Volume 52 - Number 4 - Winter 1986

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

52:40447 Aghajanian, Akbar. Some notes on divorce in Iran. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 4, Nov 1986. 749-55 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Recent trends in divorce and the divorce rate in Iran from 1966 to 1983 are examined. The data are interpreted in terms of the legal and social changes that have occurred during the period. Using cross-sectional comparisons, the author examines the effects of various sociodemographic variables on divorce and discusses consequences of divorce in the Iranian sociocultural system."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40448 Bauer, John G. Age at marriage and earnings in Peninsular Malaysia. Pub. Order No. DA8502762. 1984. 129 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A life-cycle utility maximization model of male nuptiality behavior in Malaysia is proposed. The model presents two innovations, an earnings constraint on marriage and the incorporation of social norms." The effects of these factors and of an Easterlin income variable, the ratio of income to desired living expenses, on age at marriage are examined.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 45(12), Pt. 1.

52:40449 Beaujot, Roderic. The liberation of women and the marriage market in Tunisia. [Liberation de la femme et marche matrimonial en Tunisie.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1986. 853-9 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in nuptiality patterns in Tunisia since independence in 1956 are described. In particular, the author examines the relationship between the increasing age of women at marriage and changes in the status of women. The implications of a growing proportion of women in their twenties who are unmarried are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40450 Bitter, Robert G. Late marriage and marital instability: the effects of heterogeneity and inflexibility. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 3, Aug 1986. 631-40 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using interview data from a national sample of married persons [in the United States], this study investigates the effects of late marriage on marital instability. An index measuring a wide range of activities related to divorce and separation is used to indicate the degree of instability. Persons married later in life were found to be more heterogeneous in their choice of mate. When this heterogeneity is controlled, the relationship between age at first marriage and instability is negative and linear. No support was found for the hypothesis that late marriage may be associated with marital instability because such spouses are 'too set in their ways.'".
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40451 Bloom, David E.; Reddy, P. H. Age patterns of women at marriage, cohabitation, and first birth in India. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 4, Nov 1986. 509-23 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the character, diversity, and changing nature of Indian marriage customs and researches the age patterns of Indian women at marriage, cohabitation, and first birth. Survey data collected in the 1975 Bangalore Population Project are analyzed."
It is found that "(1) the incidence of childhood marriages and two-stage marriage has declined, causing the small but noticeable rise in age at marriage to exceed the rise in age at cohabitation, (2) age patterns of marriage in India do not closely resemble Western marriage patterns, although age patterns of cohabitation and first birth do, and (3) socioeconomic variables appear to explain less variation in marriage and fertility timing within local communities than across communities."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 450).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40452 Callan, Victor J. Single women, voluntary childlessness and perceptions about life and marriage. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct 1986. 479-87 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Data concerning 42 women wanting to be childless, 18 desiring a one-child family, and 42 wanting two children are analyzed with regard to the quality of their present lives and attitudes toward future marriages. The data concern Australian social science students.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40453 Coleman, D. A.; Haskey, J. C. Marital distance and its geographical orientation in England and Wales, 1979. Institute of British Geographers: Transactions, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1986. 337-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A representative sample of just over one thousand marriages solemnized in England and Wales in 1979 is used to analyse the distribution of the distances between the partners' addresses at marriage...according to various social and demographic variables also derived from the same source. Comparison with other surveys suggests that marriages in which both partners give the same address are likely to be those of couples who cohabit before marriage. Partners who work in unskilled manual occupations, or who marry with a civil ceremony, or who have been married before, appear more likely than the average to cohabit. Of the marriages where different addresses are given, about one-half bring together partners living within 5 km of each other."
It is found that "there is a strong relationship between high social class and increased marital distance, and also between greater marital distance and older ages up to about age 40. Longer-range marriages show clear evidence of geographical orientation, the effect being more pronounced at longer distances. This is attributed to variations in population density over the country and geographical constraints on settlement patterns."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40454 Csernak, Jozsefne. Nuptiality trends among single persons in Hungary. [Vyvoj snatecnosti svobodnych v Madarsku.] Demografie, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1986. 118-27 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author summarizes some results of a demographic survey undertaken by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office concerning trends in nuptiality. The period covered is that since World War II. The author concludes that the changes in marriage patterns observed are primarily the result of changes in the age distribution of the population. The ratio of persons remaining single has remained relatively unchanged over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40455 Davis, Kingsley; Grossbard-Shechtman, Amyra. Contemporary marriage: comparative perspectives on a changing institution. ISBN 0-87154-221-8. LC 85-62452. 1985. xiii, 432 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of essays by various authors on aspects of contemporary marriage. The geographic focus is on the developed countries as a whole and on the United States in particular. The book begins with a general review of the meaning and significance of marriage in contemporary society. Part 1 contains four papers on the revolution in marital behavior and includes an article concerning the future of marriage, an analysis of differences between blacks and whites in the decline of U.S. marriages, and studies on consensual unions in France and the United States.
