upper Canada, 1851: a study of land availability, urbanization and birthplace. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 1-17 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper relates fertility ratios and nuptiality of the counties in Upper Canada in 1851-1852 to the amount of land available for farming and birthplace, respectively. These factors have been suggested as important causal influences in a rural society, which Upper Canada was in the mid-nineteenth century. As well, the explanatory powers of urbanization and schooling are investigated. Land availability and birthplace turn out to be able to explain a significant amount of the variation in fertility ratios and, to a lesser extent, nuptiality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40638 Matthiessen, Poul C. The demographic transition. [Den demografiske transition.] In: Delhed og helhed: teoretiske og metodiske studier over komplicerede psykobiologiske faenomener. Festskrift til Iven Reventlow 2.6.1986, edited by Ib D. Petersen and Arne F. Petersen. 1986. 101-15 pp. Forlaget Politiske Studier: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
An analysis of the demographic transition in Denmark is presented. The author considers regional differences in the timing of the transition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40639 Nazareth, J. Manuel; de Sousa, Fernando; Rocha Pinto, M. L. Portuguese demography at the end of the ancien regime--socio-demographic aspects of Coruche. [A demografia portuguesa em finais do Antigo Regime--aspectos sociodemograficos de Coruche.] Cadernos da Revista de Historia Economica e Social, No. 4, 1983. 121 pp. Livraria Sa da Costa Editora: Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
The authors first discuss the general demographic characteristics of the ancien regime and then analyze the demography of the town of Coruche, Portugal, in 1789. Information is included on the quality of the data and on age and sex structure, marital status, mortality, natality, fertility, nuptiality, family size, and employment. An appendix contains a reproduction of the original document from which the data are taken.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40640 Vidal Bendito, T.; Gomila Huguet, J. An introduction to the demographic history of Minorca. [Aproximacion a la demografia historica menorquina.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jul 1986. 23-53 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Data from parish records and other sources in the Spanish Balearic island of Minorca are used to describe the island's demographic history in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past in order to obtain further demographic information. Relevant items are coded here and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models if of more general interest than to historical demography alone.

52:40641 Artzrouni, Marc. A new family of growth curves: application to the demographic transition. [Une nouvelle famille de courbes de croissance: application a la transition demographique.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 497-509 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The demographic transition is characterized by birth and death rates that decrease from one asymptotic value to the other. These rates can be approximated by 'antilogistic' functions, i.e. 'a constant minus a logistic'. The family of growth curves P(t) implied by such hypotheses contains all ordinary exponential curves, as well as growth curves that are asymptotically exponential (decreasing or increasing) after a period of rapid growth. Generalized and ordinary logistics, that converge to an upper limit, are special cases of these functions. Several theoretical examples are discussed."
An example in which crude birth and death rates for Sweden are fitted for the period 1750 to 1980 is also presented. "The resulting fit for the crude rates was good and the fit between the theoretical population P(t) and the total population that would have been observed in the absence of migrations was virtually perfect. This is due to the fact that the total population P(t) is a cumulated function of past birth and death rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40642 Nault, Francois; Boleda, Mario; Legare, Jacques. Estimated adult mortality based on the numbers of orphans: empirical evidence tested on Canadian data from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. [Estimation de la mortalite des adultes a partir des proportions d'orphelins: quelques verifications empiriques a l'aide de donnees canadiennes des XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1986. 749-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
A method of estimating adult mortality from information concerning the proportion of orphans is tested using data collected during the historical demography research program at Montreal University for the population of Canada from 1608 to 1765. "Based on a sample population of 899 men and 675 women, the percentage of orphans at different ages was calculated. Then, mortality rates estimated from these percentages, calculated by the methods of Louis Henry and Brass-Hill, were compared with actual mortality rates. Both methods worked well, but it could not be ascertained whether their sophistication...really increased the accuracy of the results. In fact, the accuracy of these methods seems to depend on what system of model life tables was used."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40643 Steckel, Richard H. A peculiar population: the nutrition, health, and mortality of American slaves from childhood to maturity. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sep 1986. 721-41 pp. Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
The author examines the nutrition, health, and mortality of the American slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century using data from ships' manifests. "Height and mortality data...indicate that the greatest systematic variation in health and nutrition occurred by age. Nourishment was exceedingly poor for slave children, but workers were remarkably well fed. The unusual growth-by-age profile for slaves has implications for views on the postwar economic fortunes of blacks, the interpretation of findings of other height studies, and conceptions of slaveowner decision making, the slave family, and the slave personality."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.