Volume 52 - Number 3 - Fall 1986

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

52:30451 Aromaa, Kauko; Cantell, Ilkka; Jaakkola, Risto. Cohabitation in Finland in the 1970s. Oikeuspoliittisen Tutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisuja, No. 63, ISBN 951-704-089-X. 1983. 78 pp. Research Institute of Legal Policy: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
This is the English-language version of a collection of three papers concerning cohabitation in Finland, previously published in Finnish. The papers deal with a 1978 survey concerning nonmarital cohabitation in Finland, a case study of Finnish cohabiting families in the late 1970s, and how cohabitation became popular in Finland during the 1970s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30452 Audinarayana, N. Inter-relationship between socio-economic variables and age at marriage. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jun 1985. 39-45 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
An attempt is made to analyze the socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting age at marriage for both males and females in India using official data for 1981 and methods developed by Hajnal. The results indicate the impact of literacy and employment in the nonagricultural labor force on marriage age. Urbanization and higher incomes are also associated with higher ages at marriage.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30453 Behar, Cem. Nuptiality and marriage patterns in Istanbul (1883-1940). Arastirma Raporu/Research Papers, No. 85/04, [1985?]. 21, [11] pp. Bogazici Universitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu: Istanbul, Turkey. In Eng.
The author examines marriage patterns in Istanbul, Turkey, from 1883 to 1940 using a five percent sample from the 1883 and 1905 censuses and the marriage record from 1905 to 1940. Among the topics discussed are the legal status of marriage and marriage recording, marital status in the censuses, marriage age, remarriage patterns, and polygyny and demographic characteristics of polygynous marriages.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30454 Billy, John O. G.; Landale, Nancy S.; McLaughlin, Steven D. The effect of marital status at first birth on marital dissolution among adolescent mothers. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 329-49 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The effect of the sequencing of marriage and first birth on marital dissolution among adolescent mothers [in the United States] is investigated. We compare three groups who had a first live birth before age 20: those married before becoming pregnant, those married between conception and birth, and those who did not marry before the birth." Data are from Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth and were collected in 1982-1983.
"The analysis demonstrates that teenage mothers are less likely to experience a separation if they marry before rather than after the birth. Among those marrying before the birth, there is little difference between those who marry before or after becoming pregnant. The effects of marital status at first birth are shown to vary by race, marital duration, and historical time."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30455 Bourguignon, Odile; Rallu, Jean-Louis; Thery, Irene. Concerning divorce and children. [Du divorce et des enfants.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 111, ISBN 2-7332-0111-5. 1985. viii, 247 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the impact of divorce on children in France. The first part consists of an estimate of the current level of divorce in France and of the number of children concerned. The legal and judicial system concerned with divorce is then described, and the ways it attempts to safeguard the interests of the child are reviewed. Next, a summary of recent research concerning the psychological effects of divorce on children is presented. Finally, the authors discuss the results of a survey of adolescents in the Paris region concerning the experience of their parents' divorce.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30456 Braun, Werner. Divorces, 1984. [Ehescheidungen 1984.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 3, Mar 1986. 186-91 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Information is presented on divorces in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984. The data are from official sources, and some comparative statistics for earlier years are also provided. Special attention is given to the frequency of divorce according to duration of marriage, as well as marriages and divorces according to the age difference between spouses.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30457 Chauvire, Yvan. Number and size of households in France: geographic differences and trends from 1962 to 1982. [Nombre et taille des menages en France: disparites geographiques et evolution de 1962 a 1982.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 12, 99-106 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"From 1962 up to 1982, the total number of households has strongly increased in France. The spatial distribution of the various household sizes--one person households are increasing and large ones decreasing--is quite different in French regions. As a result of these trends, while the average household size has been reduced in every department, the regional characteristics existing in 1962 have not totally disappeared in 1982."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30458 Courgeau, Daniel; Lelievre, Eva. Nuptiality and agriculture. [Nuptialite et agriculture.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 303-26 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper offers a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between marriage and leaving the agricultural sector [in France], using data published by INED [Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques] in its biographical survey of family, work and migration. The strategies of the two sexes seem to differ: whereas leaving agriculture has no influence upon a woman's chances of marriage, marriage within this sector confines her to the land. Men's chances of marriage, however, are doubled if they leave the agricultural sector. Yet their marital status scarcely influences their decision to leave agriculture. Various characteristics of these individuals are presented to illustrate these strategies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30459 de Oliveira, Maria C. F. A. Marriage and survival strategies of working class families in the agricultural system of Sao Paulo. [O casamento e as estrategias de sobrevivencia da familia operaria na agricultura paulista.