Part 2 examines the limits of variation in marital patterns. Part 3 contains comparative studies of marital change concerning the United States, Japan, China, Southern Africa, and the Mormons. Part 4 is concerned with the law and changing sex roles, and Part 5, with calculation and emotion in marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40456 Dumas, Jean. Marriages and remarriages in Canada. [Mariages et remariages au Canada.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 14, No. 2, Oct 1985. 209-30 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Marriage being a recurrent event, it is important to analyse separately marriages and remarriages, because the unions they create have different characteristics. The author proposes five patterns of marriage, based on the various combinations between the previous matrimonial status of the spouses, and for each of them, he analyses the distribution according to the age of husband and wife." The data are from official Canadian sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40457 Etzler, Cecilia. Births within marriage: the impact of premarital cohabitation on first births within marriage among Swedish women born between 1936 and 1960. [Barnafodande inom aktenskapet: det foraktenskapliga samboendets betydelse for forstfodslar inom aktenskapet bland svenska kvinnor fodda 1936-1960.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 29, ISBN 91-7820-016-4. Jan 1986. 34, 3 pp. Stockholms Universitet, Demografiska Avdelningen: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This study is concerned with the impact of changing marriage patterns on firstborns in Sweden in recent years. The emphasis is on the impact of the growing prevalence of cohabitation. The author notes that most Swedish marriages are preceded by a period of cohabitation and that the first child is usually born before marriage in such cases. A trend toward cohabitation at earlier ages and marriage at later ages is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40458 Fricke, Thomas E.; Syed, Sabiha H.; Smith, Peter C. Rural Punjabi social organization and marriage timing strategies in Pakistan. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 4, Nov 1986. 489-508 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the Asian Marriage Survey and ethnographic material for the Punjab and South Asia, we examine the contribution of social organization and marriage processes to the explanation of female marriage age in rural Pakistan. The perspective is that marriage constitutes an alliance-building strategy involving whole households and patrilines and that kinship distance between families, dowry values, landed status of families, and direction of wealth flows at marriage have significant effects on marriage timing separate from those of more standard indicators."
The analysis is shown to support this hypothesis. "Implications extend to perspectives and variables used to explain marriage behavior and potential for combining survey data and ethnography in analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40459 Glick, Paul C.; Lin, Sung-Ling. Recent changes in divorce and remarriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 4, Nov 1986. 737-47 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
Trends in divorce and remarriage in the United States are analyzed using data from official sources, including the census, the Current Population Survey, and the National Center for Health Statistics. The focus is on the period from 1960 to the early 1980s. "An extensive examination is made of developments between 1975 and 1980 with respect to differential changes in divorce and remarriage according to age at these events, number of children born before divorce, and number of years divorced, as well as how remarriage is affected by level of education."
The paper concludes "with highlights of the research findings, a look at likely future trends of divorce and remarriage, and some implications of the recent and prospective changes in this important aspect of family behavior."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40460 Haderka, Jiri. Marriage and divorce in Japan. [Manzelstvi a rozvod v Japonsku.] Demografie, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1986. 217-24 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40461 Hoem, Jan M. The impact of education on modern family-union initiation. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1986. 113-33 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The impact of education on formation of first unions is analyzed using interview data from a sample of Swedish women born in 1936-1960. A distinction is made between achieved level of education and the effect of being a student. The former appears to have little effect, but students start consensual unions at lower rates than corresponding non-students, and they also marry at much lower rates. Social background has not been important for marriage formation, but it has been for cohabitation, which was pioneered by the working class. There is no evidence that modern cohabitation started as a campus movement."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40462 Johnson, Ronald C. Group size and group income as influences on marriage patterns in Hawaii. Social Biology, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1984. 101-7 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Marriage patterns in Hawaii are analyzed using secondary data from published sources. "The proportion of persons of a given racial/ethnic group in the population seems likely to influence the probability that members of that group marry persons of other racial/ethnic groups, while median income does not. However, among individuals who do marry cross-ethnically, the median income levels of other groups has a substantial association with the probability of occurrence of [different] possible combinations of cross-ethnic matings."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40463 Khalifa, Mona. Marriage pattern in the Sudan and its interrelation with fertility. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 28, Jun 1986. 43-67 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
The author focuses on recent marriage patterns in the Sudan and their relationship to fertility. A slight increase in the mean age at first marriage for females is noted. "These results have been arrived at by examining the 1973 census and the Sudan Fertility Survey 1978/79 after assessing the quality of the data. Postponement of marriage is associated with more marital stability and reductions in the amount of lost reproductive time. Also, the fertility of the women who marry late is found to be only slightly less than that of those who marry young."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40464 Ko, Chyong-fang; Heer, David M.; Wu, Hsin-ying. Social and biological determinants of age at first marriage in Taiwan, 1970. Social Biology, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985. 115-28 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study examines the social and biological determinants of age at first marriage in two townships in northern Taiwan, one very rural and traditional and the other urban and modernized. For a sample of 5,707 once-married women a path analysis was performed in which age at first marriage was considered a function of age, educational attainment, urban origin, premarital labor-force participation, and age at menarche. Age at menarche, with a positive effect on the dependent variable, was the most important direct cause of age at first marriage."
The authors note that "although exogenous variables associated with modernization (urban origin, educational attainment and younger age) had a positive direct effect on age at first marriage, they also had a negative indirect effect on age at first marriage through their negative direct effect on age at menarche."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40465 Lee, Hwa Young; Rajulton, Fernando. A semi-Markovian multistate analysis of sexual union formation in Flanders, Belgium. IPD Working Paper, No. 1986-5, 1986. 44 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors use a homogeneous semi-Markovian analytical framework to examine four main transitions among sexual union states and two transitions of having a first child. The states identified are virgin state, non-virgin state, cohabitation, first marriage, premarital birth, and marital birth. The process takes into account only duration in a state and not age at entry. Calculations are made concerning first passage probabilities of transition between the various states by education and religiosity.
