Volume 52 - Number 3 - Fall 1986

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

52:30509 Alba, Richard D.; Batutis, Michael J. The impact of migration on New York State. LC 85-622738. Sep 1984. 54, [64]; 24 pp. State University of New York, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis: Albany, New York. In Eng.
This report, prepared for the Public Policy Institute and the New York State Job Training Partnership Council, is concerned with the impact of current U.S. migration trends on the state of New York. The report is in two parts: the main part presents and analyzes the data; the other provides a summary of the analysis. The focus of the analysis is on migrant characteristics. The data are primarily from the Public Use Microdata Samples of the 1980 U.S. census. The results indicate that New York was one of only two states to lose population between 1970 and 1980 and that there was a net loss due to migration of 650,000 persons over the decade.
Consideration is given to migrants' age distribution, household and family status, race and ethnicity, educational status, labor force status, occupation and industry, and income and poverty status. Both internal and international migration trends affecting the state are considered, as well as regional differences in migration patterns within the state.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30510 Bray, David. Export agriculture, class formation, and migration in the Dominican Republic. [La agricultura de exportacion, la formacion de clases y migracion en la Republica Dominicana.] Ciencia y Sociedad, Vol. 10, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 209-25 pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
The relationships among export agriculture, class formation, and migration in the Dominican Republic are analyzed. The author discusses the impact of successive strategies of economic development on internal migration and on international migration, primarily to the United States. The transition from subsistence agriculture to export agriculture and the consequent differentiation of classes are examined. Implications for economic development in the Dominican Republic and for U.S. labor policy are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30511 Brown, L. A.; Kodras, J. E. Studies on the interrelationships between migration and development in third world settings. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 87-30, [1986?]. 30 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and development in developing countries is examined using individual rather than aggregate data, focusing on human capital characteristics, and employing a multifaceted measure of development. "Specifically, this paper considers both in- and out-migration within Venezuela for the period 1966-71, employing a sample of 55,145 members of the 1971 labor force. Using logit analysis and related techniques, we identify socio-demographic profiles of migrants between areas with different development characteristics."
The variables considered include age, educational status, occupation, sex, and residence characteristics. The results indicate that regional differences in migration patterns are related to differences in the development status of the regions concerned.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30512 Chilivumbo, Alifeyo. Migration and uneven rural development in Africa: the case of Zambia. ISBN 0-8191-4929-2. LC 85-17908. 1985. xx, 118 pp. University Press of America: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between migration and rural development in Zambia." The author questions the hypothesis that rural-urban migration is incompatible with successful rural development and suggests that migration in Zambia appears to have been beneficial to rural development through the impact of remittances from migrants.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30513 Cooper, Joyce M. R. Migration with imperfect information: a theoretical and empirical study of individual decisionmaking. Pub. Order No. DA8603624. 1985. 213 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation is a theoretical and empirical investigation of the individual's migration decision. It focuses on the role of imperfect information, individual differences in risk aversion, and local labor market characteristics in the individual's decision to move from or stay at a location. The individual's migration decision is modeled as the outcome of a comparison of the expected utility at an alternative market to the utility at an origin market." The focus of the empirical investigation is on the United States.
"The data is a sample of employed males from the 1979-1980 National Longitudinal Survey of Youths. Results suggest that models which do not explicitly account for risk aversion may be misspecified. Also, the location specific effects which act through amenities and the distribution of wages have significant effects on the probability of migration."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30514 Coulibaly, Sidiki; Gregory, Joel; Piche, Victor. Voltaic migration. Vol. 2. Methodology. [Les migrations voltaiques. Tome II. Methodologie.] [1980?]. vii, 162 pp. Centre Voltaique de la Recherche Scientifique: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Institut National de la Statistique et de la Demographie: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In Fre.
This report includes four papers on methodological aspects of the National Survey on Migratory Movements in Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), undertaken in 1974-1975. The papers describe the methodology adopted for the survey, the collection of the data, the problems associated with age of respondents, and the limitations of the data.
For Vol. 1, published in 1980, see 47:2555.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30515 De Jong, Gordon F.; Root, Brenda D.; Gardner, Robert W.; Fawcett, James T.; Abad, Ricardo G. Migration intentions and behavior: decision making in a rural Philippine province. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985-1986. 41-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study, set in the rural Philippines province of Ilocos Norte, provides evidence on personal and structural background factors and value-expectancy perceptions of place utility that predict migration intentions and behavior. Separate analyses are conducted for general intentions to move and for destination-specific migration intentions, the latter pertaining to both internal migration (Manila) and international migration (Hawaii). Logistic regression analyses applied to the data from a 1980-82 longitudinal survey show that the empirical models are highly efficient in explaining migration intentions but less efficient in explaining actual migration behavior in this Third World setting."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 428).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30516 Fawcett, James T. Migration intentions and behavior: third world perspectives. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985-1986. 140 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This special issue contains five empirical studies of migration intentions and behavior based on surveys conducted in developing countries of Asia and Africa. An introduction by the Editor discusses the conceptual roots of and recent developments in migration psychology, including behavioral models. The final article "compares and critiques the empirical studies, while also drawing upon them to provide an analysis of the potential contribution of such studies to the field of migration studies."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30517 Gardner, Robert W.; De Jong, Gordon F.; Arnold, Fred; Carino, Benjamin V. The best-laid schemes: an analysis of discrepancies between migration intentions and behavior. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985-1986. 63-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A longitudinal survey approach is used in a largely rural area in the Philippines to examine consistency between migration intentions and subsequent migration behavior. Inconsistencies in movement behavior, the timing of a move, and the destination are analyzed. Discrepancies between intentions and behavior are explained in terms of unanticipated constraints and facilitators as well as changes in the conditions that precipitated the migration intention in the first place."
It is noted that "intended international movers who did not actually move in a 2-1/2 year period were thwarted mainly by legal hurdles that could not be overcome. Intended internal migrants who did not actually move remained in their origin area primarily because of changes in job opportunities or family relationships. Methodological and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed."
This paper was originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 428).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30518 Haag, G.; Weidlich, W. A dynamic migration theory and its evaluation for concrete systems. Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb 1986. 57-80 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents a theoretical framework for analyzing multiregional migration as a stochastic process. The equation of motion is formulated as a master equation. A quasi-deterministic meanvalue equation is derived from the master equation. The analysis is focused on the solution of the meanvalue equation. Finally it is described how the approach can be applied to empirical migration data in a study of migration processes in Canada for which the migratory stress is evaluated. The relation to static random utility theory is also established."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30519 Hugo, Graeme. Population mobility and development in Asia: flies in a locked room? In: Demographic transition in Asia, edited by Gavin W. Jones. ISBN 9971-954-20-6. LC 84-942134. 1984. 57-95 pp. Maruzen Asia: Singapore. In Eng.
This chapter is concerned with migration in contemporary Asia. The focus is on recent changes in Asian migration patterns and their relationship to demographic transition theory and development issues in general. Consideration is given to both international and internal migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30520 Kanaroglou, P.; Liaw, K.-L.; Papageorgiou, Y. Y. An analysis of migratory systems: 1. Theory. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 18, No. 7, Jul 1986. 913-28 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the first of a planned series of three papers in which the authors attempt to combine evolutionary migration models with stochastic utility theory. This first paper deals with the evolution of migratory systems. Such systems are first defined, and the foundations upon which their evolution is based are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of disequilibrium, which is central to the series. "Disequilibrium is related to the concept of a steady state, the existence of which is established for nonlinear migratory systems of the type discussed here."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:30521 McDevitt, Thomas M.; Gadalla, Saad M. Incorporating husband-wife differences in place utility differentials into migration decision models. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985-1986. 98-119 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper extends the micro-level empirical literature on migration decision making by investigating the manner in which husbands' and wives' subjective place utility expectations jointly feed into migration decisions in a low-income country. The authors use expectational data [collected in 1978-1979] relating to four place utility dimensions and stated migration intentions of 376 village-resident Egyptian couples to test alternative decision models. An ordinal probit estimation technique is employed. The results of the analyses support the hypothesis of husband dominance in migration decisions in this context."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 429).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30522 Paiva, J. F. X.; Bahrin, Tunku S. Rural migration policies and development. Research Publications, LC 84-941558. 1984. vii, 378 pp. Asian and Pacific Development Centre: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
This report contains 15 papers by various authors on aspects of migration in Asia. It consists primarily of case studies of migration in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Malaysia. The first part is concerned with rural development projects that are designed to help keep people in rural areas and lessen the motivation to migrate. The second part is concerned with projects that involve the resettlement of rural migrants in other rural areas.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30523 Shields, Gail M. Family migration and household production: the Costa Rican experience. Pub. Order No. DA8527096. 1985. 229 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A model of family migration is developed and tested using data selected from the 1973 Costa Rican Census. To develop the model and analyze the empirical results, a household production model was chosen as the theoretical framework because of its emphasis on the household as the decision-making unit."
Using logit and ordinary least squares techniques to estimate the probability of a family migrating, the author considers the relative significance of the wife's role, the number and age of children, the number of extended family members, and the employment and educational status of family members.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Utah.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(10).