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 105-43 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Marriage patterns among the agricultural population of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are analyzed based on interviews with a number of individuals in the region. The impact of current changes in the region's agricultural system on marriage among lower class women is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30460 Desplanques, Guy; de Saboulin, Michel. Marriage and first child: a bond that is loosening. [Mariage et premier enfant: un lien qui se defait.] Economie et Statistique, No. 187, Apr 1986. 31-45, 73, 75 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Changes in the relationship over time between marriage and the first child in France are explored. The author first notes that, in the 1970s, the growing practice of modern contraceptive methods led to a decrease in the rate of conceptions outside marriage. However, since 1978, a new increase in ex-nuptial conceptions has occurred, many more of which result in births outside marriage. The links between first births and marriage have also loosened within marriage, as births are now almost as frequent in the two or three years following marriage as in the first year. Differences by socioeconomic and educational status are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30461 Farago, Tamas. Marriage, family, household, and working organization in traditional village craftsmanship (Pilis-Buda region, 1724-1779). [Hazassag, csalad, haztartas es munkaszervezet a hagyomanyos falusi kezmuvessegben (Pilis-Budakornyek, 1724-1779).] Nepessegtudomanyi Kutato Intezet Torteneti Demografiai Fuzetei, No. 2, 1985. 7-45, 98-9, 101-2 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Nepessegtudomanyi Kutato Intezetenek: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author examines three questions: the marriage patterns of rural craftsmen, their living arrangements (family and household structure) and their working organization, based on sources of two Hungarian and two German villages of the Buda region [of Hungary] in the 18th century." Three types of marriage patterns, three categories of household structure, and three forms of work organization are identified, and differences between the Hungarian and German populations are noted.
It is concluded that "there were differences in cultural norms and values between the Hungarian and German communities, and even between the same ethnic groups which originated from different places, that could have had an influence on living arrangements, on the working organization and on attitudes towards craftsmanship in general."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30462 Filipov, Dimitar. Multistate demographic marital life tables. [Multistatusni demografski tablitsi za brachnost.] Naselenie, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1985. 60-80 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relevance of the multistate approach to the analysis of nuptiality is considered. Multistate life tables of marriage are constructed using official Bulgarian data for 1975. Four types of marital status are considered, namely, unmarried, married, divorced, and widowed. The probabilities of transition from one state to another and of length of duration in a given state are calculated.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30463 Ghosal, A. K.; Sarkar, B. N. Social aspects of couple formation in rural areas of West Bengal. DRU Publication, No. 83, Mar 1986. 25 pp. Indian Statistical Institute, Demography Research Unit: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"Marriage patterns of persons in rural West Bengal [India] are being examined in this paper. Two populations living in rural areas around Calcutta and those in rural areas of Murshidabad, Nadia and Birbhum have been selected for the study." Data are from household surveys conducted in 1978 and 1980. Particular consideration is given to husband-wife comparisons in terms of education, occupation, and caste or religion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30464 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Waite, Linda J. Sex differences in the entry into marriage. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 92, No. 1, Jul 1986. 91-109 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors assess sex differences in entry into marriage in the United States using data collected during the period 1966-1980. "This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to examine the transition to marriage and how it differs by sex, testing the extent of variation in the desirability of marriage for men and women, and the effects of marriage market factors and marital and nonmarital roles. The design of the analysis allows the effects of these factors to vary over the young adult years. The pattern of findings suggests that recent declines in the marriage rate have not resulted from increased barriers to marriage but from declines in relative preferences for marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

52:30465 Han, Changxian. An analysis of marriage in Zhejiang province. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, May 29, 1985. 30-3 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Marriage patterns in the province of Zhejiang province, China, are analyzed using data from the 1982 census and a 1-in-1,000 sample survey. Separate consideration is given to the characteristics of the unmarried, marriage age, widowhood, divorce, and remarriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30466 Haskey, John. Recent trends in divorce in England and Wales: the effects of legislative changes. Population Trends, No. 44, Summer 1986. 9-16 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines demographic characteristics of couples seeking divorce in England and Wales during the years 1984-1985, following the enactment of several modifications to the divorce law. "One of these changes enabled couples to petition for divorce after having been married for only one year, instead of three....There followed a temporary surge in the number of divorces and a fall in the average duration of the marriages dissolved. Younger husbands and wives accounted for much of the immediate increase in the number of divorces, as did couples having no dependent children....Couples in which one or both partners had been married before accounted for about half the rise in the number of divorces between 1984 and 1985."