"What this study confirms is the generality of incidence of first sexual intercourse outside marriage among young women in Flanders and the ever-decreasing age at which it takes place." In addition, "cohabitation still serves as a sort of prestage to marriage among Flemish women; most of the cohabitants marry sooner rather than later." The differential impacts of religiosity and education are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40466 Lindgren, Jarl. Recent divorce trends and patterns in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 24, 1986. 72-84 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author studies the divorce patterns of female marriage cohorts, 1950-1975, and considers the impact of age at marriage. Both annual and cumulative divorce rates are presented. The role of children in the divorce pattern is briefly considered. The 1981 divorce rate in Finland is compared with those of some other European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40467 Macfarlane, Alan. Marriage and love in England: modes of reproduction 1300-1840. ISBN 0-631-13992-3. LC 85-13351. 1986. xi, 380 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines historical trends in marriage patterns in England and describes what he calls the Malthusian marriage system using data from a variety of published sources and from two sets of parish records for the years 1400-1840. In the first section, the author discusses relevant portions of the works of Darwin and Malthus and outlines the nature and origins of the Malthusian marriage system. This system involves marriage and childbearing as matters of choice rather than automatic processes stemming from kinship, status, or biology.
In subsequent chapters, attention is given to aspects of the value of children, the purposes of marriage, and the rules of marriage, including marriage duration, status rules, economic arrangements, and courtship and wedding. An attempt is made to relate the observed marriage patterns to contemporary economic and demographic changes taking place in England. The author contends that "the emergence of the Malthusian regime is of fundamental importance both in explaining the social and economic history of Western Europe and particularly England, and in analysing current developments in much of the world."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:40468 Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. Marital distances, age at marriage and husband's social group in a contemporary Cambridge sample. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 13, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1986. 411-5 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"An account is given of the marital ages, birth and residence distances of marriage partners living in an urban area [in Cambridge, England]. Some social group differences were found; non-manual group members marry later and they tend to be more mobile than individuals from the manual group."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40469 Matsushita, Keiichiro. An economic analysis of age at first marriage. Pub. Order No. DA8612576. 1986. 150 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A lifecycle model is employed to analyze the optimum age of marriage. Various economic factors are considered in the theoretical analysis. The model implies that a lower post-marriage consumption-goods price, a large share of within-marriage public goods, and altruism tend to promote early marriage. Constraints on human capital accumulation and the greater uncertainty at early ages of the earning potential of the prospective mate tend to delay marriage. A stochastic dynamic programming model is employed to analyze the influence of income uncertainty on marriage-time decisions." In the empirical part of the study, "regression equations intended to explain the age of marriage are estimated."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(3).

52:40470 McGowan, Linda L.; Lowe, George D. Comment on Hanson and Tuch, "The determinants of marital instability: some methodological issues". Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 3, Aug 1986. 669-72 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
This is a critique of a 1984 study by Sandra L. Hanson and Steven A. Tuch concerning the relationship in the United States between divorce and spouse's employment. The nature of the data used concerning spouse's employment and time-order questions concerning the definition of divorced status are particularly emphasized. A reply by Hanson and Tuch is also included (p. 670-2).
For the article by Hanson and Tuch, published in 1984, see 50:40432.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40471 Morgan, S. Philip. On identifying determinants of a divorce in a divorcing population: comments on Rankin and Maneker. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 3, Aug 1986. 673-5 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author critically assesses a 1985 study by Robert P. Rankin and Jerry S. Maneker concerning the relationship in the United States between divorce and the presence of children. Elements of the research strategy used and the conclusions reached are criticized.
For the article by Rankin and Maneker, published in 1985, see 51:10434.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40472 Pasternak, Burton. Marriage and fertility in Tianjin, China: fifty years of transition. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 99, ISBN 0-86638-080-9. LC 86-16515. Jul 1986. vii, 76 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This is a report of research conducted in Tianjin, People's Republic of China (September 1981 to January 1982), the objective of which was to describe and analyze changes in family structure, marriage, patterns of post-marital residence, and fertility in a neighborhood of factory workers, over a period of fifty years. The data, derived from a combination of interviews, questionnaires, and documentary research, indicate how demographic data can provide an objective indicator and measure of social and political change."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40473 Pitkanen, Kari. Marital dissolution in Finland: towards a long-term perspective. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 24, 1986. 60-71 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author presents some preliminary findings concerning marital dissolution using published and unpublished population statistics produced by Finland's Central Statistical Office. Data are provided on marital dissolution by death and divorce, 1851-1982, including rural-urban differentials; sex-specific dissolution rates by death, 1851-1982; and age-specific death and divorce rates, 1936-1940 and 1980-1981.
The author performs a cohort analysis of marital dissolution using 11 marriage cohorts between 1930 and 1975. This analysis indicates "the decreasing significance of death and the increasing significance of divorce in marital dissolution...." The effect of certain time periods on the divorce behavior of different cohorts is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40474 Rabusic, Ladislav. Cohabitation in Western Europe and the United States. [Nesezdane souziti v zemich zapadni Evropy a USA.] Demografie, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1986. 135-40 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Recent trends in cohabitation in Western Europe and the United States are described. The author notes that consensual unions have increased rapidly since the emergence of this phenomenon around 1965 in Scandinavia and that this growth is associated with the increase in women's educational status and employment opportunities, the availability of modern contraceptives, and the legalization of abortion. The extent to which consensual unions are trial marriages or alternatives to marriage is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40475 Rao, Vandana R. Marriage patterns in Sri Lanka. Pub. Order No. DA8612921. 1985. 174 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study explores the dimensions and causes of the changing marriage patterns for women in Sri Lanka. The data are obtained from the World Fertility Survey of Sri Lanka conducted in 1975....Using the lognormal model of nuptiality, the dimensions of the nuptiality change and the effects of covariates are examined simultaneously. It is found that the cohort effects such as the marriage squeeze and unemployment as well as the educational expansion are determinants of the rising age at first marriage in Sri Lanka."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(3).