52:30524 Simmons, Alan B. Recent studies on place-utility and intention to migrate: an international comparison. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985-1986. 120-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews five recent studies concerning place-utility and migration intentions carried out in Egypt, Kenya,the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. He first describes the general theoretical model underlying these studies and discusses the variations in research design. The study findings are then examined "in an effort to determine how they correspond to six causal relationships suggested by the general model....[He offers] some general conclusions regarding the overall 'fit' between findings and the model [and discusses] gaps and priorities for subsequent studies on migrant strategies, intentions, and decisions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30525 Sly, David F.; Wrigley, J. Michael. Migration decision making and migration behavior in rural Kenya. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985-1986. 78-97 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
After a brief summary of micro theories of migration, the authors use data from a two-round survey of residents of rural Kenya aged 13-21 to classify respondents as decision processors or nondecision processors and to determine who migrates over a nine-month interval. "A simple model is developed to determine the extent to which the same factors that influence decision-processing influence who migrates. The model is tested using regression procedures....The model explains 26% of the variance in who decides, but only 10% of the variance in who actually moved. Finally, separate analyses are done of the determinants of migration for decision processors and nondecision processors."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30526 Tunali, Insan F. Migration, earnings and selectivity: from theory to fact--evidence from Turkey, 1963-73. Pub. Order No. DA8524298. 1985. 434 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses data for Turkey for the years 1963-1973 to investigate determinants of the decision to migrate. "This study examines the links between geographic mobility and earnings from a theoretical and empirical perspective. A dynamic programming formulation of the migration decision that allows for multiple moves constitutes the theoretical model. Individuals compare location-specific earnings trajectories and choose that alternative with the best life-time prospects."
According to the author, "selectivity figures in an important way in the earnings comparisons. Differences between individuals with identical values of the observed variables in the earnings equations are shown to exist, due to heterogeneity in the costs of migration. Both the average migrant and the average non-migrant are found to realize positive returns from their decision, at least over some range of the moving costs."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30527 Villagomez, Rafael E. A latent variable approach to migration. Pub. Order No. DA8528125. 1985. 108 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The study compares the empirical approaches to migration analysis: multiple regression, latent variables, and index numbers in studying the determinants of migration." Data are for 77 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States for the years 1965-1970.
The author "finds that multiple regression is superior to latent variables in investigating migration. Index number analysis is superior for complex models with multi-dimensional determinants of migration. However, the latent variable model is so flexible and holds such promise, that it should receive further study."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Oklahoma State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(10).

52:30528 Watson, Hilbourne A. Theoretical and methodological problems in Commonwealth Caribbean migration research: conditions and causality. Social and Economic Studies, Vol. 31, No. 1, Mar 1982. 165-206 pp. Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
Some theoretical problems associated with research on migration affecting the Commonwealth Caribbean are considered. The author "locates the Caribbean migration process and research within the context of the international division of labour of postwar imperialism and the Marxist theory of accumulation on a world scale." It is suggested that this approach provides a more useful conceptual structure for examining the range of academic and policy issues associated with migration in the Caribbean.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:30529 Zylberberg, Andre. Migration equilibrium with price rigidity: the Harris and Todaro model revisited. Journal of Economic Theory, Vol. 37, No. 2, Dec 1985. 281-309 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author attempts to build a general equilibrium model with migration possibilities on the lines of the Harris-Todaro model in which all the agents have explicit maximizing behavior. "Assumptions on wage-price rigidities allow consideration of various supply-demand configurations. One of the most interesting results is that policy recommendations derived from the usual Harris-Todaro model are not valid when excess supply prevails." The focus is on the situation in developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