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30467 Haskey, John C. Secular changes in divorce in England and Wales by class of decree--a socio-legal analysis. Biology and Society, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1986. 62-73 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author describes changes in divorce law in England and Wales during the twentieth century, focusing primarily on the enlargement of the statutory grounds for divorce. "This paper traces such developments in order to gauge the changes which have taken place in attitudes to divorce, so providing the necessary background for interpreting the main demographic trends in divorce: the long-term increase in level and the changing patterns of petitioning--by grounds and by which partner initiates proceedings."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30468 Heilig, Gerhard. The propensity to marry of single women in the Federal Republic of Germany: 1950-1984. A quantitative analysis using simplified period and cohort-specific nuptiality tables. [Die Heiratsneigung lediger Frauen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: 1950-1984. Eine quantitative Analyse mit Hilfe vereinfachter, perioden- und kohortenspezifischer Heiratstafeln.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1985. 519-47 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This "paper deals with the rapidly decreasing first marriage rates of females [in the Federal Republic of Germany] during the late 1970s and early 1980s. By using (simplified) period and cohort-specific nuptiality tables it is demonstrated that between 1972 and 1983 the probability of not (yet) getting married tripled for women up to 34 years of age. These changes in female first marriage behaviour came about with the generations born since 1950."
The findings "seem to be a challenge to the conventional school of thought according to which marriage patterns are an intermediate variable or even a determinant of fertility. In the Federal Republic of Germany, rapidly decreasing first marriage rates seem to be rather a result of (very low) fertility aspirations than their cause."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30469 Hodge, Robert W.; Ogawa, Naohiro. Arranged marriages, assortative mating and achievement in Japan. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 27, Mar 1986. vi, 24 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The authors "examine three different aspects of arranged marriage, using data from the 16th round of the Mainichi Survey of Fertility and Family Planning conducted [in Japan] in 1981. First, we analyze how the match between the characteristics of spouses is influenced by type of marriage. Second, we examine the occupational achievements of husbands and the fertility achievements of wives in free market and arranged marriages. Third, we make an analysis of patterns of continuing extended family control over couples joined by arranged and free market marriages."
According to the findings presented, "women in arranged marriages receive higher returns on schooling with respect to occupational status and income than do men in free market marriages. We have also found that although women in arranged marriages not only have somewhat more children than those in free market marriages, they reach their reproductive goals more swiftly. In addition, this study has shown that arranged marriages clearly contribute to the persistence of the extended family through the institution of patrilocal residence."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30470 Hopflinger, Francois. Changing marriage behaviour: some European comparisons. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1985. 41-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper analyses the recent changes in marriage behaviour in Western Europe, concentrating on four aspects: a) trends in first marriages, b) nonmarital cohabitation, c) extra-marital fertility, and d) premarital pregnancies." The results indicate a general decline in first marriages, an increase in consensual unions, an increase in fertility outside marriage, and, in many countries, fewer premarital conceptions being legalized through marriage. The author suggests that these trends indicate a decline in the importance of the legal aspects of marriage rather than a change in pair bonding values.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30471 Li, Rongshi. An analysis of age at first marriage of China's population. Population Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, Oct 1985. 27-34 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
An analysis of age at first marriage in China is presented using 10 percent sample data from the 1982 census. Consideration is given to differences in age at marriage by sex and by province, municipality, and autonomous region. The factors affecting age at marriage are analyzed, including urban residence, female employment outside agriculture, illiteracy, economic output, and costs of raising a family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30472 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Recent trends in marriage. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1986. 11-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in nuptiality in the United States are described using data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Data are included on marriages by state and region for the years 1982-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30473 Peters, H. Elizabeth. Marriage and divorce: informational constraints and private contracting. American Economic Review, Vol. 76, No. 3, Jun 1986. 437-54 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The relationship between divorce rates in the United States and laws regulating divorce are analyzed using data from a special Current Population Survey undertaken in 1979, with particular reference to the adoption by many states of no-fault divorce laws. The author "utilizes a contract-theoretic framework to examine the impact of both legal and informational constraints on several aspects of the marriage relationship: 1) the probability of divorce; 2) compensation at divorce (i.e., the terms of the divorce settlement); 3) the probability of entering marriage; and 4) incentives for investment in marriage-specific capital."