52:40476 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Trends in marriage and divorce in Europe since the late 1960s. [Evolution de la nuptialite et de la divortialite en Europe depuis la fin des annees 1960.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 463-82 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Changes in European nuptiality since the late 1960s are reviewed. These include later marriages, fewer marriages, and more unstable marriages. "The increase in the number of consensual unions among younger couples is so great that the marriage rate has fallen by about 30 per cent since 1965. In many countries the current index of first marriages stands below 0.65. This trend began in Scandinavia, but has now reached all the countries of Europe, including those in Eastern Europe....In many countries, it is likely that among the cohorts born during the 1960s, the proportion of never married adults will exceed 20 per cent by the time that they have reached their 50th birthday, if present trends were to continue."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40477 South, Scott J.; Spitze, Glenna. Determinants of divorce over the marital life course. American Sociological Review, Vol. 51, No. 4, Aug 1986. 583-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the young and mature women samples of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey, this paper examines how the determinants of divorce (and separation) vary by the duration of marriage. In general, we find little evidence that the strength of previously identified predictors of divorce varies by marital duration. Variables such as race, wife's labor force participation, husband's employment, and urban residence seem to influence the probability of divorce, irrespective of the stage in the marital life course."
The authors find wife's education to be an exception to this conclusion as it "appears to decrease the probability of divorce at early marital durations but to increase it at later durations. There is also suggestive evidence that the effects of home ownership and age at marriage may vary by marital duration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40478 Sparks, Janet. Marital condition estimates 1971-85: a new series. Population Trends, No. 45, Autumn 1986. 18-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Population estimates for England and Wales by sex, age and marital condition have been revised to incorporate a change in definition and information from the 1981 Census. This article outlines the method used, and describes the extent of the revisions and their effects on marriage, divorce and birth rates. Changes in the marital composition of the resident population between 1971 and 1985 are also briefly outlined."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40479 Sysenko, V. A. Newlyweds. [Molodozheny.] Narodonaselenie, No. 48, 1985. 90 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This publication contains eight papers by different Soviet authors on aspects of contemporary marriage in the USSR. A paper by V. Zotin and A. Mytil' on attitudes toward marriage among young people is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40480 Teachman, Jay D. Age at marriage and marital duration: a methodological note and commentary. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 3, Aug 1986. 676-9 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
This is a critique of a 1985 study by Jerry S. Maneker and Robert P. Rankin, in which they found no association between age at marriage and marital duration in the United States. "The purpose of this note is to indicate several problems in Maneker and Rankin's analysis that cast doubt over the usefulness of their results." The author also aims "to alert researchers to general methodological procedures that may be followed when analyzing life-course transitions."
For the article by Maneker and Rankin, published in 1985, see 51:40384.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40481 Veevers, Jean E. Age-discrepant marriages: cross-national comparisons of Canadian-American trends. Social Biology, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1984. 18-27 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Data from the U.S. census, Canadian and U.S. marriage statistics, and studies on age at marriage are used to examine differences in age of partners at marriage. "Although available data are not conclusive, they suggest that Canada and the United States do not differ markedly in the incidence of age-discrepant marriages and that both exhibit longitudinal trends which reflect a decreased incidence of marriages with large husband-wife age differences and an increased preference for coeval marriages, but exhibit markedly little change in the incidence of wife-older marriages."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40482 Zotin, V.; Mytil', A. Contraceptive knowledge among those getting married. [Osvedomlennost' vstupayushchikh v brak o metodakh i sredstvakh kontratseptsii.] Narodonaselenie, No. 48, 1985. 80-90 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
An analysis of the opinions of young people concerning marriage and the family is presented. Topics covered include motives for marriage, choice of spouse, place and duration of acquaintance of spouse, and material and living conditions of newlyweds. Consideration is given to knowledge about contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

52:40483 Adler, Michele; Caviness, Laverne. Statistical profile of children growing up in one parent families. In: American Statistical Association, 1985 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1985]. 400-5 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors use data from the 1981 Child Health Supplement of the Health Interview Survey, covering 15,000 U.S. children, to compare children in single-parent homes with those in two-parent homes and in homes with no parent. Characteristics profiled include family size, income, and participation in AFDC and Medicaid; mother's educational level and number of out-of-wedlock births; health care and status; and children's behavioral problems.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40484 Alba, Richard D.; Golden, Reid M. Patterns of ethnic marriage in the United States. Social Forces, Vol. 65, No. 1, Sep 1986. 202-23 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Using data from the November 1979 Current Population Survey on ethnic ancestry, this paper examines the strength and patterns of ethnic intermarriage in the United States, investigating some of the implications of rising intermarriage rates. After noting the infrequency of marriages across the dividing line of European/non-European ancestry, we focus on marriages between individuals of European (or American Indian) ancestry."
The authors use a log-linear modeling strategy to identify some major factors influencing intermarriage, including group size, mixed or single ancestry, and degree of ethnic relatedness. With regard to the rising rate of intermarriage among white ethnic groups, it is noted that "even though persons of unmixed ancestry still exhibit fairly strong tendencies to marry endogamously, a shift in the relative frequency of mixed versus unmixed ancestry is reducing the sizes of the categories with the strongest in-marriage tendencies and increasing the sizes of those with weaker such tendencies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40485 Bernardes, Jon. In search of "The Family"--analysis of the 1981 United Kingdom census: a research note. Sociological Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1986. 828-36 pp. Keele, England. In Eng.
"This article reviews previous estimates of the frequency of 'normal families' in the UK and USA. Using evidence from the 1981 UK Census it is found that 'normal families' account for a very small percentage of all 'families' in England and Wales. No single central type of 'family' exists and there is therefore an urgent need to develop theoretical approaches which address this issue."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40486 Bernheim, B. Douglas; Stark, Oded. The strategic demand for children: theory and implications for fertility and migration. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 25, Aug 1986. 49 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Intra-familial conflict which arises from individual consumption choices in an environment characterized by mutual altruism and direct consumption externalities results in parents receiving from their children less than the desired level of attention. Parents adopt a joint bequest-fertility strategy in order to extract from their children the desired level of attention, producing that number of children which, in conjunction with such a manipulative behavior, results in optimal extraction."