52:30530 Arnold, Fred; Shah, Nasra M. Asian labor migration: pipeline to the Middle East. Westview Special Studies in International Migration, ISBN 0-8133-7084-1. LC 85-13798. 1986. xvi, 265 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This book is a product of the Conference on Asian Labor Migration to the Middle East, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, in September 1983. The conference focused on the magnitude of recent flows of labor migrants, the characteristics of contract workers, the consequences of labor migration for sending countries, and relevant policies and programmes. The 13 papers, which are by various authors, are divided into three sections. The first is concerned with the regional perspective; the second, with East and Southeast Asia; and the third, with South Asia.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30531 Bean, Frank D.; Lowell, B. Lindsay; Taylor, Lowell J. Undocumented Mexican immigrants and the earnings of other workers in the United States. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.014, 1986. 24, [7] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of undocumented Mexican immigrants on the United States labor market. Attention is focused on geographical (or local) labor markets, and estimates are first presented of the number of undocumented Mexicans in selected such markets in 1980....The results reveal few statistically significant negative effects of undocumented immigrants on the earnings of other labor force groups, and even these are of slight magnitude."
This paper was originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. For more detailed information, see the abstracts of PAA papers at the beginning of this issue.
For a related study by the same authors, also published in 1986, see 52:20494.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30532 Choucri, Nazli. The hidden economy: a new view of remittances in the Arab world. World Development, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jun 1986. 697-712 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author seeks to identify and describe the hidden economy of the Middle East, which was created by large-scale labor migration in the region and sizeable unrecorded capital flows. According to the author, "remitted earnings, channeled largely through informal mechanisms, have generated a network of financial and economic relations that define the boundaries and characteristic features of the hidden economy. The hidden economy shapes many of the critical parameters of economic activity of the Middle East, such as exchange rates and the availability of foreign exchange." Particular attention is given to the cases of Sudan and Egypt.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30533 de Vletter, Fion. Recent trends and prospects of black migration to South Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1985. 667-702 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This article focuses on developments concerning black labor migration to South Africa over the past 10 years. "In addition to providing statistical data, the article attempts to explain why changes have taken place, as well as to examine economic, political, and legislative developments which are likely to affect increasingly the nature of foreign-migrant flows." The results indicate that foreign migrants are playing an increasingly smaller role in the South African economy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30534 Di Comite, Luigi; Ancona, Giovanni; Dell'Atti, Angelo. Foreign immigration in Apulia. [L'immigrazione straniera in Puglia.] Affari Sociali Internazionali, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1985. 159-200 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
An analysis of recent immigration to the Italian region of Apulia is presented using data from official sources, including the 1981 census. Consideration is given to country of origin and selected migrant characteristics, including sex distribution, educational status, family status, occupations, and income. The level of immigrant assimulation is also analyzed.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30535 Djajic, Slobodan. International migration, remittances and welfare in a dependent economy. Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper, No. 578, Nov 1984. 9, [2] pp. Queen's University, Institute for Economic Research: Kingston, Canada. In Eng.
The author attempts "to examine the role of remittances in determining the effects of migration on the welfare of the remaining residents in a small-open economy producing both traded and non-traded goods. It is shown that if the flow of remittances exceeds a certain critical amount, the remaining residents benefit from migration even if they do not receive any of the remittances themselves." The emphasis is on the development of a theoretical model, and the geographic scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30536 Eggeling, Willi J. Labor emigration. [Arbeitsemigration.] In: Sudosteuropa-Handbuch, Band IV: Turkei/Handbook on South Eastern Europe, Vol. IV: Turkey, edited by Klaus-Detlev Grothusen. ISBN 3-525-36204-8. 1985. 519-27 pp. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht: Gottingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
An overview of labor emigration from Turkey since the 1960s is presented. The first part of the paper deals with the situation in Turkey, including motives for emigration, the regional origin of emigrants, and the destinations chosen. The second section focuses on the economic situation and social problems of Turkish emigrants abroad, particularly in the Federal Republic of Germany. A final section concerns the socioeconomic effects of emigration on Turkey.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:30537 Favero, Luigi; Rosoli, Gianfausto. Demographic and economic aspects of the Italian second generation within migration movement. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 23, No. 81, Jan-Mar 1986. 91-116 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The essay attempts to estimate the size and the characteristics of expatriating and repatriating young people (aged 0-20) in relation to the Italian demographic structure and recent migration movement. Two working definitions are used, 'internal second generation' and 'second generation abroad', usually originating from the same inland regions." Government statistical sources and local level resident registries are analyzed. Tables present information concerning the numbers of expatriates and repatriates for the country as a whole for the years 1946-1984 and net migration figures for regions within Italy for the decade 1961-1971.
The authors calculate the percentages of expatriates and repatriates during the years 1958-1984 who were aged 14 and under and 65 and over and "the migratory mobility of youth categories is analysed. In the areas of high intra and out-migration flows, considerable differences in migration rates and natural growth rate are noticed. In some areas a systematic ageing of the population, a decrease in the labour force and a high dependency index are found." Potential socioeconomic and demographic consequences of the impact of migration on the dependency burden in Italy are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30538 Hemery, Solange. Foreigners and new immigrants by category of commune. [Etrangers et nouveaux immigres par categorie de commune.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 15, 171-7 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of the spatial distribution of foreigners in France is presented using data from the 1982 census, which showed that they made up 6.8 percent of the total population. Of these "91%...lived in urban areas, two out of three in an agglomeration of 100,000 or more inhabitants, one out of three in the Paris agglomeration. Seven communities: Algerians (805,000), Portuguese (767,000), Moroccans (441,000), Italians (340,000), Spaniards (327,000), Tunisians (191,000) and Turks (122,000) represent 80.6% of the foreigners living in France."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30539 Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R. Family reunification and the immigration multiplier: U.S. immigration law, origin-country conditions, and the reproduction of immigrants. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 291-311 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper reports estimates of the total numbers of actual legal immigrants to the United States that result from the family reunification provisions of U.S. immigration law. These immigration multipliers are estimated separately for major visa categories and by gender and are obtained in the context of an analysis of how individual characteristics of immigrants and their origin country conditions affect (a) the decision to migrate to the United States and (b) once admitted, their propensity to remain and to become U.S. citizens. The analyses combine longitudinal data on the 1971 cohort of legal immigrants and data from the 1970 Census Public Use Tapes."
The results suggest that "the actual multipliers differ importantly by visa category and that they are substantially lower than the potential multipliers and lower as well than previously supposed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30540 Kanovsky, Eliyahu. Migration from the poor to the rich Arab countries. Middle East Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, Spring 1986. 28-36 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
Recent migration from poor to rich Arab countries is reviewed. The focus is on migration following the oil boom of the 1970s. The implications of this migration, which is officially temporary in nature, are considered for both the migrants and the host countries concerned. The consequences of the recent oil glut are assessed for both host countries and countries to which migrants may have to return.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30541 Lamm, Richard D.; Imhoff, Gary. The immigration time bomb: the fragmenting of America. A Truman Talley Book, ISBN 0-525-24337-2. LC 85-12886. 1985. xiii, 271 pp. Dutton: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book examines the problems posed in the United States by current levels of immigration, both legal and illegal. Consideration is given to the number of immigrants the country can absorb and to the problems associated with immigration, such as exploitation of migrants, lawlessness, the splintering of society, language conflict, employment, and pressures on social services. The authors also examine the need to change laws governing migration and ways of making the laws enforceable.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30542 Lebon, Andre. Children of immigration: effects of their presence on the demographic situation in selected employment countries. [Les jeunes issus de l'immigration: effets de leur presence sur la situation demographique de quelques pays d'emploi.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 23, No. 81, Jan-Mar 1986. 21-36 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the impact of migrant workers in Europe on such demographic developments as declining fertility, population decrease, and demographic aging. Official government and U.N. data are used to contrast age distributions of migrant and native populations in selected receiving countries in Europe.
"In his analysis of the impact of second-generation migrants on demographic development in the principal European employment countries, the author shows that in all of these countries the foreign population improves the age distribution of the population as a whole by way of reinforcing the weight of the younger age groups in relation to the older groups. The ageing of the national populations...is thus countered by the presence of second-generation migrants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30543 Lebon, Andre. Foreign populations in Europe. [Les populations etrangeres en Europe.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1985. 187-204 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
An overview of foreign populations in selected European countries is presented using data for the early 1980s from government and international agency sources. Among the topics discussed are the foreign population as a percentage of the total population, the economically active population, and the population under age 19. Particular attention is given to the situation in France, including developments in net migration, the distribution of young foreign workers by type of economic activity, and the labor force participation of female foreigners.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30544 Lewis, J. R. International labour migration and uneven regional development in labour exporting countries. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1986. 27-41 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"International labour migration involves 20 million workers from 'middle income' and 'Third World' countries. The article reviews both theoretical propositions and empirical evidence on its effects on regional disparities in labour exporting countries. It shows the variety of ways in which the departure of emigrants affects the uneven development of rural and urban areas there by changing the volume and nature of production as well as welfare conditions. Regional patterns of production and welfare are further modified by the impact of emigrants' remittances and their eventual return."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30545 Lim, Lin Lean. Impact of immigration on labor markets in Peninsular Malaysia. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 31, Mar 1986. vi, 27 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The paper examines the impact of both legal and illegal immigration on the dynamics of labor markets in Peninsular Malaysia....The focus of the paper is on the extent to which foreign labor inflows stabilize labor market disequilibrium, the manner in which different types of immigrant labor affect labor market segmentation, and the impact on the productivity and mobility of the local labor force."
The author concludes that "for countries that rely upon imports to augment local labor supply or to deal with labor market distortions, the key issues are whether such workers are indeed flexible or temporary and whether their presence may not in fact hamper the adjustment process in local labor markets and the structural transformation of a developing economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30546 Marie, Claude-Valentin. The populations of French overseas departments and territories in metropolitan France. [Les populations des Dom-Tom en France metropolitaine.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 17, 197-206 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of migration from the overseas French departments to metropolitan France is presented using data from official sources, including the 1982 census. "Immigration from the overseas departments and territories [to] metropolitan France has grown continuously for nearly 30 years. Most of those immigrants come from three departments: Martinique, Guadeloupe, Reunion. The economic motives being the main reasons of leaving, most immigrants in metropolitan France are young and [economically] active. Most of them are also women."
The author notes that the characteristics of this migration favor the development of family life and of a definable community. The rapid growth of this community is seen as evidence that this migration is in the nature of a permanent settlement rather than a temporary labor migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30547 Martin, Philip L. Illegal immigration and the colonization of the American labor market. CIS Paper, No. 1, Jan 1986. 52 pp. Center for Immigration Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses changes in the American labor force and in immigration flows to the United States during the last 20 years. He "finds that the ready availability of illegal-alien workers in major industries and geographical regions is having far-reaching and often unanticipated consequences for patterns of investment, employment and business competition in the United States. He documents the displacement of American workers by illegal immigrants in agriculture, food processing, services and construction, analyzing the processes of network recruiting and subcontracting that lead ultimately to the exclusion of American citizens and legal residents from many work places."
The author contends that "our acquiescence in illegal immigration has become a selective labor subsidy that has contributed in the last two decades to distorted investment decisions, slower growth, and the proliferation of low-skill, low-productivity jobs in the American labor market."
Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, Pa.

