Volume 52 - Number 3 - Fall 1986

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical to the modern, defined as being World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

52:30622 Blum, Alain; Houdaille, Jacques. Twelve thousand Parisians in 1793: a sample of civic cards. [12,000 Parisiens en 1793: sondage dans les cartes de civisme.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 259-302 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors analyze selected characteristics of the city's residents in the eighteenth century using a 10 percent sample of the registers of civic cards for Paris, France, for 1793. Particular attention is given to regions of origin and to occupations. "Only 27 per cent [of the residents] were born in Paris. This proportion remained relatively constant throughout the nineteenth century. The flow of in-migrants increased continuously between 1730 and the Revolution, and the age distribution of these migrants did not change. They came primarily from the North Eastern parts of France and from some of the departements of Central France (especially from Cantal). The picture was almost identical in 1891."
It is also noted that "the occupations of migrants varied with their origin. Some regions were known to specialize in particular trades: the Limousins were masons, Auvergne provided water carriers. Those coming from Aquitaine and Provence formed an elite. Regions with high rates of out-migration tended to supply Paris with skilled workers, among those coming from other regions the relatively well-off provided the largest proportion."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30623 Guillaume, Pierre. Individuals, families, and nations. A historical demographic study of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [Individus, familles, nations. Essai d'histoire demographique, XIXe-XXe siecles.] Regards sur l'Histoire, ISBN 2-7181-2103-3. 1985. 426 pp. Societe d'Edition d'Enseignement Superieur: Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of the relationships between the demographic transition and the emergence of the concept of the individual as opposed to the community is presented. The geographic focus is worldwide, with particular attention to developed countries. Global population developments from the end of the eighteenth century are first outlined. Next, the emergence of the concept of voluntary fertility control and the reduction of mortality are described. The author also considers the progress of change in fertility and mortality.
Chapters are also included on the individual, the couple, and the family in the nineteenth century; developments involving feminism, new life-styles, children's rights, and attitudes concerning divorce, premarital sex, and abortion; migration; recent social changes, including urbanization and the emergence of multiethnic societies; and population theories and policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30624 Holbrook, Jay M. Connecticut colonists: Windsor 1635-1703. ISBN 0-931248-40-X. LC 84-080146. 1986. xx, 297 pp. Holbrook Research Institute: Oxford, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This work consists primarily of a listing of the inhabitants of Windsor, Connecticut, in the seventeenth century, together with information on vital events and relationships. The data are from a variety of historical sources. In a brief introduction, the author uses these data to present an alternative theory of the demographic transition based on the importance of a society's religiosity, in which the religious factor is seen as a stimulus to economic development.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30625 Legare, Jacques. Three centuries of demographic change in Quebec. [Trois siecles de variations demographiques au Quebec.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 190, [1985?]. [9] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Quebec. In Fre.
A review of population trends in Quebec since 1684 is presented, with a focus on the change from traditional to modern behavior at the family and individual level and its demographic implications. The changes in the family life cycle that have occurred are analyzed, and the accompanying changes in the frequency and timing of demographic events are described.
This article was reprinted from Memoires de la Societe Royale du Canada, Fourth Series, Vol. 22, 1984, pp. 85-93.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30626 Pflaumer, Peter. Spectral analysis of demographic and economic time series for the former German Reich from 1871 to 1913. [Spektralanalyse demographischer und okonomischer Zeitreihen des Deutschen Reiches von 1871 bis 1913.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1985. 577-92 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The present contribution studies statistically the relationship between the demographic and economic development of the former German Reich from 1871 to 1913. Starting point is the thesis of August Losch...according to which the population growth had an important influence on the economic development in the former German Reich. It has not been possible to verify his hypothesis with the methods of...spectral analysis and cross spectral analysis. Nevertheless, it has been possible to establish a demo-economic relationship. Not the population growth, but rather the closely related increase in the numbers of households correlates highly with the economic development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30627 Rowland, Robert. Demographic patterns and rural society in Portugal: implications of some recent research. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1986. 36-47 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The essay outlines some possible implications of recent research on demographic patterns for the historical study of rural society in Portugal. The first part is devoted to a summary of population trends since the 16th century, and the need for aggregative studies based on parish registers is emphasised."
The author argues "that the available evidence suggests the pertinence of a regional perspective, in which variation across space is given as much prominence as change over time. A number of regional patterns--in mortality, fertility and nuptiality--are described and shown to be associated with regionally specific patterns of household organization. Some implications are suggested of the fact that this regional configuration of family forms and demographic patterns appears to have been in existence and to have persisted since the 16th century."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:30628 Wenig, Alois. Overpopulation--a cause of war? Notes on the population theory of Thomas Robert Malthus. [Ubervolkerung--eine Kriegsursache? Einige Anmerkungen zur Bevolkerungslehre von Thomas Robert Malthus.] Kyklos, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1985. 365-91 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The relationship between Malthusian pressures and the frequency of wars in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe is examined. The author concludes that Europe at that time could easily support its population above subsistence level.
"It was the political regime of absolutism which established mechanisms of income distribution that impoverished a large fraction of the society. The numerous barriers to market entry of the guild system and primogeniture as the predominant bequest rule among nobles left many young men, commoners and nobles alike, no choice but to join the army. In order to reduce the number of expensive mercenaries it was then individually rational for the princes to more or less continuously participate in militant conflicts."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past in order to obtain further demographic information. Relevant items are coded here and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models if of more general interest than to historical demography alone.