The authors draw fertility implications "especially under alternative assumptions about the mortality regime. Predictions of the theory for investment in children's human capital and migration are delineated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40487 Bianchi, Suzanne M.; Seltzer, Judith A. Life without father. American Demographics, Vol. 8, No. 12, Dec 1986. 42-7 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The growing phenomenon of families in the United States without a resident father is examined using data from published sources. The authors note that about one-quarter of white children and nearly one-half of black children will lose regular contact with their fathers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40488 Blake, Judith. Number of siblings, family background, and the process of educational attainment. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1986. 5-21 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper concentrates on the number of siblings in the family, and addresses two principal questions concerning the relation of sibship size to educational outcomes. First, controlling for family background characteristics, does sibship size affect men's educational attainment and, if so, where in the educational process is this effect most evident? Second, among family variables, what is the relative importance of sibship size compared to the father's education, the father's socioeconomic status, farm background, and a broken family? Research was based on probability samples of 57,000 white men in the United States."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40489 Blayo, Chantal. The French family since 1946. [La constitution de la famille en France depuis 1946.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1986. 721-47 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in family characteristics in France since 1946 are described. The author notes that "earlier marriages of women during the fifties and sixties, more frequent first births, less frequent and more closely spaced births of third and higher orders, not only concealed the tendency toward a reduction in family size, but contributed to a misleading rise in annual total fertility rates. When the rates of first and second births stopped rising, the gradual disappearance of larger families was no longer compensated and there was a sharp fall in rates, accentuated after 1970 by a decrease in the rate of first births and an increase in the interval between successive births. These postponed births finally occurred between 1976 and 1980."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40490 Brazzell, Jan F. Occupational modernity and family size limitation among married women in Costa Rica, Colombia, and Peru, circa 1976. Pub. Order No. DA8426639. 1984. 141 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study explores the hypothesis that "participating in more modern occupations motivates women to restrict family size...and that this increased motivation is accompanied by deliberate behavioral steps aimed at such. Speculations that the micro-level relationship between occupational modernity and family size limitation is conditioned by national family planning program efforts and urban-rural setting" are also examined.
"An identical structural model (relating occupational modernity to contraceptive use-efficiency, via the number of additional children desired) was estimated for urban and rural samples of married (or consensually united) women in Costa Rica, Colombia, and Peru, using World Fertility Survey data. Results indicated that...while occupational modernity was constrained by previous childbearing among the urban women, it was only weakly, if at all, related to desires for additional children, irrespective of urban-rural setting and national family planning program efforts."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Indiana University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 45(9).

52:40491 Clarke, Martin. Demographic processes and household dynamics: a microsimulation approach. In: Population structures and models: developments in spatial demography, edited by Robert Woods and Philip Rees. ISBN 0-04-301200-0. LC 85-30642. 1986. 245-72 pp. George Allen and Unwin: Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses the problem of modelling household dynamics and producing regional forecasts of the number of different types of households over medium-term time spans (5-10 years) using microsimulation methods." The author describes a method for generating samples of individual and household data synthetically and applies the method to two populations in England. In his presentation of a micro-simulation model of household dynamics, the author describes the model specifications for death, fertility, marriage, divorce, migration, retirement, leaving home, and aging.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40492 Cutright, Phillips; Smith, Herbert L. Declining family size and the number of children in poor families in the United States: 1964-1983. Social Science Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1986. 256-68 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
Changes in the number of children in poor black and white U.S. families with male or female family heads are examined for the periods 1964-1973, 1973-1978, and 1978-1983 using data from official and other sources. All periods show declining family size in all four family types. The authors note that "sizable declines in the number of poor children stemming from further declines in family size are unlikely, but possible changes in fiscal policies that affect marriage and family building by husband-wife couples might reverse policies that may have tended to increase the number of poor children in America in recent decades."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40493 Eglite, P. A. Peculiarities of reproductive behavior under conditions of high activity outside the family. [Osobennosti reproduktivnogo povedeniya v usloviyakh vysokoi vnesemeinoi aktivnosti naseleniya.] Sotsiologischeskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 12, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1985. 59-65 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The attitudes of men and women of varying ages and educational status in Riga and other Latvian towns in the USSR toward family life and reproduction are explored. The results show that although women of higher educational status desire families of two or three children, they often cannot realize a family that large because of the constraints imposed by their professional lives. The possibility of developing opportunities for the part-time employment of women in order to help women achieve their reproductive goals is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:40494 Hamalainen, Juha. What children mean to their parents: a qualitative approach. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 24, 1986. 43-53 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author explores the meaning of children to their parents using data from free group interviews with 40 randomly selected Finnish couples with a baby aged 3-5 months (half of these couples had no other children). The theoretical background of the study and the validity of the data are briefly discussed. The aim of the study is to foster an understanding of "parenthood, values, experiences and meanings connected to having children. This in turn creates conditions for an ever deeper and more appropriate population policy and counseling services dealing with problems with the birth rate."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40495 Haskey, John. One-parent families in Great Britain. Population Trends, No. 45, Autumn 1986. 5-13 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines various sources of information on one-parent families in Great Britain in order to estimate their number and characteristics. Evidence suggests that in 1984, the latest year for which statistics are available, there were approximately 940 thousand one-parent families in Great Britain. An estimate of 940 thousand one-parent families implies that just over one in 8 of all families with dependent children is a one-parent family and that there are approximately 1-1/2 million dependent children in one-parent families. The number of one-parent families rose by 100 thousand between 1979 and 1984, representing an increase of 12 per cent; the rate of increase in numbers may have declined in recent years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40496 Heer, David M. Effect of number, order, and spacing of siblings on child and adult outcomes: an overview of current research. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1986. 1-4 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author outlines two areas of inadequacy in recent research on the effects of number and spacing of siblings on the outcome for each child. "The first of these is that research has been conducted by scholars in different fields between which there have been substantial communications barriers. The second is that research has been performed on data sets gathered for other purposes which do not contain sufficient information, particularly concerning the IQ of the parents and the spacing between siblings."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40497 Hofferth, Sandra L. Response to a comment by Bumpass on "updating children's life course". Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 3, Aug 1986. 680-2 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
This is a response to a comment by Larry Bumpass on the author's 1985 article concerning the proportion of children in the United States who spend time in a one-parent family. The author compares her analysis and results with those of Bumpass and discusses procedural differences in projecting the experiences of children born in 1980. Areas for future work are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40498 Immerwahr, George; Maier, Anthony. Family size preferences and contraception in Syria. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 28, Jun 1986. 69-90 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"Data of the Syria Fertility Survey, a part of the World Fertility Survey, are used to ascertain the relation of background characteristics of Syrian women to their preferred number of children, their desire to stop child-bearing and the extent to which this desire is implemented by the use of contraception."