52:30548 Mazloum, Kamal R. The Egyptian labour force in the Arab countries. In: Population and development. Proceedings of the symposium held at Cairo Demographic Centre, 3-7 November 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 14, 1986. 443-56 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines recent trends in labor migration from Egypt, particularly movements to Arab countries. International Labour Office estimates for 1975 and Egyptian government estimates for the period 1976-1982 are evaluated. The distribution of this labor force by occupation and by sex for 1982 and 1984 is also outlined. The author discusses problems faced by this labor force and assesses the impact of external migration on the Egyptian national labor force.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30549 Momsen, Janet D. Migration and rural development in the Caribbean. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1986. 50-8 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and agricultural development in the Caribbean is examined. The data, collected by survey, concern the islands of Nevis, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia. The results show that migration is not associated with agricultural innovation or the use of specific technical inputs and that it frequently has a negative impact on agricultural productivity and attitudes toward farming.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30550 Mondschean, Thomas H. Estimating the probability of emigration from individual-specific data: the case of Italy in the early twentieth century. International Migration Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1986. 69-80 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article develops a method for estimating the probability of emigration conditional on the observed characteristics of individuals. In addition, it is shown how to calculate the mean, standard error, and confidence intervals of the conditional probability of emigration given a random sample of emigrants. The technique is illustrated by providing statistically consistent estimates of the probability an Italian would emigrate to the United States in 1901 and 1911, conditional on personal attributes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30551 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. Directorate for Social Affairs, Manpower and Education (Paris, France). Continuous Reporting System on Migration: SOPEMI, 1985. Pub. Order No. 36 100. Apr 1986. 89 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This is the 13th annual report of the Continuous Reporting System on Migration (SOPEMI). The report, which is also available in French, covers OECD member countries, including many European countries, Turkey, and Northern America. The report consists of an introductory section dealing with international migration past and future, an overview of the situation in 1984-1985, and cross-national issues.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30552 Oriol, Paul. Immigrants: aliens or citizens? [Les immigres: meteques ou citoyens?] ISBN 2-867-38110-X. 1985. 158 pp. Syros: Paris, France. In Fre.
The present situation concerning immigration in France is analyzed. In particular, the author considers how France should treat the more than 3 million foreign immigrants, many of whom have been in the country for a considerable number of years. The need to encourage a harmonious, democratic, and equitable approach to the treatment of immigrants, rather than a xenophobic and anti-immigrant approach, is stressed. The study includes an estimate of the number of immigrants in France, their reasons for migration, and their countries of origin.
The author also reviews the migration policies developed over the period 1981-1985. He concludes that a level of multiculturalism in France is desirable and rejects the notion that immigrants must adopt all French customs and culture at the expense of those of their countries of origin.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30553 Owen, Roger. Migrant workers in the Gulf. Middle East Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, Spring 1986. 24-7 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The implications of large-scale labor migration to the oil-producing Arab countries of the Middle East are assessed. The emphasis is on the political and economic consequences for the host countries concerned.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30554 Papail, Jean. An attempt to estimate immigration to Venezuela during the period 1971-1981. [Ensayo de estimacion de la inmigracion en Venezuela durante el periodo 1971-1981.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 9, [1984?]. 20 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
An attempt is made to estimate levels of immigration to Venezuela for the period 1971-1981. The focus is on migration from Colombia attracted by the developments in the oil industry. The estimates include both legal and illegal immigration and are based on both official data and indirect estimation. The effect of the recent economic recession in Venezuela on international migration trends is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30555 Portes, Alejandro; Bach, Robert L. Latin journey: Cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. ISBN 0-520-05003-7. LC 83-9292. 1985. xxi, 387 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
This in-depth study of the migration process is primarily concerned with recent Cuban and Mexican immigration into the United States. A theoretical overview of labor migration and a historical survey of immigration to the United States from 1890 to 1979 are first presented. The political and socioeconomic circumstances confronting the Mexicans and the Cubans in their home countries prior to migration are contrasted.
Information is presented concerning place of residence, social adaptation, labor market participation, and income for the two immigrant groups. These data are from interviews conducted at the time of the immigrants' arrival in 1973, again in 1976, and finally in 1979. Detailed, empirical findings are presented in 111 tables and an appendix. Particular attention is given to the Cuban enclave in Miami, the economic and occupational mobility of Mexican immigrants, immigrants' perceptions of the United States, and the social relationships of immigrants. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the major trends observed in this study are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30556 Robatel, Nathalie. Immigrants in Paris and its environs: population and housing. [Les immigres dans Paris et sa banlieue: population et logement.] Regards sur l'Actualite, No. 116, Dec 1985. 11-22 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The demographic characteristics of the foreign population living in the Paris region are presented, based primarily on data from the 1982 census of France. Consideration is given to spatial distribution, nationality, occupations, and housing. Urban policies concerning the housing and welfare of immigrants are also discussed.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30557 Russell, Sharon S. Remittances from international migration: a review in perspective. World Development, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jun 1986. 677-96 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author focuses on the role of remittances in labor-sending economies. "Recent research has tended to focus on enumerating the costs and benefits of remittances. This paper proposes an alternative perspective and delineates the 'Remittances System' as a heuristic to clarify intermediate relationships between determinants and effects of remittances. Using the heuristic as a framework for review of recent literature concerning remittances, the paper identifies gaps in currently available research and argues for greater focus upon the social and political consequences of remittance flows."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30558 Santow, Gigi. A comment on Elwood Carlson's "The impact of international migration upon the timing of marriage and childbearing". Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 467-71 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent paper by Elwood Carlson concerning the disruptive impact of international migration on marriage and childbearing. The emphasis is on the suitability of Australian data from the 1971 Melbourne Family Survey for a study of this nature. A reply by Carlson (pp. 469-71) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30559 Simon, Julian L. What about immigration? Freeman, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jan 1986. 8-16 pp. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York. In Eng.
The author develops his hypothesis that immigration benefits both the receiving country and the immigrants themselves. The focus is on the United States. An attempt is made to estimate the current level of U.S. immigration. The author also considers the effect of immigration on employment and productivity.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30560 Slater, Courtenay. How many illegal aliens? Journal of the Institute for Socioeconomic Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4, Winter 1986. 23-32 pp. White Plains, New York. In Eng.
The author summarizes the main conclusions of recent studies concerning the size of the illegal migrant population in the United States. The methods used to obtain these estimates are then described, and the quality of the estimates provided are evaluated. The author considers that the most widely accepted estimates of from 4 to 6 million permanently resident, illegal immigrants are probably accurate. Consideration is also given to how many illegal migrants might seek legal status under pending U.S. legislation.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30561 Stuart, Patricia L. The short-run determinants of U.S. immigration: an econometric analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8528526. 1985. 158 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author attempts "to estimate the short-run determinants of immigration to the United States from 27 source countries. A set of hypotheses compatible with human capital theory is suggested to explain variations over time in the flow of migration to the U.S."
It is found that "a variety of forces are at work in motivating U.S. immigration from the various source countries. Thus, no single set of hypotheses may be applied in a general analysis. Furthermore, there is evidence that U.S. immigration laws have distorted the way in which migrants respond to short term variations in economic variables."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(10).

52:30562 Tuchtfeldt, Egon; Straubhaar, Thomas. The international migration of labor: a neglected problem in international economic policy. [Internationale Arbeitskraftewanderungen--ein vernachlassigtes Kapitel in der Aussenwirtschaftspolitik.] Ordo, No. 36, 1985. 89-108 pp. New York, New York/Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The international migration of labor to Europe is examined in three parts. "The first part deals with the mobility of factors of production within the development of economic theory. No reasonable hypotheses on the international migration of labour were developed because labour immobility was assumed. The second part discusses motives for, forms of, and restrictions on, international labour mobility. The main point in this part consists of giving up the assumption of homogeneous labour quality. The third part treats the economic effects of international labour migration for the workers' countries of origin...."
Factors considered include the labor market, human capital, development, and balance of payments. "These four areas are examined in the southern European countries of Portugal, Spain, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey. The empirical results seem to justify the authors' conclusion that international labour mobility should be given more weight in forming international economic theory and policy."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:30563 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). International migration in the Pacific, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 64; ST/ESCAP/376, 1985. vii, 88 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report contains three papers presented at the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific held in Manila, the Philippines, November 6-12, 1984. The first paper, by Geoffrey R. Hayes reviews past and present trends in international migration affecting the Pacific islands. The second paper, by R. B. M. Korale, is concerned with migration from Sri Lanka to the Middle East. The third paper, by Peerathep Roongshivin, examines the socioeconomic consequences of labor migration from Thailand to the Middle East.
For a report on the Expert Group Meeting, also published in 1985, see 51:30522.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30564 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). The estimation of lifetime emigration from data on the residence of children: the case of Colombia. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 18, 1986. 49-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present paper describes a method that uses information on the place of residence of surviving children as reported by their mothers to estimate the level of lifetime emigration. Estimates derived include the total number of emigrants and their distribution by age and sex. The method described is applied to the case of Colombia, where the 1978 National Household Survey gathered the necessary information. Additional information on specific country of residence allows the estimation of the number of Colombian emigrants present in Venezuela."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30565 Widgren, Jonas. The position of "second-generation migrants" in Western Europe. Policy failures and policy prospects. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 23, No. 81, Jan-Mar 1986. 7-20 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author considers aspects of the socioeconomic status and living conditions of the estimated 7 million children living in Europe who are children of immigrants. Particular attention is given to issues of education, employment, and legal rights. Among the policy recommendations discussed are "equal opportunities in the interest of solidarity between native and immigrant children and youth; offering the children in question truly bicultural teaching; removing their employment disadvantages; [and] increasing their political rights."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30566 Wogugu, Manfred O.; Anarfi, John K. International labour migration and the expulsion of illegal immigrants in West Africa: emerging trends, issues and implications. In: Population and development. Proceedings of the symposium held at Cairo Demographic Centre, 3-7 November 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 14, 1986. 457-75 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors provide a brief historical overview of trends in international labor migration in West Africa, specifically among the 16 member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). They then "examine some issues related to the recent expulsion of illegal immigrants in the region...[and] assess the implications of the expulsions for the economic and political integration of the region."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30567 Wong, Morrison G. Post-1965 immigrants: demographic and socioeconomic profile. In: Urban Ethnicity in the United States: New Immigrants and Old Minorities, edited by Lionel Maldonado and Joan Moore. Urban Affairs Annual Reviews, Vol. 29, ISBN 0-8039-2269-8. LC 85-1824. 1985. 51-71 pp. Sage Publications: Beverly Hills, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author attempts "to provide an overview and a better understanding of the changing trends and character of immigration to the United States since 1965....[and] to present an accurate and comprehensive portrayal, using recent data, of the new immigrants and their socioeconomic status in American society."
The chapter is divided into five parts. "The first section presents the number and percentage of immigrants to the United States by region of birth for selected periods from 1961 to 1981, noting the impact of the 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act. The second section presents demographic and social characteristics of these new (post-1965) immigrants by place of birth....Third, the socioeconomic characteristics of the new immigrants are addressed, in order to gauge their socioeconomic status as well as their contributions to the American economy. The fourth section considers the language and income assistance characteristics of the new immigrants in order to measure their social adjustment to American society."
A final section is concerned with policy implications and suggestions for future research.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