52:30629 Kintner, Hallie J. Classifying causes of death during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: the case of German infant mortality. Historical Methods, Vol. 19, No. 2, Spring 1986. 45-54 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Methodological problems concerning the study of cause of death in historical populations are examined using data from nineteenth-century Germany. The main concern is how to reconcile data when different cause of death classifications were used by state and national statistical offices either simultaneously or sequentially. The unified scheme proposed is based on broad cause of death groups developed by Samuel H. Preston which are distinct and mutually exclusive on epidemiological grounds.
For the study by Preston et al., published in 1972, see 39:1188.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30630 Legare, Jacques; Desjardins, Bertrand. From parish registers to genealogies: the role of the computer in the Research Program in Demographic History. [Des registres paroissiaux aux genealogies: le role de l'ordinateur au Programme de Recherche en Demographie Historique.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 193, [1985?]. [13] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The authors describe a project of the Research Program in Demographic History at the University of Montreal, involving the use of a computer in the constitution of a population register consisting of biographic dossiers for all individuals who lived in Quebec, Canada, from the beginning of the seventeenth century through the establishment of modern censuses in 1851. The procedure for extracting the necessary information from parish registers of the period is outlined, and the computerized reconstitution process is described. In the first stage of the project, approximately 300,000 baptism, marriage, and burial slips, concerning an estimated 200,000 individuals for the period up to 1766, have been entered into the data base.
Each dossier consists of a list of demographic events in which an individual participates in a lifetime, either as the subject, the parent, or the spouse, and information concerning characteristics of the individual .
This article is reprinted from Archives (Montreal, Canada), Vol. 16, No. 3, Dec 1984, pp. 3-15.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30631 McCaa, Robert. Orphanhood and adult mortality in the past: a critique of Latin American data and procedures. Latin American Population History Newsletter, Vol. 5, No. 1, Fall 1985. 7-10 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author examines the applicability of indirect methods for estimating mortality from information about orphanhood based on methods developed by Brass and Hill using data from Latin America. The author concludes that the data sources available in the region may not be adequate for the application of such techniques.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30632 Siegfried, Michael. The skewed sex ratio in a medieval population: a reinterpretation. Social Science History, Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer 1986. 195-204 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
The author examines the ninth-century French monastic tax rolls known as the Carolingian polyptychs. These records have been used as evidence of the practice of female infanticide since the data indicate a skewed sex ratio favoring males. It is suggested that this imbalance is in fact a product of the undercounting of females, the overrepresentation of males in a religious setting, and deliberate omissions from the records, amongst other causes.
Location: New York Public Library.

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.