The authors find desired family size "to be well below actual completed fertility, particularly in the urban sector and among women with some schooling. There is evidence that fertility decline is already under way among urban women, and the spread of education and other forms of modernization suggest the likelihood of a steady decline of fertility in coming decades in the country as a whole."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40499 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C. Child fostering and high fertility interrelationships in West Africa. In: The economic demography of mass poverty, edited by Berhanu Abegaz. Studies in Third World Societies, No. 29, LC 85-073339. Sep 1986. 73-100 pp. College of William and Mary, Department of Anthropology: Williamsburg, Virginia. In Eng.
The author "examines the complex interrelationships between socio-cultural and demographic events that arise from the prevalent practice of child fostering in West Africa. Using data primarily from Ghana (1971) and Nigeria (1973), he underscores the economic importance of child circulation [within] the kinship system and its consequences for fertility. The statistical analyses reveal a positive association between fertility and the practice of fostering-out children...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40500 Izdebska-Sedzimir, Jadwiga. Households and families. [Gospodarstwa domowe i rodziny.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 31, No. 3, Mar 1986. 6-9 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Changes in families and households in Poland since the 1978 census are examined using data from the 1985 micro-census. Consideration is given to changes in family size. The data are presented separately for rural and urban areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40501 Kazi, Shahnaz; Sathar, Zeba A. Differences in household characteristics by income distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 3-4, Autumn-Winter 1985. 657-69 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The authors examine household characteristics by income distribution in Pakistan using data from the 1979 Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) Survey. Tabular data, organized by measures of income and expenditure, are presented on average household size, dependency ratios, average number of children and average number of adults, proportion of female household members, labor force participation rates for various ages, and occupational status of heads of households.
The authors conclude that "the findings for Pakistan generally are in consonance with those for other Third World countries and confirm that certain characteristics are associated with poverty." Comments by Karol J. Krotki are also included (pp. 668-9).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40502 Kiernan, Kathleen. Leaving home: living arrangements of young people in six West-European countries. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1986. 177-84 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The timing with which young people leave their parents' home is a critical element in household formation rates. Direct data on this transition are scarce. Information on the current living arrangements of 16-24 year-olds collected in a 1982 EEC [European Economic Community] Survey provides some insights. The data suggest quite large cross-national variations in the timing of leaving home and particularly marked differences in the living arrangements of young people. Reasons for the variation, particularly housing-market differences, are postulated." The data concern Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40503 Leaune, Viviane; Le Bourdais, Celine. The evolution of female single parent families in various regions of Quebec, 1971-1981. [L'evolution de la monoparentalite feminine dans differentes regions du Quebec, 1971-1981.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 14, No. 2, Oct 1985. 185-207 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Developments concerning single-parent, female-headed households in Quebec are analyzed. The authors note that in contrast to past experience, "the new single parent family is in most cases the result of a voluntary disruption of the household, or of a birth outside marriage; its head is mostly--and increasingly--the mother; and it concerns an increasingly younger population, among parents as well as children." Differences among metropolitan regions are analyzed with regard to labor force participation, income, and housing conditions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40504 Lesthaeghe, R.; Meekers, D. Value changes and the dimensions of familism in the EEC. IPD Working Paper, No. 1986-7, 1986. 31 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to explore how religious, moral and political dimensions have continued to shape the components of familism among the generations that currently constitute the adult [European Economic Community] EEC-population, and to produce elements that are complementary to those produced by economic theory and which may alter predictions of future trends."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40505 Levy, Michel L. Birth order, family size, and the probability of having more children. [Rang des enfants, taille des familles et probabilite d'agrandissement.] Population et Societes, No. 206, Oct 1986. 1-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the uses of measures of birth order and parity and their relationship to family size using recent data for France. The focus is on changes in these factors since 1931.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40506 Louvot, Claudie. The number of households is growing faster than the population. [Le nombre de menages croit plus vite que la population.] Economie et Statistique, No. 190, Jul-Aug 1986. 29-40, 87, 89 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Future trends in households in France are examined using official data. The author notes that "the number of households will probably increase by about 20% between 1982 and 2000. Their size will be more limited. Although young people are leaving home later, increasing numbers of people will be living alone and generational cohabitation will be increasingly rare." The author also suggests that the trend toward the breakup of households will probably decline. The result of these trends will lead to an increase in the number of households up to approximately the year 1993.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40507 Luscher, Kurt; Wehrspaun, Michael. Family and time. [Familie und Zeit.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1986. 239-56 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author considers the significance of the time factor in sociological analyses of family behavior and in family biographies. Four time concepts are identified: event time, experience time, time consciousness, and social time. Phases of a family biography are delineated as constitution, consolidation, dissolution, and transcendence. The emphasis is on the theory of family sociology.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40508 Munoz-Perez, Francisco. Recent changes in West European fertility and new trends in family formation. [Changements recents de la fecondite en Europe occidentale et nouveaux traits de la formation des familles.