52:30568 Alkemade, P.; Kuijper, H. Intra-municipal changes of residence and internal migration in 1984. [Binnengemeentelijke verhuizingen en binnenlandse migratie in 1984.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 5, May 1986. 27-47 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of residential mobility and internal migration in the Netherlands in 1984 is presented. Data from a survey of municipalities that included information on sex and marital status are used for residential mobility; the data on internal migration are from the removal cards that individuals are required to complete for every change of address. The cards contain information on population characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30569 Aubry, Bernard. Definite migration and commuting: an examination of the statistical relationships. [Migrations definitives et navettes: recherche de liens statistiques.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 22-3, 323-31 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The object of this study is to show the statistical relationships between two forms of migratory movements of different nature: departing population and commuting. The study is based on two specific statistical uses of the population census data. The first considered the 108 main towns in France. The aim of the study is to show the role of migratory movements in changes in employment during the period 1968-75. The second considers the town of Strasbourg. The aim here is to show one aspect of the urbanization during the period 1975-82."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30570 Bassand, Michel; Brulhardt, Marie-Claude; Hainard, Francois; Schuler, Martin. The Swiss between being mobile and sedentary. [Les Suisses entre la mobilite et la sedentarite.] Collection Villes, Regions et Societes, ISBN 2-88074-065-7. LC 85-168150. 1985. 339 pp. Presses Polytechniques Romandes: Lausanne, Switzerland. In Fre.
An analysis of recent internal migration trends in Switzerland is presented, with consideration given both to reasons for migration and to reasons for nonmigration. The data are from official sources and from a national migration survey undertaken in 1981. The main factors affecting migration are identified as the center-periphery axis, social stratification, and the life cycle. The report concentrates on regional aspects of migration and on the relationship between spatial mobility and industrialization and urbanization.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30571 Boudoul, Jacques; Faur, Jean-Paul. Thirty years of internal migrations. [Trente ans de migrations interieures.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 21, 293-302 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Internal migration trends in France for the period 1954-1982 are reviewed. The author notes that although the age structure of migrants has remained relatively constant, the geographic flows have altered substantially. Such changes include a decline in the attractiveness of the Ile-de-France region to migrants and an increase in migration back to place of birth. A general increase in the spatial distribution of the population is noted, involving the development of rural areas under urban influence, a decline in the growth of suburbs and in the population of town centers, and an increase in the popularity of small towns and remote rural areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30572 Campbell, Charles A. Migration decisions and the rural-urban turnaround. Pub. Order No. DA8600013. 1985. 177 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the turnaround migration trend evident in the United States in the 1970s, which resulted in increased population growth rates in nonmetropolitan areas accompanied by declining growth rates in cities, particularly those in the northeastern and north central sections of the country.
"Several hypotheses which have been offered in economic and demographic literature as explanations for the turnaround are investigated in this study. The investigation uses tabular presentations, ordinary least squares regression models, and logit models in conjunction with 1980 census microdata. The results indicate that the turnaround was not a short-lived phenomenon, rather it continued throughout the 1970s....The general consensus in economic literature, which maintains that migration decisions are functions of both economic and noneconomic factors is supported by the results."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Tennessee.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(11).