Two different models are developed. The first assumes that ex post information about the value of each spouse's opportunites at divorce is symmetric, and that since divorce would only occur if the joint benefits outweigh the joint costs, the law has no effect on the divorce rate. The second model asserts that the existence of asymmetric information results in a fixed wage marriage contract and that divorce would be higher in states that allow unilateral divorce. The evidence supports the first of these hypotheses.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30474 Pillai, Vijayan K. Predicting age at first marriage: a review of recent models. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 1, Sep 1985. 41-9 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
A review of various theoretical approaches toward the analysis of age at marriage is presented. "The scope of this paper is confined to the multivariate studies of female age at first marriage." The geographic focus is worldwide, with emphasis on the United States.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30475 Preston, Samuel H.; Strong, Michael A. Effects of mortality declines on marriage patterns in developing countries. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 88-100 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide an initial assessment of the role of mortality levels and change in both population and life cycle marriage prevalence in developing countries....We will content ourselves with examining census and survey data on marital status...[and] will devote much of the paper to presenting some basic formal considerations of mortality/nuptiality linkages. We use explicitly throughout a two-sex model...."
The authors first consider the case of a change in mortality that is uniform by age and sex, then a decline in mortality that is uniform by sex but greater at younger ages, a decline in mortality that is uniform by sex but greater at older ages, and mortality declines that are concentrated among one sex. Analyzing data for 34 developing countries, it is generally found that "mortality decline will change availability conditions adversely for females...[and] where marriage is decreasing in prevalence, decreases will be smaller for males; where it is increasing, increases will be larger for males." Variations in findings for countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30476 Tas, R. F. J. Divorce in the Netherlands, 1960-1984. [Echtscheidingen in Nederland, 1960-1984.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 6, Jun 1986. 29-40 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Divorce trends in the Netherlands between 1960 and 1984 are analyzed using official municipal data. The frequency of divorce increased during this period from 22 to 99 per 10,000 married couples. The impact of changes in legislation on divorce is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30477 Willems, P.; Vanderhoeft, C. Cohabitation, marriage, and divorce. [Samenwonen, huwen en scheiden.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1985. 271-310 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The probabilities of marriage or cohabitation in Belgium are estimated using data from the NEGO IV survey carried out in 1982-1983. "The effects of various covariates are measured by means of a modified proportional hazards model (shifting the age range of the base line hazard). The model is applied to data from the NEGO IV survey. It is shown that both the probabilities and their relative differences depend on birth cohort, education and degree of secularisation."
Consideration is given to how a similar model could be used to analyze how the probabilities of divorce vary with age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

52:30478 Alachkar, Ahmad; Sly, David F. The income, expenditures and net expenditures of children in households in rural Syria. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 87-31, [1986?]. 27 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"In this paper we employ a unique data set to investigate the relationship between the number of children present in households and the volume of their income and expenditures." The data concern 300 households in a rural village in central Syria and were collected in 1980.
"The analysis shows that as the number of children increases in households childrens' contribution to total household income increases. Expenditures on children, however, also increase with increasing numbers of children and at a faster rate so that net expenditures on children increase as the number of children increases. The relationships hold even after the introduction of a number of control variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30479 Barrett, J. C. Measures of family size preferences. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 357-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Estimates of preferred family sizes are derived from those achieved at various durations of marriage, using a Monte Carlo simulation model of reproductive histories, slightly modified in its representation of breast-feeding. The method of estimation consists in inverting the relationship between these two distributions (wanted and achieved births) which form respectively an input to and an output of the model."