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 447-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Data from a number of recent sample surveys, undertaken in the developed countries of Western Europe, are used to show that changes in fertility over the past 15 years have resulted in new trends in family structure. "These include: an increase in the proportion of childless women, postponement of the first birth, a slightly smaller proportion of women going on to have a second birth, and the continuation of a decline in the number of large families at an increasing rate. These trends, which are obscure at present, are likely to become more obvious in the younger cohorts, in which the proportion of illegitimate births is also likely to increase."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40509 Myhrman, Antero. Sex of previous children and desireability of the next child: a follow-up study of unwanted children. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 24, 1986. 54-9 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author focuses on the significance of family sex composition as a determinant of family size, utilizing and updating findings from a 1980 study conducted in Finland. "The main purpose of this study is to compare the families with children of one sex who wanted an additional child with matched families who did not want the child and to assess the possible effects on the child." The study group consists of 59 Finnish families with two to four children of one sex, 20 of whom had an additional unwanted child and 39 of whom had an additional wanted child. The study group and a control group were surveyed during pregnancy and eight years later. The results are analyzed to determine the desirability of the additional child in families of different sex compositions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40510 Norris, P.; Dewdney, J. C.; Townsend, A. R. Demographic and social change in the Durham coalfield. IV. Household size and structure, 1851-1881. Census Research Unit Working Paper, No. 27, Jun 1986. ix, 153 pp. University of Durham, Department of Geography, Census Research Unit: Durham, England. In Eng.
This is the fourth paper in a series concerned with demographic and social change in the Durham coalfield region of England. "This study is concerned with the nature of family and household structure on the Durham coalfield in the middle and later part of the nineteenth century. It focuses particularly on the household--the co-resident domestic group--and on the incidence of relatives of the household head, of servants and of lodgers in the household. A secondary and related purpose of the study is to examine household and family size."
For previous papers in this series, published in 1983 and 1984, see 51:20051, 51:20523, and 51:20591.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40511 Ordonez, Myriam. Rural population and the family in Colombia. [Poblacion y familia rural en Colombia.] 1986. 179 pp. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Facultad de Estudios Interdisciplinarios, Programa de Poblacion: Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
Demographic characteristics of the rural population of Colombia for the period 1951-1980 are described, with a focus on characteristics of the female population and on the behavior and structure of the family unit. Chapters are included on regionalization, spatial distribution, the structure and composition of the rural population, mortality, fertility, nuptiality, migration, and the family. Data are from population and farming censuses and from national housing studies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40512 Pejaranonda, Chintana; Santipaporn, Sureerat. 1980 population and housing census. Subject report No. 6. Household structure and factor affecting size of household. Pub. Order No. N-Rep-No. 4-85. [1985?]. 29, 32 pp. National Statistical Office: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is the sixth in a series of reports presenting analyses of the data from the 1980 census of Thailand. It is concerned with factors affecting household size and structure. In particular, the authors investigate differences in household size and structure among Bangkok, other urban centers, and rural areas.
"An assessment of differentials in household size and structure will be made by examining average household size, distribution of households by size-class, and various components of household size (i.e., nuclear members, extended relations, and non-related individuals). Finally, this research will investigate the relationship between the social, economic and demographic factors on household size and will show the characteristics of head of household."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40513 Peron, Yves; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Morissette, Denis. Departure of children and contraction of the family as observed in the 1971 and 1981 Canadian censuses. [Depart des enfants et contraction des familles d'apres les recensements canadiens de 1971 et de 1981.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1986. 155-75 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of data from the 1971 and 1981 Canadian censuses is presented concerning children leaving home. "It is estimated that the timing of children's departure from their family of origin was almost the same in 1981 as in 1971; median age at departure was identical: 20.5 for women and 22.3 for men. Broken families, more numerous than in the past, become contracted earlier than unbroken families; among unbroken families, the contraction phase started earlier in 1981 than in 1971 among large or medium-sized families while it began later among small families."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40514 Prakasam, C. P.; Upadhyay, R. B. Socio-economic variables influencing mean age at marriage in Karnataka and Kerala. Janasamkhya, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1985. 81-90 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt was made to study the influence of certain socio-economic variables on the male and the female age at marriage in Karnataka and Kerala [India] for the year 1971. Step-wise regression method has been used to select the predictor variables influencing mean age at marriage. The results reveal that percent female literate...and percent female in labour force...are found to influence female mean age at marriage in Kerala, while the variables for Karnataka were percent female literate..., percent male literate..., and percent urban male population...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40515 Rallu, Jean-Louis. Projections of family size to January 1, 1990 and January 1, 1995. [Projection des familles aux 1.1.1990 et 1.1.1995.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 511-32 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Two projections of family size, based on the assumption of a total fertility of 1.8 and 2.1 children per woman, and on given marriage dissolution rates were computed from [official French] statistics of legitimate and illegitimate births by birth order during the past few years, and from a similar projection of births." The impact of changes in nuptiality, including increased levels of divorce, cohabitation, and illegitimacy, is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40516 Ruggles, Steven. Availability of kin and the demography of historical family structure. Historical Methods, Vol. 19, No. 3, Summer 1986. 93-102 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "proposes a strategy for estimating the influence of demographic factors on the frequency of extended families and applies this strategy to the demographic experience of the West during the past two centuries." A simulation model, previously developed by the author, is used to estimate the availability of kin under certain demographic conditions and to calculate residential propensities. A standard propensities approach to analyzing the interaction of demography and family structure is described. The geographic focus is on the United States and England.