52:30573 Cheong, Keywon; Toney, Michael B.; Stinner, William F. Racial differences among young men in the selection of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan destinations. Rural Sociology, Vol. 51, No. 2, Summer 1986. 222-8 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This study empirically examines the extent to which racial differences exist in young men's selection of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan destinations after adjustments for compositional differences are made....Our results, based on the young male cohort of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys, indicate that young black males are much less likely than white to select nonmetropolitan destinations. Migration increases racial segregation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30574 Cushing, Brian J. Accounting for spatial relationships in models of interstate population migration. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jul 1986. 66-73 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the specification of distance and space in models of state-to-state population migration [in the United States]....Four models of interstate population migration are developed, with increasingly complex specifications of space. The models are estimated using 1975 to 1980 migration data for the 48 contiguous states of the United States. Common borders and bordering metropolitan areas do influence interstate population flows. Models lacking a more detailed specification of space will lose explanatory power and suffer from biases."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30575 de Carvalho, Jose A. M. Indirect estimates and data on migration in Brazil: a conceptual and methodological appraisal of recent census information. [Estimativas indiretas e dados sobre migracoes: uma avaliacao conceitual e metodologica das informacoes censitarias recentes.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 31-73 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Problems related to the analysis of data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses of Brazil concerning migration are explored. The author first notes that the 1980 census used new methods of data collection that make comparisons with previous censuses difficult. Procedures to overcome these problems are suggested. The inclusion for the first time in 1980 of data on intra-municipal migration is noted.
"A procedure is proposed to estimate the intra-municipal migration during the decade, and to add it to estimates of other types of migration, in order to avoid double counting. Internal migration estimates for the 1960s and 1970s are presented for three States (Pernambuco, Minas Gerais [and] Sao Paulo). Special attention is paid to the different concepts implied by estimates obtained through direct and indirect measurement."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30576 Di Iulio, O. B. Postcensal interstate migration estimates, 1966-1981. Australian Bureau of Statistics Occasional Paper, No. 1984/2, 1984. iii, 23 pp. Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses interstate migration in Australia from 1966 to 1981 and seeks to "(a) describe the sources of interstate migration data available and their limitations; (b) assess the reliability of the various data sources; (c) discuss the reliability of derived postcensal interstate migration estimates for the period 1966-81; and (d) describe the method currently used for producing postcensal interstate migration estimates." The main data sources considered are five-year population censuses, household surveys, interstate transfers of family allowances, and electoral roll transfers.
It is concluded that "the measurement of interstate migration, relying as it does primarily on data obtained from administrative sources, will remain a relatively difficult exercise. In a situation where data are obtained as a by-product of an administrative operation, the statistical function will inevitably be of secondary importance....This can easily result in sudden and unexpected changes in the quality of the data obtained with corresponding implications for the ensuing interstate migration estimates." Ongoing efforts to monitor reliability and to improve collection techniques are mentioned.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30577 Dietz, Ton. Migration to and from dry areas in Kenya. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1986. 18-26 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The factors affecting migration to and from the dry areas of Kenya are examined. The author notes that since the 1970s, the dry areas have been affected by droughts, disease, and military conflicts. However, at the same time they have changed from being areas of out-migration to areas of in-migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30578 Friedli, Eric A. Migration of the poor. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1986. 47-61 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"One aspect of [U.S.] migration which has been largely overlooked by researchers is the migration of people receiving public assistance benefits. The migration, or lack of migration, of these people has clear policy implications. Poor people put numerous demands on the locality where they reside, including demands for welfare benefits. The research presented in this paper reveals that movers receiving AFDC payments are able to improve their economic standing more than those who do not move." Data are from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book 1982 computer tape file.
"It is also shown that states with a net in-migration of public assistance recipients but net out-migration of non-recipients do have higher benefit levels than states with net out-migration of recipients and net in-migration of non-recipients. Employment and income data do not show the same differences between the state types."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30579 Goldstein, Sidney; Goldstein, Alice. Migration in Thailand: a twenty-five-year review. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 100, ISBN 0-86638-081-7. LC 86-16691. Jul 1986. vii, 54 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
Data from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses of Thailand are used to examine changing patterns of internal migration over time. "Throughout the period, the census measures indicate a high degree of stability; no census found more than 15 percent of the population living outside the province of birth and fewer than 7 percent were identified in any period as interprovincial five-year migrants."
The results show a slight increase in lifetime migration in each period and a recent rise in interregional migration. "The findings also document that five-year interprovincial migration increased between 1955-60 and 1965-70 but declined during 1975-80. Especially noteworthy between 1970 and 1980 were the decline in interprovincial migration within regions and the rise in interregional movement. Concurrently, rural-to-rural migration declined sharply and movement between urban places became more prevalent."
This is an expanded version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 417).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30580 Greenwood, Michael J.; Hunt, Gary L.; McDowell, John M. Migration and employment change: empirical evidence on the spatial and temporal dimensions of the linkage. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1986. 223-34 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper uses a unique set of [U.S.] data to estimate the magnitude of the linkages between employment changes and net employment migration. A simple simultaneous system is specified and estimated for 17 consecutive years. In an average year two extra jobs attract about one additional net migrant, and one additional net migrant has a direct effect on area employment of almost 1.4 jobs." The data are from the One-Percent Social Security Continuous Work History Sample and are for the years 1958 to 1975. The changes in this relationship over time as the economic situation varies are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:30581 Herzog, Henry W.; Schlottmann, Alan M. The metro rating game: what can be learned from the recent migrants? Growth and Change, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan 1986. 37-50 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
The authors examine nine indicators of quality of life in the 277 U.S. Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) in terms of their impact on the decision to migrate. The factors considered were utilized in the 1985 publication "Places Rated Almanac" and include climate, housing, health care, crime, transportation, education, recreation, arts, and economics. "The purpose of this paper is both to analyze several alternative methods by which the nine 'Places Rated' indicators have been combined in previous studies, and to estimate a new system of weights for combining such indicators from a multivariate model of metropolitan out-migration."
In this article, the authors examine out-migration of metropolitan households during the years 1975-1980. "Coefficient estimates from a multivariate model of out-migration form the basis for a ranking of metropolitan areas in the third section. Also included are comparisons among this and other studies of both the implicit weights employed against the 'Places Rated' scores...to derive both overall measures of urban life quality, and how such quality varies by city size."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30582 Johnson, Nan E.; Keppel, Kenneth G. The effect of fertility on migration. Rural Sociology, Vol. 51, No. 2, Summer 1986. 212-21 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This study of a random sample of U.S. white wives explored the relationship between their pre-1970 fertility and their migration status in 1970-1975. Objectives were to determine (1) whether migrants from nonmetro origins had higher pre-1970 fertility than migrants from metro origins, (2) whether migrants to nonmetro destinations had higher pre-1970 fertility than those to metro destinations, and (3) whether the pre-1970 fertility of migrants and nonmigrants differed."
The results indicate some fertility differences among older women according to area of origin, but little among younger women. The authors argue "that the findings represent the convergence in fertility levels between nonmetro and metro populations."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30583 Jun, Il Soo; Chang, Hui S. Functional forms and the relevance of contiguous migration in the study of migration and employment growth. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jul 1986. 17-27 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
The authors examine internal migration in the United States and emphasize the importance of decomposing total migration into contiguous and noncontiguous migration flows when analyzing employment change.
"In this study, a simultaneous-equation model containing two equations, one for migration and the other for employment growth, has been specified in a general form and estimated by the 2SLS method for total, contiguous and noncontiguous migration flows. Results obtained from the use of 1970 Census data show that noncontiguous migration behaves significantly [differently] from contiguous migration, and that noncontiguous migration, rather than total migration, should be used for the study of factors affecting interstate migration. Results also indicate that the log-linear functional form commonly used in empirical studies cannot be accepted statistically."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30584 Kemper, Franz-Josef. The role of the life cycle concept for the analysis of intra-regional migration. [Die Bedutung des Lebenszyklus-Konzepts fur die Analyse intraregionaler Wanderungen.] In: Geographie als Sozialwissenschaft: Beitrage zu ausgewahlten Problemen kulturgeographischer Forschung, Wolfgang Kuls zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Franz-Josef Kemper, Hans-Dieter Laux, and Gunter Thieme. Colloquium Geographicum, Vol. 18, ISBN 3-427-74181-8. 1985. 180-212 pp. Ferdinand Dummlers: Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
A generalized life cycle model is proposed that takes into account recent changes in household and family structure. The benefits of such a model for the analysis of intra-regional migration are then discussed, and hypotheses are formulated that suggest different migration patterns in the various life cycle phases. These hypotheses are then tested using official data for the city of Essen, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, N.Y.

52:30585 Khan, Najma. Studies in human migration. LC 83-907120. 1983. vi, 275 pp. Rajesh Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The techniques and methods used in the study of internal migration are presented, together with a case study involving out-migration of males from eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The bulk of the work consists of a bibliography, partly annotated, of the literature on migration with a worldwide geographic emphasis.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30586 Kych, Alexandre. Retirement migration to the seaside in France. [L'arrivee des retraites dans les stations du littoral francais.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 13-4, 139-47 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The migration of the elderly and retired population to the coastal regions of France is analyzed using 1975 census data. Differences among the characteristics of retired migrants to resort seaside areas, non-resort seaside areas, and inland localities are established, as well as differences between the elderly already living in resort areas and elderly in-migrants.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30587 Leon, Juan. Internal migration in Ecuador: a geographic approximation. [Migraciones internas en el Ecuador: una aproximacion geografica.] Ecuador Debate, No. 8, Apr 1985. 33-58 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
Trends in internal migration in Ecuador between 1954 and 1982 are analyzed. Data are from a variety of sources, including the 1982 census. Consideration is given to the different types of migration, including migration within rural areas.
Location: International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland. Source: International Labour Documentation 11/1985.

52:30588 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Nagnur, D. N. Characterization of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan outmigration schedules of the Canadian population system, 1971-1976. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1985. 81-102 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper characterizes the 1971-76, sex-specific, interregional out-migration schedules of the Canadian population system with 86 age groups (0, 1, 2, ..., 85+) and 24 regions (the 23 Census Metropolitan Areas in addition to the rest of Canada) by using the Rogers-Castro model. The model fits the data well. The Canadian migration pattern is shown to be similar to those of several European countries in terms of sex differences and the metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan contrast."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30589 Mougeot, L. J. A. Alternative migration targets and Brazilian Amazonia's closing frontiers. Centre for Development Studies Monograph, No. 18, ISBN 0-86094-162-9. 1984. ii, 29 pp. University of Wales, University College of Swansea, Centre for Development Studies: Swansea, Wales; Geo Books: Norwich, England. In Eng.
The author examines recent patterns in internal migration in Brazil, with particular attention to population movement toward medium-sized cities and frontier settlements. "The purpose of this paper is threefold: (a) to review those structural changes in Latin America, particularly Brazil, which have led to the gradual opening of more remote regions to settlement; (b) to examine recent data on the population absorptive capacity of the current Brazilian Amazonian settlement frontier; and (c) to evaluate the socioeconomic advancement and residential stability of migrants settled during the government-assisted development of Brazil's North."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30590 Northcott, Herbert C. The geographic mobility of Canada's elderly. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1985. 183-201 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper examines the five-year mobility status--that is, the difference between current residence and residence five years previous--for elderly Canadians using data from the 1961, 1971, 1976 and 1981 Censuses of Canada. The data indicate that the elderly are increasingly likely to move from one province to another. Further, the data show that elderly persons residing in urban centres move more often than the aged who live in rural locations and that the widowed and divorced elderly move more than the married."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30591 Pumain, Denise. Interregional migration from 1954 to 1982: preferential directions and barrier effects. [Les migrations interregionales de 1954 a 1982: directions preferentielles et effets de barriere.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 378-89 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines trends in internal migration in France during the period 1954-1982. A model is developed, and residual fluctuations in movements between Ile-de-France and all other regions and also among regions, with Ile-de-France excluded, are described using maps. Maps are also used to depict the effects of interregional barriers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30592 Rasila, Viljo. Migrations in Finland during the period of industrialization: a micro-historical study. [Teollistumiskauden muuttoliikkeet: mikrohistoriallinen tutkimus Tampereen seudulta.] Historiatieteen Laitoksen Julkaisuja, No. 7, ISBN 951-44-1496-9. LC 84-189123. 1983. [438] pp. Tampereen Yliopisto: Tampere, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of migration trends in Finland over the course of the industrialization process is presented. The focus is on internal labor migration.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:30593 Sandu, Dumitru. Migration patterns in Romania. [Fluxurile de migratie in Romania.] 1984. 175 pp. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania: Bucharest, Romania. In Rum. with sum. in Fre; Rus.
An analysis of trends in internal migration in Romania from 1950 to 1980 is presented. The author develops an economic model of the migration process which takes into account migrants' motivation, occupations, and sex distribution. The relationship between migration and urbanization is examined, as well as the impact of labor shortages on the rural economy. Policy aspects are included.
Location: International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland.; Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30594 Serow, William J.; Charity, Douglas A.; Fournier, Gary M.; Rasmussen, David W. Cost of living differentials and elderly interstate migration. Research on Aging, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun 1986. 317-27 pp. Beverly Hills, California. In Eng.
This study replicates previous work by Karen D. McLeod et al. on the determinants of U.S. internal migration by the elderly between 1965 and 1970. "This article deals with the 1975-1980 period and finds broad similarity in the magnitude and direction of explanatory relationships. In addition, the article reports on the use of experimental state-level cost of living indicators as explanatory variables. These performed as expected with high cost of living at origin and low cost of living at destination both explaining the magnitude of state to state flows."
For the study by McLeod et al., published in 1984, see 51:10543.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30595 Sewastynowicz, James. "Two-step" migration and upward mobility on the frontier: the safety valve effect in Pejibaye, Costa Rica. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 34, No. 4, Jul 1986. 731-53 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author examines frontier social mobility in Costa Rica using data from field research carried out in 1976-1977 and from a follow-up study conducted in 1985. He proposes that current conceptions of frontier social mobility may be overly pessimistic and that new opportunities do in fact arise on the frontier. "These proposals shall be examined by reevaluating the results of several past studies in the light of new evidence from the recent frontier of Pejibaye, Costa Rica. This new evidence strongly suggests that opportunities for upward mobility were (1) available to even the most impoverished segments of Costa Rican society and (2) successfully utilized by a fair proportion of lower-class individuals who actually migrated to the frontier."
Information from 218 households and from three individual case studies in Costa Rica is examined, and comparisons with frontier experiences in the United States and Brazil are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