Evidence is found of a growing preference for families with two children among "cohorts married in England and Wales in 1951, 1956, 1961, 1966 and 1971 for women's ages at marriage 20-24 and 25-29. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding contraceptive effectiveness is tested, and ranges [are] established for estimates. The evolution and stability of family size preferences are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30480 Behrman, Jere R.; Pollak, Robert A.; Taubman, Paul. Do parents favor boys? International Economic Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1986. 33-54 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors "undertake a theoretical and empirical analysis of the role of parental preferences in general and unequal concern in particular in the allocation of human capital investments among children." The model presented, which is an extension of an earlier model developed by the same authors, includes not only the child's expected earnings but also the anticipated earnings of his or her spouse as determinants of parental allocation of human capital investments among children.
"Empirical estimates of the model based on new data for adult siblings of mixed sex suggest that the model extensions are significant and that U.S. parents favor girls in the sense of placing greater preference weights on equal outcomes for girls than for boys."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30481 Burguiere, Andre. Toward a typology of forms of household organization in modern Europe (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries). [Pour une typologie des formes d'organisation domestique de l'Europe moderne (XVIe-XIXe siecles).] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 41, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 639-55, 742-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The different models of family organization existing in modern Europe from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries are identified and described. The author identifies three family models that coexisted in both France and Europe as a whole: "(1) the nuclear family based on late and 'neo-local' marriage, the circulation of 'placed' children, (2) the stem family based on a permanent household of business, the parents cohabiting with the chosen heir, and (3) the multiple family which controlled the mobilization of substantial family labor power in a business concern whose revenues were directly generated by unpaid work."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30482 de Saboulin, Michel. Geographic patterns of solitude in France. [Aspects geographiques de la solitude en France.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 13, 117-23 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The geographic distribution of people living on their own in France is described using official data, including those from the 1982 census. An increasing tendency for people to live alone is noted. "In 1982, half of them are 65 and over. Solitude is frequent in big cities and in remote areas, but elderly people rarely live alone in the South-West of France."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30483 Dooghe, G. The family in later life. [Het gezin op oudere leeftijd.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1985. 229-52 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The changing conditions affecting the relationship between the elderly and their families in the Netherlands are examined. The author notes that recent demographic trends have resulted in more options for care and assistance to the elderly. An increasing trend toward the elderly living alone and away from their children is noted. An analysis of the frequency of isolation of the elderly from their children is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30484 Egger, Marlene J.; Willigan, J. Dennis. An event-history analysis of demographic change in Renaissance Florence. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 615-20 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Using a detailed tax survey carried out in 1427, the authors "explore household structure in Renaissance Florence, and in particular, age configurations among kin....The theory of household age configurations is extended...by utilizing age gaps, a measure of the temporal spacing between surviving members of coresident nuclear families."
After a description of the survey records and the study population, the authors present "an analysis of sibling age gaps using event history methods including Cox regression...." The authors conclude that "the present study has established the age gap variable as an interesting descriptor of household age configuration at a specific point in time for historical demography research....This study has also examined some of the strengths and limitations of event-history analyses used on this variable."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30485 England, Paula; Farkas, George. Households, employment, and gender: a social, economic, and demographic view. ISBN 0-202-30322-5. LC 85-18628. 1986. ix, 237 pp. Aldine: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is a book about changes and continuities in households, in employment, and in gender differentiation since the 1950s." The geographic focus is on the United States. Chapters are included on household formation, marriage, and divorce; reproduction and production in the household; and consumption, savings, and retirement.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30486 Gaspard, Michel. French households in the year 2000. [Les menages francais en l'an 2000.] Futuribles, No. 94, Dec 1985. 41-65 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The implications of current population projections for France for households in the year 2000 are analyzed. Consideration is given to estimates of the total resident population, age distribution, the number and characteristics of households, the labor force and its components by occupation and social class, and housing.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30487 Gober, P. Homogeneity versus heterogeneity in household structure: the recent experience of twenty US cities. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 18, No. 6, Jun 1986. 715-27 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is an investigation of the variation in household structure at the census tract level in twenty US cities between 1970 and 1980. Results indicate that households were, in 1980, more likely to reside in proximity to households with different compositions. In 1980 the most genuinely diverse census tracts, in terms of household composition, were in neighborhoods with recently constructed, single-family housing."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:30488 Goldman, Noreen. Effects of mortality levels on kinship. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 79-87 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the interaction of fertility and mortality in determining average numbers of kin at various stages of the life cycle using expressions developed by Goodman, Keyfitz, and Pullum. "The extent to which recent declines in mortality and fertility affect numbers of kin is explored with data from the Republic of Korea for the periods 1955-1959 and 1975-1979, an interval over which life expectancy rose by about ten years and total fertility fell by almost half. Model schedules are used to assess potential variations in kinship structure over the range of fertility and mortality observed in human populations."