The author concludes that "the demographic conditions prevailing since the end of the nineteenth century have been highly favorable to the formation of extended families. By contrast, the frequency of available extended kin was substantially lower in pre-industrial England. We may be fairly confident that demographic change was a necessary condition for the rise of the extended family in the nineteenth century."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40517 Sarma, R. S. S. Projection of the number of households for Egypt, 1985-2000. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 15, 1986. 83-103 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objective of the present study is to make projections of households, headed by males and females of different age groups, up to [the] year 2000 for Egypt. For this purpose headship rates available in a fragmented manner are brought together to construct a set of age-sex specific headship rates applicable to the country around the 1976 census. Use is also made of the information on size, composition and type of households obtained in the 1960 and 1976 censuses of Egypt."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40518 Sharma, H. L. Some probability models for ascertainment of families in segregation analysis. Janasamkhya, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1985. 97-102 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
The author suggests some probability models for the distribution of number of boys in a family and assesses the suitability of these models using previously published data. "Also, the correlation coefficient between the number of boys and girls in a family for the same data has been determined in the case of each model."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40519 Taubman, Paul; Behrman, Jere R. Effect of number and position of siblings on child and adult outcomes. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1986. 22-34 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper we consider how family size and birth order may affect educational attainment and earnings. Family size may be important because if more children have to share parental financial, emotional, and time resources, each child may get less. Birth order may be important because of differences in endowments, parental resources over the life cycle, or parental preferences. We demonstrate how these different factors interact in a particular model."
Even with controls for parental age, income, education, and father's religion, the authors find both birth-order and family-size effects on schooling. "These effects are bigger for daughters than sons. Using the same controls, we do not find statistically significant family-size or birth-order effects for the 1n of earnings in a relatively young sample. We also present equations for how college was financed. Family size cuts down parental contribution per child and encourages working, scholarship, and loans. Results differ somewhat for sons and daughters."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40520 USSR. Tsentral'noe Statisticheskoe Upravlenie (Moscow, USSR). Data from a special survey on young families. [Materialy edinovremennogo vyborochnogo obsledovaniya molodykh semei.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 4, 1986. 58-61 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Data from a survey conducted in the USSR at the end of 1984 involving approximately 48,500 young families are presented. The results show that over 40 percent of such families live with their parents; in 90 percent of families both spouses work; 80 percent have at least one child; and 60 percent have received assistance from their parents.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40521 Vasilev, Dimitar. The orientation toward the two-child family in Bulgaria. [Orientatsiyata kam dvudetniya model na semeistvoto u nas.] Naselenie, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1986. 67-82 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author describes the process that has taken place in Bulgaria involving a general trend toward the establishment of a two-child family norm. He indicates that the process of demographic transition has been similar to that experienced by most other countries. Results of recent research into desired fertility and ideal family size are reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40522 Vavrovsky, Frantisek. Note on concepts of the household adopted in the CSSR. [Poznamka k pojmum domacnosti zavedenym v praxi v CSSR.] Demografie, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1986. 225-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
Some recent changes in the definition of the concept of the household adopted in Czechoslovakia are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40523 Waite, Linda J.; Goldscheider, Frances K.; Witsberger, Christina. Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, Vol. 51, No. 4, Aug 1986. 541-54 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Young adults in recent cohorts have been leaving the parental home earlier and marrying later now than they did several decades ago, resulting in an increased period of independent living. This paper explores the consequences of time spent in non-family living, using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men and Young Women. We expect that experience in living away from home prior to marriage will cause young adults to change their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, and move them away from a traditional family orientation."
The authors find evidence to support this hypothesis in the case of young women. "Those who lived independently became more likely to plan for employment, lowered their expected family size, became more accepting of employment of mothers, and more non-traditional on sex roles in the family than those who lived with their parents. Non-family living had much weaker effects on young men in the few tests that we could perform for them. The paper also addresses the conditions under which living away increases individualism, and it discusses the implications of these findings."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40524 Wingen, Max. On the socioeconomic situation of families today: data and problems. [Zur sozialokonomischen Lage von Familien heute--Daten und Probleme.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1986. 221-37 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author considers the socioeconomic status of young families in the Federal Republic of Germany and gives particular attention to the constraints that socioeconomic factors may exercise on the success of certain family policies. Family income and expenditures and the notion of the opportunity cost of children are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40525 Zeng, Yi. Fertility and household dynamics in China. IPD Working Paper, No. 1986-6, 1986. 77 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
An analysis of cross-sectional data concerning trends in family size and structure and their determinants in China is presented. The author describes an extension of the nuclear family status life table model developed by Bongaarts that gives "the proportions of [a] Chinese female's expected lifetime spent in different marital, parity, [and] maternal status and the average duration of being a mother, being a daughter and being responsible to elderly parent(s) and young children. It also gives the distribution of family by size, number of generations in the family and marital status of the female members."
The results show that one impact of rapid fertility decline is to reduce the number of nuclear families as there are many fewer children for those parents who wish to live with their married children. The various factors affecting levels of coresidence are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40526 Zoughlami, Younes; Allsopp, Diana. The demographic characteristics of household populations. WFS Comparative Studies: Cross-National Summaries, Rev. ed. No. 45, Dec 1985. 82 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"This comparative study on the characteristics of household populations draws on the data of 25 surveys [of the World Fertility Survey], 5 of which were carried out in Africa, 12 in Asia and the Pacific and 8 in Latin America and the Caribbean." Attention is given to the distribution of household populations by age and sex, nuptiality patterns, educational attainment, and characteristics of households and heads of households. Detailed tables are included in an appendix.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.