52:30596 Seyfrit, Carole L. Migration intentions of rural youth: testing an assumed benefit of rapid growth. Rural Sociology, Vol. 51, No. 2, Summer 1986. 199-211 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
The hypothesis that there is a beneficial effect to rural areas from retaining young people and reducing their levels of out-migration is examined. "Using statewide data from high school seniors in the rural counties of Utah, this study found no support for the beneficial retention hypothesis. Although demographic factors known to influence migration decisions were used as control variables, no relationship was found between migration intentions of students and rapid growth in energy-related extractive employment."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30597 Shaw, R. Paul. Intermetropolitan migration in Canada: changing determinants over three decades. ISBN 0-920053-72-6. LC 86-162063. 1985. [x], 220 pp. New Canada Publications: Toronto, Canada; Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The determinants of intermetropolitan migration in Canada over the past 30 years are analyzed. The emphasis of the study is on the author's hypothesis that the influence of traditional market forces on migration diminishes as societies become increasingly wealthy. Such traditional factors include wages, cost of living variables, and situations of economic stress involving unemployment or poverty. The author argues that in wealthier societies, people are less motivated by monetary considerations and that such societies cushion the consequences of economic stress through provisions such as unemployment insurance, which reduces the pressures on people to migrate. Data are taken primarily from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30598 Steahr, Thomas E.; Luloff, A. E. The structure and impact of population redistribution in New England. Pub. Order No. 39. 1985. [7], 197 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This book contains eight papers by various authors on population distribution and migration in the New England region of the United States. Topics covered include the revival of nonmetropolitan population growth, historical perspectives, an analytical framework for migration analysis, regional methodology and data collection, employment and property ownership, migration and social participation, motivations for migration, and a discriminant analysis of migration flows in the region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30599 Van Westen, A. C. M.; Klute, M. C. From Bamako, with love: a case study of migrants and their remittances. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1986. 42-9 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Recent changes in migration patterns in Mali are analyzed. The author notes that dependence on the additional income from labor migration has increased as employment opportunities abroad have declined, with a resulting pressure on internal destinations, particularly the capital city of Bamako. A trend away from temporary toward permanent migration to the city is noted. A continued attachment to the place of origin, including the sending of remittances, is observed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30600 Zoomers, E. B. From structural push to chain migration: notes on the persistence of migration to Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1986. 59-67 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Spatial differentiation in regional welfare is often assumed to be one of the most important explanatory factors in individual migration behaviour. By the weight of 'push' against 'pull', migrants walk in step with the unequal distribution of socio-economic opportunities. In the case of Ciudad Juarez [Mexico], these 'structural factors' only appear to have determined migration in its first stages; especially recently 'non-structural' factors seem to be at the root of the ever-increasing process."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

52:30601 Farmer, Ruth S. J. Refugee resettlement issues in New Zealand. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, Oct 1985. 216-29 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper is a preliminary overview of the key refugee resettlement issues in New Zealand. It seeks to clarify major issues relevant to policy formulation and to provide some comparisons between New Zealand's resettlement policies and those of other resettlement countries such as Australia, Canada and the United States of America. The first two sections outline the objectives of refugee resettlement and New Zealand's response to refugees. The third section...discusses government and non-governmental organisation roles, funding, entry criteria, resettlement models, geographical distribution and migration, support and advisory services and the need for research and evaluation studies."
Comments by the New Zealand Department of Labor are included (p. 229).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30602 Gordenker, Leon. Early warning of disastrous population movement. International Migration Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Summer 1986. 170-89 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article undertakes to analyze existing and potential early warning facilities in man-made disasters which induce forced movement of people. It sets out some possible forms of early warning and the organizational options connected with them. It concludes that a mixed form of organization, combining some existing facilities and some modest new organization, could provide early warning, although this function would operate in a difficult and delicate political atmosphere that cannot be avoided."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30603 Hardjono, Joan. Transmigration: looking to the future. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, Aug 1986. 28-53 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The probabilities that the Indonesian government will reach its target of resettling 750,000 families from Java and Bali to other parts of the country during the course of the present development plan (Repelita IV), which extends through 1988-1989, are assessed. Problems encountered in the implementation of previous transmigration programs are reviewed. The author concludes that the government may well decide to focus on quality rather than quantity in the implementation of its transmigration policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30604 Kossaifi, George. Forced migration of Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, 1967-1983. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 27, Dec 1985. 73-108 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
The author reviews the socioeconomic characteristics of migrants forced from the West Bank and Gaza Strip and presents data on the age and sex distribution of these migrants in Jordan and other Arab countries. He also includes data on life expectancy at birth and fertility indicators for Palestinians for the period 1967-1992.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30605 Oberai, A. S. Land settlement policies and population redistribution in developing countries: performance, problems and prospects. International Labour Review, Vol. 125, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 141-61 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author describes and compares land settlement in various developing countries, focusing on the movement of people to underutilized agricultural areas. "The purpose of this article is fourfold: first, to discuss the performance of settlement programmes, concentrating on the extent to which they have achieved their population redistribution and other objectives; second, to analyse major economic and social problems confronting them; third, to identify factors that have contributed to their success or failure; and, fourth, to assess alternative policy options."
This analysis of land settlement programs "suggests that so far they have made no more than a modest contribution to the solution of the problems of population distribution, unemployment and poverty."
Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

52:30606 Zolberg, Aristide R.; Suhrke, Astri; Aguayo, Sergio. International factors in the formation of refugee movements. International Migration Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Summer 1986. 151-69 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The authors construct a theoretical framework for analyzing factors influencing international refugee movements. "On the basis of detailed case studies by the authors of the principal refugee flows generated in Asia, Africa, and Latin America from approximately 1960 to the present, it was found that international factors often intrude both directly and indirectly on the major types of social conflict that trigger refugee flows, and tend to exacerbate their effects. Refugees are also produced by conflicts that are manifestly international, but which are themselves often related to internal social conflict among the antagonists."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