The relative influences of fertility and mortality on the numbers of kin ever born and still alive are examined. It is concluded that "the net effect of a demographic transition is a reduction in the proportion of the family consisting of collateral kin--e.g., sisters and cousins--and an increase in the proportion composed of parents, grandparents and even great-grandparents."
For the article by Leo A. Goodman et al., published in 1974, see 40:3393.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30489 Hernandez, Donald J.; Myers, David E. The quality of family relationship data for children. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 140-5 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors use data from the official 1-in-1,000 extract of the Sample Public Use Microdata File for the 1980 U.S. census to address two questions. "First, what procedures can be used to infer the basic family relationships that link children to each of the people with whom they reside? Second, what is the quality of the resulting data?"
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30490 Hodge, Robert W.; Ogawa, Naohiro. Siblings and family size from generation to generation. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 29, Mar 1986. vi, 44 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper deals with an analysis of the persistence of family size from generation to generation in contemporary Japan, utilizing data collected in the 16th Mainichi Survey of Fertility and Family Planning conducted in 1981." The data are disaggregated by age of wife. Relationships are investigated between the number of siblings on the one hand and age at marriage, desired number of children, and number of living children on the other.
The authors observe "small, albeit statistically significant effects of size of family of origin upon number of living children. This result in itself must be regarded with some mild surprise, since the women studied herein have, for the most part, lived through Japan's demographic transition. Their families of origin are quite large...while their own families are relatively small. That there should be any persistence in family size at all between generations with such different sizes of families must itself be regarded at least as surprising...." The importance of tracing paternal as well as maternal lines in studying family size continuity is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30491 Koesoebjono, Santo. Changes in households in the Netherlands, 1960-1981. [Evolution des menages aux Pays-Bas, 1960-1981.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 375-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Developments in household composition in the Netherlands are examined using data from the 1960 and 1971 censuses and from a 1981 housing survey. The author presents information concerning households by number of persons, relationships of household members, and the distribution of persons living alone by sex and marital status. The percentage increases in the numbers of single parent households, single person households, and unmarried couples living together are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30492 Krishnamoorthy, S.; Kulkarni, P. M. Family formation and structure. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 1, Sep 1985. 69-77 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Problems concerning the study of family formation and structure in India are considered.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30493 Marpsat, Maryse. Urban contexts: socio-demographic structures and standards of living. [Les contextes urbains: structures socio-demographiques et niveau de vie.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 12, 107-16 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Factors affecting the standards of living of households in France are explored. The author notes that in addition to the obvious factors such as position in the life cycle and socioeconomic status, the place of residence has an important effect on the household's standard of living. The importance of distinguishing among urban, suburban, and more remote areas is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30494 McCrate, Elaine D. The growth of nonmarriage among U.S. women, 1954-1983. Pub. Order No. DA8602660. 1985. 128 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the decrease in the proportion of married women and the increase in female heads of household in the United States during the years 1954-1983. "This dissertation argues that the recent transformation of the family must be understood as the outcome of internal gender relations of domination in the family, in a context of rapidly changing labor market conditions and state policy. The dissertation...develops an alternative model of women's economic independence and marital choice, in which the rigidity of internal family relations is a critical feature motivating women to be unmarried...."
It is implied that "a dual policy objective of promoting women's equality and facilitating long-term family cohesion can be achieved if internal family relations adjust to women's new economic bargaining power."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Massachusetts.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30495 Misja, Vladimir; Vejsiu, Ylli. Demographic change and families in Albania. [Shnderrimet demografike te familjes ne RPSSH.] LC 85-162985. 1984. 181 pp. Universiteti i Tiranes, Fakulteti Ekonomise: Tirane, Albania. In Alb. with sum. in Fre.