52:30607 Kirwan, Frank; Harrigan, Frank. Swedish-Finnish return migration, extent, timing, and information flows. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 313-27 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Return migration of Finnish migrants to Sweden during the period 1968-1976 is first described using data from the Swedish population register. "Second, we examine the sensitivity of return migration to economic conditions at both destination and origin. The model proposed allows the relative weights attached to information on the two locations to vary as the interval of absence lengthens. Econometric evidence indicates that conditions at the original location appear to exert increasing influence on the decision to return the longer the interval of absence."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30608 Persson, Sandra R. The effects of seasonal migration on fertility: taking into account migration's effects on the proximate determinants of fertility. Pub. Order No. DA8603986. 1985. 265 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines the effects of seasonal migration of rural-to-rural male migrants [in Guatemala] on the fertility of their wives who stay behind. More specifically, this research seeks to determine through what mechanisms migration causes changes in fertility, i.e. the effects of migration on the proximate determinants of fertility. Given their purported effects on reducing natural fertility, both nutritional status and morbidity are taken into account." The data are from a longitudinal study of malnutrition and from life histories from a sample of men and women living in rural villages in Guatemala.
"Migration was found to affect the timing of births rather than completed fertility. The effects of the proximate determinants on fertility differ by migrant status, with the effects usually being stronger on non-migrants. Lower nutritional status was found to be negatively associated with fertility, while morbidity had the opposite association. Migrants were found to have higher morbidity, but equivalent nutritional status."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30609 Pippert, John M. Return migration: socioeconomic determinants for state in-migration. Pub. Order No. DA8600379. 1985. 187 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The central concern of this study is to determine the role of return migration in the changing economic and noneconomic determinants of state in-migration....This study compares the selective characteristics of lifetime and five-year nonmigrants, and primary, secondary and return migrants using Public Use Sample data [for the United States] for 1960, 1970, and 1980. In addition, it analyzes four economic and six noneconomic determinants of migration for 1970 and 1980 using a data set that includes published data on state migration and socioeconomic characteristics."
The author finds that "there has been a shift from economic to noneconomic reasons for migrating from 1970 to 1980. In addition, the relative proportion of primary, secondary and return migration has changed over time. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, the trend from economic to noneconomic determinants of migration has not been related to changes in the proportion of return migration in the stream."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Virgina Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(11).

52:30610 Reis, Manuela; Nave, Joaquim G. Emigrating peasants and returning emigrants: emigration with return in a Portuguese village. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1986. 20-35 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Using data from a village in the interior of rural Portugal since 1981, the authors attempt to develop a peasant strategy of emigration. This strategy is defined as the development and expansion of the family's landholdings through earnings obtained by temporary labor migration abroad. The authors conclude that such a strategy has made viable rural economies that might otherwise have foundered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:30611 Zamora, Francois; Lebon, Andre. How many foreigners left France between 1975 and 1982? [Combien d'etrangers ont quitte la France entre 1975 et 1982?] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 1985. 67-80 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors elaborate a method for the indirect estimation of the number of foreigners departing France during the intercensal period 1975-1982. The estimation procedure is twofold. First, the actual count of the foreign population is taken from the first census and adjusted to account for natural increase, the entrance of new foreigners, and the acquisition and loss of French citizenship. Second, the count of foreign residents from the subsequent census is subtracted from this estimated figure in order to derive the volume of departures.
The analysis indicates that approximately 530,000 foreigners, or 75,000 annually, left France in the years studied, representing a decline from the preceding intercensal period. Information concerning the nationalities of those departing is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

52:30612 Fuller, Theodore D.; Lightfoot, Paul; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit. Mobility plans and mobility behavior: convergences and divergences in Thailand. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985-1986. 15-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine "the social and psychological context of rural-urban mobility decisions in Thailand. A model of rural-urban mobility decision making is examined to improve our understanding of convergences and divergences between mobility plans and mobility behavior."
Using interview data collected in six villages in northeast Thailand during July-September 1978 and July-August 1979, the model is tested for movement from the home village to Bangkok and to northeast Thai towns, respectively. The model "incorporates the following explanatory factors: social background variables (age, education, marital status, and recent mobility history), urban social contacts, information about urban areas, evaluations of alternative destinations, and mobility plans."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 429).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30613 Katz, Eliakim; Stark, Oded. Labor migration and risk aversion in less developed countries. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 1986. 134-49 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper we question the pioneering work of Todaro, which states that rural-to-urban labor migration in less developed countries (LDCs) is an individual response to a higher urban expected income. We demonstrate that rural-to-urban labor migration is perfectly rational even if urban expected income is lower than rural income. We achieve this under a set of fairly stringent conditions: an individual decision-making entity, a one-period planning horizon, and global risk aversion. We obtain the result that a small chance of reaping a high reward is sufficient to trigger rural-to-urban labor migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

52:30614 Kok, P. C.; Hofmeyr, Barbel E.; Gelderblom, D. Black migration to the PWV complex: selective, spatial and motivational aspects. RGN.HSRC Report, No. S-122, ISBN 0-7969-0313-1. 1985. viii, 79 pp. Human Sciences Research Council, Institute for Sociological and Demographic Research: Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng. with sum. in Afr.
An analysis of black migration to the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging (PWV) urban area of South Africa is presented. The data are from a survey of 1,443 males and females carried out in 1982. Migration differentials are analyzed by ethnic group, age, and sex. It is noted that nearly all migrations were direct to the PWV area from place of birth without intermediate migration destinations. Motivation for migration is also analyzed, and family reasons were found to exceed economic reasons, unlike most migration patterns in developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30615 Maguid, Alicia. Migration and employment in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. [Migracion y empleo en la aglomeracion metropolitana de Costa Rica.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 14, No. 40, Apr 1986. 75-123 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between rural-urban migration and employment in Costa Rica is explored. "The main purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions in which immigrants are absorbed in the labour market." The data are from the Survey on Migration and Employment in Metropolitan Areas carried out by the Ministry of Planning and Political Economics in 1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30616 Mohtadi, Hamid. Rural stratification, rural to urban migration, and urban inequality: evidence from Iran. World Development, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jun 1986. 713-25 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Recent findings on India have pointed to the importance of the rural caste structure to rural-urban migration and the creation of (partially) segmented urban labor markets. By considering cross-sectional evidence from Iran and by viewing differential access to land, instead of castes, as the determinant of the migrants' background, the implication of this view for the impact of migration on urban inequality is examined. It is found that where migrants are from a landless group urban inequality increases and where they are from a landed group it declines, ceteris paribus. Urban inequality is measured by the construction of an urban housing shares index from the census data."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30617 Okpara, E. E. Rural-urban migration and urban employment opportunities in Nigeria. Institute of British Geographers: Transactions, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1986. 67-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author suggests that most studies of rural-urban migration in the third world today are based on the European experience during the Industrial Revolution. He contends that the assumption that most migrants find wage employment in a rapidly growing modern industrial sector is not valid, particularly in Western Africa, where the pace of industrialization lags behind the rate of urbanization. Data from Nigeria are used to show that many potential migrants are aware of this situation and migrate seeking self-employment in informal sector trading activities.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30618 Struck, Ernst. Rural-urban migration in Turkey: its impact on the rural areas--the example of the transition area from inner to east Anatolia (Sivas province). [Landflucht in der Turkei: die Auswirkungen im Herkunftsgebiet--dargestellt an einem Beispiel aus dem Ubergangsraum von Inner- zu Ostanatolien (Provinz Sivas).] Passauer Schriften zur Geographie, No. 1, ISBN 3-922016-43-X. 1984. 136 pp. Passavia Universitatsverlag: Passau, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Tur.
"The aim of [this] study is to show the impact of the rural exodus [in Turkey] on the demographic structure and the economic situation of the rural areas." The data are from interviews conducted in 1980 and 1981 in the village of Yagbasan and four neighboring villages in Sivas province. The findings show that the volume of rural out-migration has increased over time and that there has been an effect on rural land use structure and settlements. However, the demographic structure of rural areas has not changed substantially as a result of out-migration.
Location: University of Wisconsin Library, Madison, Wis..; Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30619 Todaro, Michael P. Internal migration and urban employment: comment. American Economic Review, Vol. 76, No. 3, Jun 1986. 566-72 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent paper by William Cole and Richard Sanders on the relationship between internal migration and urban employment in developing countries. A reply by Cole and Sanders (pp. 570-2) is included.
For the paper by Cole et al., published in 1985, see 51:20541.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30620 Young, Grace E. Incorporating an analysis of gender to the study of migration: the case of Peruvian migration patterns. Migration News, Vol. 35, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 26-31 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
An analysis of rural-urban migration in Peru is presented, with the focus on women migrating to obtain work as domestic servants. Data are from published studies and a survey of 104 domestic servants interviewed in 1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30621 Zheng, Guizhen; Guo, Shenyang; Zhang, Yunfan; Wang, Jufen. A preliminary inquiry into the problem of floating population in Shanghai city proper. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, May 29, 1985. 2-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The authors first note that the city of Shanghai has China's largest floating population, defined as those who live within the city limits but do not qualify as long-term residents. A three percent random sampling of temporary residents and all visitors taken on August 10, 1984, yielded a count of approximately 590,000 persons. Of these, 65 percent are short-term residents of Shanghai homes, hotels, and collectives. The economic effects of this mobile population on Shanghai are explained, and policies for dealing with the situation are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.