Changes in family characteristics in Albania over time are analyzed. The first chapter is concerned with definitions. The second chapter is on the factors that have influenced changes in family characteristics and nuptiality patterns. The third chapter focuses on changes in family size. Next, changes in marriage patterns in the context of a communist society are analyzed. Finally, the role of the family in Communist Albania is described.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:30496 Nunes, Joao A. On household composition in North Western Portugal: some critical remarks and a case study. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1986. 48-69 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
An analysis of household composition and family forms in Portugal is presented using data from the 1960 census for the Minho region. The author questions the hypothesis that identifies a broad regional distinction between a stem family household formation system in the northwest and a neo-local system in the Mediterranean region of the country. The importance of differences in household within the region examined is stressed using the example of the parish of Urgeses in 1878.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:30497 Osman, Magued I.; Yamashita, Toyoko Y. A model for evaluating the effect of son or daughter preference on population size. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 193-8 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A discrete micro-stochastic model is suggested to describe the family building process over the reproductive period of a couple." The authors present the results of two simulation experiments that use data from the 1976 Egyptian census. The results indicate that "the increase in the absolute difference between the desired number of boys and the desired number of girls is associated with an increase in family size."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30498 Page, Hilary J. Child-bearing versus child-rearing: co-residence of mothers and children in sub-Saharan Africa. IPD Working Paper, No. 1986-2, 1986. i, 35 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses patterns of child fostering and child placement in sub-Saharan Africa. "Analysis of information for children from some 60 broad ethnic groups spread over 7 countries, derived largely from WFS [World Fertility Survey] household questionnaires, shows as many as 10-40% of children aged 5-14 not living in the same household as their mother. There are marked differentials by age and sex of the child and by ethnic group and socio-economic variables. Differentials in the level of child circulation are analyzed here in relation to social organization variables. Differences in the patterns of child circulation are also briefly discussed."
This paper was originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see elsewhere in this issue).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30499 Poston, Dudley L.; Yu, Mei-Yu. The one-child family: international patterns and their implications for the People's Republic of China. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 305-10 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
In this article, the authors examine patterns of one-child families in selected developing and developed countries using data from national censuses, U.N. publications, and the World Fertility Survey. "This study compares the general rates of single-child families in China and in 60 other countries and shows that China's current rate (12.5) is relatively low in comparison with some developed countries, e.g. Hungary (25.0). The mean age-specific single-child rate for 54 less developed countries shows a different pattern from that for seven developed countries; this is likely to be due to the later age of marriage and longer birth intervals of women in the developed countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30500 Scheller, Gitta. Attempts at explaining the changes in marriage age and family founding age since 1950: results of a retrospective survey of different marriage cohorts. [Erklarungsversuche des Wandels im Heirats- und Familiengrundungsalter seit 1950: Ergebnisse einer Retrospektivbefragung von unterschiedlichen Eheschliessungskohorten.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 4, ISBN 029. 1985. 549-76 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article deals with the timing of family life cycle events [in the Federal Republic of Germany] and their change since 1950 while theoretically referring to the cohort concept." The study is based on preliminary results of a 1983 research project involving interviews with 278 couples married in 1950, 1970, or 1980. Differences in age at marriage and age at birth of the first child are analyzed according to marriage cohort, sex, educational level, occupational status, and reason for marriage. "The results suggest that marriage-cohort membership more than any of the other factors influenced the timing of marriage and childbearing, but that there exist important variations within each cohort too...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30501 Seki, Kiyohide. Population and family policy: measuring the level of living in the country of familism. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 25, Jan 1986. vi, 23 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author seeks to identify a relationship between economic well-being and family type using data from a variety of published sources for Japan. What is defined as a normal family unit is first described. "A classification system of non-normal or handicapped households is applied to Hokkaido data regarding families who received public assistance. Although the relationship between poverty and family disorganization is reciprocal and certainly, not all disorganized families are poor, the research results from the Hokkaido data indicate a direct relationship between poverty and a non-normal family type."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30502 Siregar, Helena; Lubis, Azwin; Nasution, M. Arif; Nasution, Indira K.; Tanjung, Thamrin. Family size and marital age. Paediatrica Indonesiana, Vol. 25, No. 5-6, May-Jun 1985. 107-11 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"A cross sectional study about the relationships between family size and marital age and the impact of education, occupation and family planning programme was conducted in the region of South Tapanuli North Sumatera [Indonesia]. The study was performed on 246 married couples by simple random sampling of households in the villages Pakantan, Tamiang, Muarasoro and Sumuran, during the period of September 25 up to October 3, 1982."
The results show that "the earliest age of marriage for women was 14 years, and the latest 20 years. Most of the women (68%) married at 16-20 years. The main education of responders was primary school (67%). The occupational status was mostly (90%) farmer. The mean family size under 20 years old was 6.3 and over 20 years, 5.3." The fertility rate of those under 20 years of age was still high, and the level of family planning practice was low.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30503 Thomas, Kausar; Burch, Thomas K. Household formation in Canada and the United States, 1900-1901 to 1970-1971: trends and regional differentials. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1985. 159-82 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper employs new measures of household headship in order to study trends and regional patterns of household composition in Canada and the United States, from 1900-01 to 1970-71. At the national level, household headship remained relatively stable until 1940-50, and then rose sharply thereafter. Provincial and state data provide evidence for substantial regional differences in household formation, with generally lower rates in the East and higher rates in the West for both nations."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30504 Todorovic, Gordana; Jevtic, Zivojin. One application of log-linear models in demography. [Jedna primena log-linearnih modela u demografskoj analizi.] Statisticka Revija, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, 1984. 164-9 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The application of log-linear models to the study of women's attitudes toward ideal family size is illustrated using data from Yugoslavia. The results are presented separately for the six republics and two autonomous regions of Serbia and indicate that the number of children born and their age have significant effects on ideal family size in areas where the demographic transition is not yet completed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30505 Villac, Michel; Morin, Anne-Catherine. General population census of 1982. Metropolitan France. Households--families. [Recensement general de la population de 1982. France metropolitaine. Menages--familles.] 1984. 275 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of data from the 1982 census of France concerning families and households. Retrospective data are first presented from the censuses of 1968, 1975, and 1982. Consideration is given to households by size, structure, and social characteristics; family type, including children and secondary families; and particular population groups, such as people living alone, group households, the elderly, youths, and women living on their own.
Location: University of Texas at Austin, Population Research Center. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 63, Jul 1986.

52:30506 Werner, Barry. Family building intentions of different generations of women: results from the General Household Survey 1979-83. Population Trends, No. 44, Summer 1986. 17-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the reliability of data concerning birth expectations collected between 1979 and 1983 in the course of the General Household Survey (GHS) of Great Britain. The information from the GHS, which covers both unmarried and married women, is assessed in light of information from earlier surveys concerning married women only. A major difficulty in interpreting the GHS data has been high levels of non-response to the expectations questions.
"A method of adjusting the overall expectations by taking into account the characteristics of non-respondents is described, and the resulting average expected family sizes and distributions of numbers of children expected are tabulated for women born in five-year periods from 1940 to 1964. The article concludes with a discussion of the value of GHS results for developing assumptions about future fertility rates for use in making projections of the national population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30507 Yoddumnern, Bencha. Continuity and change in a northern Thai village: determinants and consequences of fertility decline on northern Thai family structure. Pub. Order No. DA8600353. 1985. 328 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the inter-relationship between Northern Thai social and family structure, on the one hand, and the rapid fertility decline characterized in this region, on the other. The specific aims of the research are: (1) to examine the continuity and change in Northern Thai social and family structure; (2) to determine the factors involved in the process of fertility decline in a Northern Thai village; and (3) to address the consequences of fertility decline on Northern Thai family structure."
The data analyzed are from a variety of sources: "(1) the basic household census; (2) participant observation and interviewing; (3) a household fertility survey; and (4) a life-cycle analysis with special reference to the developmental cycle of the family."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(11).

52:30508 Young, Christabel M. The residential life cycle: mortality and morbidity effects on living arrangements. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 101-12 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The main focus of this chapter is an analysis of changes in living arrangements during the residential life cycle with particular respect to elderly parents. The level and pattern of mortality during their lifetime determines the probability that they will survive to the time when the children marry and/or leave home. Living arrangements are then affected by decisions about whether grown children remain in the parents' household or adopt separate living arrangements. The combination of changes in survival and changes in attitudes towards living separately is then illustrated by the observed patterns of living arrangements in selected countries."
The focus is on trends in the twentieth century, primarily in developed countries. "The effect of the decline in mortality during this century has resulted in increasing proportions of males and females surviving to age 65 years, and an increase in the proportion of female cohorts who can expect to experience a normal life cycle....Associated with this has been the increase in the duration of the stage between the marriage of the last child and the time at which the first spouse dies, a delay in the onset of widowhood, and a greater proportion of wives surviving their husbands." The increased propensity of the elderly population, both single and married, to live without others is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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